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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453796/using-a-hospital-admission-survey-to-estimate-the-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-in-one-province-of-cambodia-methods-used-and-lessons-learned
#1
Rebekah J Stewart, Sovann Ly, Borann Sar, Vanra Ieng, Seng Heng, Kheng Sim, Chiedza Machingaidze, Katherine Roguski, Erica Dueger, Ann Moen, Reiko Tsuyuoka, A Danielle Iuliano
BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is important for setting national influenza surveillance and vaccine priorities. Estimating influenza-associated SARI rates requires hospital-based surveillance data and a population-based denominator, which can be challenging to determine. OBJECTIVES: We present an application of the World Health Organization's recently developed manual (WHO Manual) including hospital admission survey (HAS) methods for estimating the burden of influenza-associated SARI, with lessons learned to help others calculate similar estimates...
February 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453259/common-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-additives-alter-the-structure-and-function-of-anaerobic-microbial-communities
#2
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453160/dna-damage-and-micronuclei-in-parthenogenetic-and-bisexual-darevskia-rock-lizards-from-the-areas-with-different-levels-of-soil-pollution
#3
Anna Simonyan, Galina Hovhannisyan, Anzhela Sargsyan, Marine Arakelyan, Seyran Minasyan, Rouben Aroutiounian
Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453125/positive-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-melanoma-which-patients-need-completion-lymph-node-dissection
#4
John K Macfarlane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452096/the-macrophage-heme-heme-oxygenase-1-system-and-its-role-in-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Vijith Vijayan, Frank A D T G Wagener, Stephan Immenschuh
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, plays a critical role in inflammation and iron homeostasis. Regulatory functions of HO-1 are mediated via the catalytic breakdown of heme, which is an iron-containing tetrapyrrole complex with potential pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects. The HO reaction produces the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, subsequently converted into bilirubin, along with iron, which is reutilized for erythropoiesis...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451398/examining-heat-treatment-for-stabilization-of-the-lipidome
#6
Jeremy P Koelmel, Christina M Jones, Candice Z Ulmer, Timothy J Garrett, Richard A Yost, Tracey B Schock, John A Bowden
AIM: To confidently determine lipid-based biomarkers, it is important to minimize variation introduced during preanalytical steps. We evaluated reducing variation associated with lipid measurements in invertebrate sentinel species using a state-of-the-art heat treatment technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Earthworms (Eisenia fetida), house crickets (Acheta domestica) and ghost shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) were euthanized either by flash freezing or heat treatment...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449965/genetic-diversity-and-cross-species-transmission-of-kobuviruses-in-vietnam
#7
Lu Lu, Nguyen Van Dung, Alasdair Ivens, Carlijn Bogaardt, Aine O'Toole, Juliet E Bryant, Juan Carrique-Mas, Nguyen Van Cuong, Pham Hong Anh, Maia A Rabaa, Ngo Tri Tue, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Peter Simmonds, Mark Ej Woolhouse
Cross-species transmission of viruses poses a sustained threat to public health. Due to increased contact between humans and other animal species the possibility exists for cross-species transmissions and ensuing disease outbreaks. By using conventional PCR amplification and next generation sequencing, we obtained 130 partial or full genome kobuvirus sequences from humans in a sentinel cohort in Vietnam and various mammalian hosts including bats, rodents, pigs, cats, and civets. The evolution of kobuviruses in different hosts was analysed using Bayesian phylogenetic methods...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446846/histological-immune-response-patterns-in-sentinel-lymph-nodes-involved-by-metastatic-melanoma-and-prognostic-significance
#8
James Abbott, Meghan Buckley, Laura A Taylor, George Xu, Giorgos Karakousis, Brian J Czerniecki, Phyllis A Gimotty, Paul J Zhang
AIMS: To further characterize the micromorphometric immunological pattern to metastatic melanoma in SLN biopsies and completion lymph node (CLN) dissections and their relation to 5-year overall survival. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 49 patients from 1996 to 2005 with a positive SLN who underwent CLN dissection were studied. Micromorphometric characteristics included: follicular center count per profile (FCC), sinus histiocytosis, metastatic size, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (intranodal), paracortial dendritic cells, germinal center reaction, and morphology...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446231/estimating-the-burden-of-influenza-associated-hospitalizations-and-deaths-in-chile-during-2012-2014
#9
Viviana Sotomayor, Rodrigo A Fasce, Natalia Vergara, Felipe De la Fuente, Sergio Loayza, Rakhee Palekar
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease that causes important morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimating the burden of influenza disease is difficult. However, there are some methods based in surveillance data and laboratory testing that can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: Estimating the burden of serious illness from influenza by means of hospitalization and death records during the period between 2012 and 2014, and using information from Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) surveillance...
February 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446185/chart-validation-of-inpatient-icd-9-cm-administrative-diagnosis-codes-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-ami-among-intravenous-immune-globulin-igiv-users-in-the-sentinel-distributed-database
#10
Eric M Ammann, Marin L Schweizer, Jennifer G Robinson, Jayasheel O Eschol, Rami Kafa, Saket Girotra, Scott K Winiecki, Candace C Fuller, Ryan M Carnahan, Charles E Leonard, Cole Haskins, Crystal Garcia, Elizabeth A Chrischilles
BACKGROUND: The Sentinel Distributed Database (SDD) is a large database of patient-level administrative health care records, primarily derived from insurance claims and electronic health records, and is sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration for medical product safety evaluations. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common study endpoint for drug safety studies that rely on health records from the SDD and other administrative databases. PURPOSE: In this chart validation study, we report on the positive predictive value (PPV) of inpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification AMI administrative diagnosis codes (410...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445878/feasibility-of-intraoperative-detection-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-with-89-zirconium-labelled-nanocolloidal-albumin-pet-ct-and-a-handheld-high-energy-gamma-probe
#11
Derrek A Heuveling, K Hakki Karagozoglu, Arthur Van Lingen, Otto S Hoekstra, Guus A M S Van Dongen, Remco De Bree
BACKGROUND: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy using 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin has the potential to improve the preoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), especially if located in the near proximity of the primary tumour. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy followed by intraoperative detection of 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin containing SLNs with the use of a handheld high-energy gamma probe. METHODS: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy was performed after peritumoural injection of 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin in five patients with oral cavity carcinoma planned for surgical resection...
February 14, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443814/danger-signals-in-the-icu
#12
Edward J Schenck, Kevin C Ma, Santosh B Murthy, Augustine M K Choi
OBJECTIVES: Sterile and infectious critical illnesses often result in vasoplegic shock and a robust systemic inflammatory response that are similar in presentation. The innate immune system is at the center of the response to both infectious and traumatic insults. Damage-associated molecular patterns are small molecules that are released from stressed or dying cells. Damage-associated molecular patterns activate pattern recognition receptors and coordinate the leading edge of the innate immune response...
February 13, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443748/ultrasound-combined-with-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-for-the-assessment-of-axillary-lymph-nodes-in-patients-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#13
Fan Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qing-Xin Meng, Xin Zhang
This study aimed to explore the clinical usefulness of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USG-FNAC) for the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in patients with early stage breast cancer (BC) among the Chinese Han female population.Around 124 patients with early stage BC were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent USG-FNAC (group A). Patients with proven metastasis also underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (group B). In addition, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was performed 2 to 5 hours prior to the surgery...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443657/il-2-and-beyond-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
John M Wrangle, Alicia Patterson, C Bryce Johnson, Daniel J Neitzke, Shikhar Mehrotra, Chadrick E Denlinger, Chrystal M Paulos, Zihai Li, David J Cole, Mark P Rubinstein
The development of the T- and natural killer (NK) cell growth factor IL-2 has been a sentinel force ushering in the era of immunotherapy in cancer. With the advent of clinical grade recombinant IL-2 in the mid-1980s, oncologists could for the first time directly manipulate lymphocyte populations with systemic therapy. By itself, recombinant IL-2 can induce clinical responses in up to 15% of patients with metastatic cancer or renal cell carcinoma. When administered with adoptively transferred tumor-reactive lymphocytes, IL-2 promotes T cell engraftment and response rates of up to 50% in metastatic melanoma patients...
February 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441833/role-of-number-of-sentinel-nodes-in-predicting-non-sentinel-node-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#15
Li-Feng Dong, Shu-Ying Xu, Jing-Pei Long, Fang Wan, Yi-Ding Chen
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine how many sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are appropriate for predicting non-SLN metastasis in breast cancer. Methods The association between clinicopathological features and non-SLN metastasis was retrospectively analyzed in 472 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) following SLN biopsy. Another 251 patients who underwent only SLN biopsy without ALND were analyzed and followed up for 2 years. Results A large tumor size, positive SLN, and HER-2 positivity were independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis...
February 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439780/evolving-imaging-techniques-for-staging-axillary-lymph-nodes-in-breast-cancer
#16
REVIEW
S Lowes, A Leaver, K Cox, K Satchithananda, D Cosgrove, A Lim
The presence and extent of axillary nodal metastases at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is a critical factor in disease prognosis and plays a central role in deciding the best treatment for patients. Accurate assessment of the axilla is therefore an essential component in staging breast cancer. Over the years, axillary staging has evolved from surgical axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), with its numerous associated long-term complications, to the much less-radical surgical sentinel lymph node excision biopsy (SLNB), the current reference standard...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438909/correlation-of-sex-ratio-at-birth-with-health-and-socioeconomic-indicators
#17
Victor Grech
INTRODUCTION: The sex ratio at birth (male divided by total live births: M/T) has been mooted as a potential sentinel health indicator. Several metrics indicate individual countries' health and socioeconomic status. In this study, in all available countries (where such data was accessible), M/T and these indicators were compared in order to ascertain whether better (vis-à-vis health and socioeconomic status) levels of these indicators were associated with higher M/T in available countries...
February 10, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438650/updated-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-melanoma-definitive-excision-margins-for-primary-cutaneous-melanoma
#18
Michael J Sladden, Omgo E Nieweg, Julie Howle, Brendon J Coventry, John F Thompson
Definitive management of primary cutaneous melanoma consists of surgical excision of the melanoma with the aim of curing the patient. The melanoma is widely excised together with a safety margin of surrounding skin and subcutaneous tissue, after the diagnosis and Breslow thickness have been established by histological assessment of the initial excision biopsy specimen. Sentinel lymph node biopsy should be discussed for melanomas ≥ 1 mm thickness (≥ 0.8 mm if other high risk features) in which case lymphoscintigraphy must be performed before wider excision of the primary melanoma site...
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438406/comparison-between-influenza-coded-primary-care-consultations-and-national-influenza-incidence-obtained-by-the-general-practitioners-sentinel-network-in-portugal-from-2012-to-2017
#19
Rosália Páscoa, Ana Paula Rodrigues, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes, Carlos Martins
Influenza is associated with severe illness, death, and economic burden. Sentinel surveillance systems have a central role in the community since they support public health interventions. This study aimed to describe and compare the influenza-coded primary care consultations with the reference index of influenza activity used in Portugal, General Practitioners Sentinel Network, from 2012 to 2017. An ecological time-series study was conducted using weekly R80-coded primary care consultations (according to the International Classification of Primary Care-2), weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) incidence rates from the General Practitioners Sentinel Network and Goldstein Index (GI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436709/fast-and-efficient-genetic-engineering-of-hematopoietic-precursor-cells-for-the-study-of-dendritic-cell-migration
#20
Alexander Leithner, Joerg Renkawitz, Ingrid De Vries, Robert Hauschild, Hans Häcker, Michael Sixt
Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the adaptive immune system that reside in peripheral organs of mammals. Upon pathogen encounter, they undergo maturation and up-regulate the chemokine receptor CCR7 that guides them along gradients of its chemokine ligands CCL19 and 21 to the next draining lymph node. There, DCs present peripherally acquired antigen to naïve T cells, thereby triggering adaptive immunity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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