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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332319/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#1
REVIEW
Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
The role of the treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been underscored in the intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden countries like South Korea. LTBI treatment is recommended only for patients at risk for progression to active TB-those with frequent exposure to active TB cases, and those with clinical risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients). Recently revised National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommended that close contacts of individuals with active pulmonary or laryngeal TB, aged between 18 and 65 years, should undergo LTBI treatment...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332311/otolaryngology-head-and-neck-region-manifestations-of-brucella
#2
Anna Lazutkin, Maya Korem, Jeffrey M Weinberger, Ron Eliashar, Nir Hirshoren
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with Brucella infection present with nonspecific symptoms originating from different organs. In this study, we investigated the manifestations involving principally the otolaryngology/head and neck region. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort chart review. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with brucellosis in a tertiary medical center. Medical records of 55 patients treated for positive Brucella blood cultures between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed...
January 14, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332301/evaluating-risk-tolerance-from-a-systematic-review-of-preferences-the-case-of-patients-with-psoriasis
#3
REVIEW
Juan Marcos Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Stated-preference methods have been widely used to evaluate patient-relative preferences for the benefits and potential harms of psoriasis treatments. However, risk tolerance measures for treatment-related harms, a corollary of preferences, are rare despite their critical role in shared decision making and regulatory benefit-risk evaluations. This article presents a method to enhance information on patient risk tolerance through previously published preference results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to conduct the first meta-analysis of preferences to characterize the distribution of patients' maximum acceptable risk of harms associated with psoriasis treatments...
January 13, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332293/measurement-of-cyclic-gmp-during-plant-hypersensitive-disease-resistance-response
#4
Jian Chen, Diana Bellin, Elodie Vandelle
Cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is recognized as an important second messenger in plants, mediating intracellular signal in important physiological processes, including the hypersensitive disease resistance response induced by avirulent pathogens. In this context, the analysis of cGMP levels in infected plants requires an accurate and specific detection method allowing its quantification. Here, we describe an assay based on the Alphascreen technology, developed for animal cells and further adapted and optimized for the detection of cGMP in plants...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332292/in-vivo-analysis-of-calcium-levels-and-glutathione-redox-status-in-arabidopsis-epidermal-leaf-cells-infected-with-the-hypersensitive-response-inducing-bacteria-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-avrb-pstavrb
#5
Fabrizio Gandolfo Doccula, Laura Luoni, Smrutisanjita Behera, Maria Cristina Bonza, Alex Costa
Plants react to the attack of pathogen microorganisms by mounting appropriate and efficient downstream defense responses often involving a form of localized cell death called hypersensitive response (HR).Here we describe an innovative and noninvasive protocol based on in vivo bioimaging technique coupled with utilization of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors that allows to monitor and analyze intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics and changes of the glutathione redox status taking place in plant organs during plant interaction with the HR-inducing bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (PstAvrB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332288/ros-and-cell-death-in-tomato-roots-infected-by-meloidogyne-incognita
#6
Paola Leonetti
Phytoparasitic nematodes are plant pests causing serious problems to a broad range of hosts, and Meloidogyne species are widely recognized as the most damaging among the root knot nematode groups. During the incompatible interaction between avirulent pathogens and resistant tomato cultivars, juvenile nematode invasions provoke a defense cascade, culminating in hypersensitive responses. Methods to detect the key molecules involved in oxidative metabolism of the infected tomato roots are described here.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332285/immunity-associated-programmed-cell-death-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-genes-essential-for-plant-innate-immunity
#7
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to contend with potential infection by various pathogens. Understanding and manipulation of key molecular mechanisms that plants use to defend against various pathogens are critical for developing novel strategies in plant disease control. In plants, resistance to attempted pathogen infection is often associated with hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) at the site of attempted pathogen invasion. In this chapter, we describe a method for rapid identification of genes that are essential for plant innate immunity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332284/measurement-of-hypersensitive-cell-death-triggered-by-avirulent-bacterial-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#8
Zahra Imanifard, Elodie Vandelle, Diana Bellin
The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful and complex defense reactions to survive to pathogen attacks during an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Local programmed cell death accompanies the hypersensitive response at the site of infection to prevent pathogen growth and spread. A precise quantitative assessment of this form of programmed cell death is essential to unravel the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Here, we first describe the optimization of a Trypan Blue staining protocol for quantitatively measuring the HR-cell death in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332267/inf-%C3%AE-a-new-spotlight-in-innate-immunity-against-influenza-virus-infection
#9
Yeping Sun, Jingwen Jiang, Po Tien, Wenjun Liu, Jing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332258/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-toluidine-blue-inhibits-both-growth-and-biofilm-formation-by-candida-krusei
#10
Bruna Graziele Marques da Silva, Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Isabela Bueno Rosseti, Stella Zamuner, Maricilia Silva Costa
Among non-albicans Candida species, the opportunistic pathogen Candida krusei emerges because of the high mortality related to infections produced by this yeast. The Candida krusei is an opportunistic pathogen presenting an intrinsic resistance to fluconazol. In spite of the reduced number of infections produced by C. krusei, its occurrence is increasing in some groups of patients submitted to the use of fluconazol for prophylaxis. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a nontoxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells...
January 13, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#11
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#12
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332203/custom-made-antibiotic-loaded-acrylic-cement-spacers-using-a-dental-silicone-template-for-treatment-of-infected-hip-prostheses
#13
Tadahiko Ohtsuru, Yuji Morita, Yasuaki Murata, Yutaro Munakata, Masafumi Itoh, Yoshiharu Kato, Ken Okazaki
PURPOSE: Antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement (ALAC) spacers are useful for treatment of infected prostheses in the course of a two-stage revision. Spacers are handmade or are made using a commercial template, with reportedly good treatment outcomes. This study aimed to confirm the usefulness of custom-made ALAC spacers shaped like bipolar hip prostheses using a dental silicone template for treatment of infected hip prostheses, and described their manufacture. METHODS: This study evaluated 10 patients who underwent two-stage revision for treatment of infected hip prostheses...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332178/association-of-autism-with-maternal-infections-perinatal-and-other-risk-factors-a-case-control-study
#14
Dikran Richard Guisso, Fadi S Saadeh, Dahlia Saab, Joud El Deek, Sarah Chamseddine, Hadi Abou El Hassan, Ghidaa Majari, Rose-Mary Boustany
This case-control study explores the association between pregnancy/birth complications and other factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Lebanese subjects aged 2-18 years. Researchers interviewed 136 ASD cases from the American University of Beirut Medical Center Special Kids Clinic, and 178 controls selected by systematic digit dialing in the Greater-Beirut area. Male gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 3.9 [2.2-7.0]); postpartum feeding difficulties (2.5 [1.2-5.4]); maternal infections/complications during pregnancy (2...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332155/prevalence-of-the-pfdhfr-and-pfdhps-mutations-among-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-in-southeast-nigeria
#15
Ekpereonne Esu, Costanza Tacoli, Prabhanjan Gai, Nicole Berens-Riha, Michael Pritsch, Thomas Loescher, Martin Meremikwu
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance to SP is related to mutations in the dhfr and dhps gene of Plasmodium falciparum. This study determined the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps polymorphisms found in asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care in Calabar, Nigeria. From October 2013 to November 2014, asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics were enrolled after obtaining informed consent...
January 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#16
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332141/cultivable-fungi-present-in-antarctic-soils-taxonomy-phylogeny-diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-antiparasitic-and-herbicidal-metabolites
#17
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332129/aspergillus-fumigatus-increased-par-2-expression-and-elevated-proinflammatory-cytokines-expression-through-the-pathway-of-par-2-erk1-2-in-cornea
#18
Yawen Niu, Guiqiu Zhao, Cui Li, Jing Lin, Nan Jiang, Chengye Che, Jie Zhang, Qiang Xu
Purpose: To determine the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in cornea infected by Aspergillus fumigatus. Methods: PAR-2 was tested in normal and infected corneas of C57BL/6 mice. Mice corneas were infected with A. fumigatus with or without pretreatment of PAR-2 antagonist (FSLLRY-NH2). Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) were stimulated with 75% ethanol-killed A. fumigatus with or without pretreatment of FSLLRY-NH2. Disease severity was documented by clinical score and photographs with a slit lamp...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332116/applying-preventive-measures-leading-to-significant-reduction-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-intensive-care-unit
#19
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Gulam R Ahmed, Asim A AlSaedi, Muhammad J Bhutta, Faisal F Al-Hameed, Majid M AlShamrani
To determine the impact of applying the best available clinical evidence on the preventive measures to reduce the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in adult intensive care units (ICU).     Methods:  Data were collected from adult ICUs (28 beds) from 2008 to 2016. The proper use of silicon catheter, aseptic insertion technique, emptying bag three-fourth via close circuit, the use of appropriate size catheter, securing the draining tube on the thigh to keep catheter bag below patient's bladder level and removal of the catheter as early as possible were ensured in all patients...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332081/radiosurgical-subthalamic-nucleotomy
#20
Jean Régis, Romain Carron, Tatiana Witjas
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the reference technique in Parkinson's disease (PD) at different stages of complications. Some patients cannot afford DBS due to anticoagulation or comorbidities or due to pecuniary reasons. Radiosurgery is a minimally invasive stereotactic technique, with no craniotomy and subsequently no risk of bleeding or infection. Its good safety efficacy profile has been established in the treatment of tremor, and the postoperative care issues are simple with a much shorter hospital stay (mean 48 h)...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
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