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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222545/effect-of-medical-complications-on-the-after-stroke-rehabilitation-outcome
#1
Barbara Janus-Laszuk, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Iwona Sarzynska-Dlugosz, Anna Czlonkowska
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke rehabilitation should begin immediately and continue while improvement is seen. After stroke, patients are at risk of developing medical complications, which can hinder optimal recovery. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the incidence of complications occurring during early inpatient rehabilitation and to assess their influence on patients' functionality. METHODS: For 1075 patients (585 men), we recorded neurological deficits, activities of everyday living, functionality before and after rehabilitation, and the incidence of complications...
January 31, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glyco-protein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222444/inflammation-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#3
Christina K Lin, Barbara I Kazmierczak
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits failures of barrier defense and innate immunity to cause acute infections at a range of anatomic sites. We review the defense mechanisms that normally protect against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, as well as the bacterial products and activities that trigger their activation. Innate immune recognition of P. aeruginosa is critical for pathogen clearance; nonetheless, inflammation is also associated with pathogen persistence and poor host outcomes...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222400/antiprotozoal-antimycobacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-evaluation-of-cnidoscolus-chayamansa-mc-vaugh-extract-and-the-isolated-compounds
#4
Mariana Z Pérez-González, Gabriel A Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Lilián Yépez-Mulia, Irma S Rojas-Tomé, Julieta Luna-Herrera, María A Jiménez-Arellanes
Cnidoscolus chayamansa is a medicinal and edible plant known as Chaya, is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antibacterial agent and as a remedy for respiratory illness, gastrointestinal disorders, and vaginal infections related with the inflammation process. In this paper, we describe the plant's phytochemical analysis and biological activities (antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory properties) of the CHCl3:MeOH (1:1) leaves extract and isolated compounds, as well as the acute and sub-acute toxic effects...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222399/improved-yeast-delivery-of-fluconazole-with-a-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-system
#5
Hamid Reza Kelidari, Maryam Moazeni, Roghayeh Babaei, Majid Saeedi, Jafar Akbari, Parisa Islami Parkoohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Ali Nokhodchi
Despite the growing trends in the number of patients at risk for invasive fungal infections, management with current antifungal agents results in complications due to changes in the epidemiology and drug susceptibility of invasive fungal infections. In the present research fluconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared using probe ultrasonication techniques and investigated the efficacy of the optimal formulation on a large number of Candida species. The morphology of the obtained nanostructured lipid carriers was characterized by transmission-electron microscopy...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222368/direct-and-label-free-influenza-virus-detection-based-on-multisite-binding-to-sialic-acid-receptors
#6
Yukichi Horiguchi, Tatsuro Goda, Akira Matsumoto, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Shoji Yamaoka, Yuji Miyahara
A system to discriminate human or avian influenza A remains a highly sought-after tool for prevention of influenza pandemics in humans. Selective binding of the influenza A viral hemagglutinin (HA) to specific sialic acid (SA) receptors (Neu5Acα(2-6)Gal in humans, Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal in birds) is determined by the genotype of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments, making it one of the key characteristics that distinguishes human or avian influenza A virus. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of whole H1N1 influenza A virus using 6'-sialyllactose (Neu5Acα(2-6)Galβ(1-4)Glc, 6SL)-immobilized gold electrodes as biosensing surfaces...
February 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222277/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-blepharoplasty-review-of-the-current-literature
#7
REVIEW
Elie M Ferneini, Steven Halepas, Steven I Aronin
The purpose of this study was to provide an evidence-based overview of antibiotic prophylaxis in blepharoplasty. We performed a literature search that evaluated the risk of infection associated with blepharoplasty, as well as the risks and benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis. The overall infection rate associated with eyelid surgery is extremely low. However, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis has increased over the past 25 years in esthetic facial procedures. There is no standard of care for or against antibiotic prophylaxis, and routine practices vary widely...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222276/influenza-casts-a-lung-shadow
#8
Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
This commentary highlights the article by Pociask et al that provides new insights into the lingering effects of influenza infection.
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222269/restoring-cftr-function-reduces-airway-bacteria-and-inflammation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-lung-infections
#9
Katherine B Hisert, Sonya L Heltshe, Christopher Pope, Peter Jorth, Xia Wu, Rachael M Edwards, Matthew Radey, Frank J Accurso, Daniel J Wolter, Gordon Cooke, Ryan J Adam, Suzanne Carter, Brenda Grogan, Jan L Launspach, Seamas C Donnelly, Charles Gallagher, James E Bruce, David Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Lucas R Hoffman, Edward F McKone, Pradeep K Singh
RATIONALE: Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves CFTR activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and G551D-CFTR mutations, but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once CF lung disease is established. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with CF and chronic airway infections...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222234/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-brassica-napus-leptosphaeria-maculans-pathosystem-identifies-receptor-signalling-and-structural-genes-underlying-plant-resistance
#10
Michael G Becker, Xuehua Zhang, Philip L Walker, Joey C Wan, Jenna L Millar, Deirdre Khan, Matthew J Granger, Jacob D Cavers, Ainsley C Chan, Dilantha W G Fernando, Mark F Belmonte
The hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease in Brassica napus (canola, oilseed rape) and causes significant yield loss worldwide. While genetic resistance has been used to mitigate the disease using traditional breeding strategies, there is little knowledge about the genes contributing to blackleg resistance. RNA sequencing and a streamlined bioinformatics pipeline identified unique genes and plant defense pathways specific to plant resistance in the B. napus-L...
February 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222205/complex-cystine-kidney-stones-treated-with-combined-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-pyelolithotomy-and-intraoperative-renoscopy
#11
Luca Meggiato, Francesco Cattaneo, Fabio Zattoni, Fabrizio Dal Moro, Paolo Beltrami, Filiberto Zattoni
INTRODUCTION: Cystinuria, a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a defect in cystine renal reabsorption, can often determine complex cystine renal calculi, leading to important complications such as urinary obstruction, urinary infections, and impaired kidney function. Complex kidney stones can have a difficult management and can be very arduous to treat. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a 20-year-old Jeowah's witness woman with complex cystine renal stones treated with combined robot-assisted laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and intraoperative renoscopy...
February 18, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222204/comparative-transcriptome-and-potential-antiviral-signaling-pathways-analysis-of-the-gills-in-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv
#12
Zhi-Qiang Du, Yan-Hui Jin
Red swamp crayfish is an important model organism for research of the invertebrate innate immunity mechanism. Its excellent disease resistance against bacteria, fungi, and viruses is well-known. However, the antiviral mechanisms of crayfish remain unclear. In this study, we obtained high-quality sequence reads from normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged crayfish gills. For group normal (GN), 39,390,280 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 172,591 contigs; whereas, 34,011,488 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 182,176 contigs for group WSSV-challenged (GW)...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222203/defense-related-proteins-involved-in-sugarcane-responses-to-biotic-stress
#13
Thais P Souza, Renata O Dias, Marcio C Silva-Filho
Sugarcane is one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. However, pathogen infection and herbivore attack cause constant losses in yield. Plants respond to pathogen infection by inducing the expression of several protein types, such as glucanases, chitinases, thaumatins, peptidase inhibitors, defensins, catalases and glycoproteins. Proteins induced by pathogenesis are directly or indirectly involved in plant defense, leading to pathogen death or inducing other plant defense responses. Several of these proteins are induced in sugarcane by different pathogens or insects and have antifungal or insecticidal activity...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222186/alpk1-controls-tifa-traf6-dependent-innate-immunity-against-heptose-1-7-bisphosphate-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#14
Milica Milivojevic, Anne-Sophie Dangeard, Christoph Alexander Kasper, Therese Tschon, Mario Emmenlauer, Claudine Pique, Pamela Schnupf, Julie Guignot, Cécile Arrieumerlou
During infection by invasive bacteria, epithelial cells contribute to innate immunity via the local secretion of inflammatory cytokines. These are directly produced by infected cells or by uninfected bystanders via connexin-dependent cell-cell communication. However, the cellular pathways underlying this process remain largely unknown. Here we perform a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identify TIFA and TRAF6 as central players of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 expression...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222182/epidemiological-tracing-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-switzerland-multilocus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacterium-caprae
#15
Giovanni Ghielmetti, Simone Scherrer, Ute Friedel, Daniel Frei, Dominique Suter, Lukas Perler, Max M Wittenbrink
BACKGROUND: After 15 years of absence, in 2013 bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis and M. caprae, reemerged in the Swiss dairy cattle population. In order to identify the sources of infection as well as the spread of the agents, molecular-epidemiologic tracing by MIRU-VNTR analysis in combination with spoligotyping was performed. A total of 17 M. bovis and 7 M. caprae isolates were cultured from tuberculous bovine lymph nodes and analyzed with a set of 49 genetic markers by using automated capillary electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222180/pre-existing-neutralizing-antibody-mitigates-b-cell-dysregulation-and-enhances-the-env-specific-antibody-response-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#16
Juan Pablo Jaworski, Peter Bryk, Zachary Brower, Bo Zheng, Ann J Hessell, Alexander F Rosenberg, Tong Tong Wu, Ignacio Sanz, Michael C Keefer, Nancy L Haigwood, James J Kobie
Our central hypothesis is that protection against HIV infection will be powerfully influenced by the magnitude and quality of the B cell response. Although sterilizing immunity, mediated by pre-formed abundant and potent antibodies is the ultimate goal for B cell-targeted HIV vaccine strategies, scenarios that fall short of this may still confer beneficial defenses against viremia and disease progression. We evaluated the impact of sub-sterilizing pre-existing neutralizing antibody on the B cell response to SHIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222175/factors-associated-with-post-diagnosis-pregnancies-in-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-south-of-brazil
#17
Luciana Barcellos Teixeira, Flávia Bulegon Pilecco, Álvaro Vigo, Maria de Lourdes Drachler, José Carlos de Carvalho Leite, Daniela Riva Knauth
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with women of a reproductive age living with HIV/AIDS cared for in the public services of the city of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil. The data was analyzed from a comparison between two groups: women with and women without pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the reasons of prevalence (RP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222174/slmapk3-enhances-tolerance-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-tylcv-by-regulating-salicylic-acid-and-jasmonic-acid-signaling-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#18
Yunzhou Li, Lei Qin, Jingjing Zhao, Tayeb Muhammad, Hehe Cao, Hailiang Li, Yan Zhang, Yan Liang
Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222168/fewer-acute-respiratory-infection-episodes-among-patients-receiving-treatment-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#19
Herng-Ching Lin, Sudha Xirasagar, Shiu-Dong Chung, Chung-Chien Huang, Ming-Chieh Tsai, Chao-Hung Chen
Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) present with comorbid complications with implications for healthcare utilization. To date, little is known about the effects of GERD treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) on patients' subsequent healthcare utilization for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This population-based study compared ARI episodes captured through outpatient visits, one year before and one year after GERD patients received PPI treatment. We used retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 in Taiwan, comparing 21,486 patients diagnosed with GERD from 2010 to 2012 with 21,486 age-sex matched comparison patients without GERD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#20
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
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