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Growth factors and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324627/effects-of-the-humanized-anti-adrenomedullin-antibody-adrecizumab-ham8101-on-vascular-barrier-function-and-survival-in-rodent-models-of-systemic-inflammation-and-sepsis
#1
Christopher Geven, Esther Peters, Mathias Schroedter, Joachim Struck, Andreas Bergmann, Oscar McCook, Peter Radermacher, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers
PURPOSE: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is an important regulator of endothelial barrier function during sepsis. Administration of a murine antibody targeted against the N-terminus of ADM (HAM1101) resulted in improved outcome in models of murine sepsis. We studied the effects of a humanized form of this antibody (HAM8101, also known as Adrecizumab) on vascular barrier dysfunction and survival in rodent models of systemic inflammation and sepsis. METHODS: Rats (n=48) received different dosages of HAM8101 or placebo (n = 8 per group), directly followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg)...
January 10, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300996/factors-associated-with-time-to-full-feeds-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
Gaurav Patwardhan, Ankit Soni, Nitin Rachwani, Sandeep Kadam, Sanjay Patole, Anand Pandit
Background: Feeding intolerance prolongs time to full feeds (TFFs) in preterm infants. We studied factors associated with TFF in preterm infants on standardized feeding regimen (SFR) and routine probiotic supplementation (RPS). Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of preterm infants ≤1500 g. Pearson's correlation, Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: In total, 37 of 304 admitted infants died before reaching full feeds...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245072/phloretin-attenuates-mucus-hypersecretion-and-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoke
#3
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208882/thrombocytopenia-in-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-and-its-relationship-with-specific-organism-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#4
F Ahmed, A Y Raj, L N Begum
Late onset neonatal sepsis (LONS) is a common complication in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) especially in premature infants, in whom the clinical presentation can be subtle and nonspecific. Thrombocytopenia is an important complication of sepsis. The objective of the present study was to identify the organism-speci?c platelet response in neonate with culture proven LONS. In this retrospective study all the infants with blood culture positive LONS in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Square Hospitals Ltd...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203193/fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase-deficiency-as-a%C3%A2-cause-of-recurrent-hypoglycemia-and-metabolic-acidosis-clinical-and-molecular-findings-in-malaysian-patients
#5
Lip Hen Moey, Nor Azimah Abdul Azize, Yusnita Yakob, Huey Yin Leong, Wee Teik Keng, Bee Chin Chen, Lock Hock Ngu
BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of gluconeogenesis. We reported the clinical findings and molecular genetic data in seven Malaysian patients with FBPase deficiency. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FBPase deficiency from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: All the patients presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactacidemia and hepatomegaly...
November 13, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200137/early-prediction-of-persistent-organ-failure-by-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-acute-pancreatitis
#6
Jun Liu, Gui-Juan Zou, Long Yang, Shu Rong, Bai-Qiang Li, Zhi-Hui Tong, Wei-Qin Li, Jie-Shou Li
INTRODUCTION: Increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC) have been observed in patients with vascular injury associated with sepsis and acute lung injury. However, a role for cEPC in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains unclear. We therefore conducted a prospective study to study whether the quantities of cEPC can predict persistent organ failure (POF) in patients with predicted SAP. METHODS: A total of 42 predicted SAP patients who were admitted within 24 hours after symptom onset and 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in our study...
December 1, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197958/immunohaemostasis-a-new-view-on-haemostasis-during-sepsis
#7
REVIEW
Xavier Delabranche, Julie Helms, Ferhat Meziani
Host infection by a micro-organism triggers systemic inflammation, innate immunity and complement pathways, but also haemostasis activation. The role of thrombin and fibrin generation in host defence is now recognised, and thrombin has become a partner for survival, while it was seen only as one of the "principal suspects" of multiple organ failure and death during septic shock. This review is first focused on pathophysiology. The role of contact activation system, polyphosphates and neutrophil extracellular traps has emerged, offering new potential therapeutic targets...
December 2, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181845/interventions-for-preventing-oral-mucositis-in-patients-with-cancer-receiving-treatment-cytokines-and-growth-factors
#8
REVIEW
Philip Riley, Anne-Marie Glenny, Helen V Worthington, Anne Littlewood, Luisa M Fernandez Mauleffinch, Jan E Clarkson, Martin G McCabe
BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high-risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty with eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and supplemental nutrition. These complications may disrupt cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients...
November 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180833/growth-differentiation-factor-15-is-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#9
Lukas Buendgens, Eray Yagmur, Jan Bruensing, Ulf Herbers, Christer Baeck, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily related to inflammation and macrophage activation. Serum concentrations of GDF-15 can predict poor survival in chronic diseases, but its role in sepsis is obscure. Therefore, we investigated GDF-15 as a prognostic biomarker in critically ill patients. We measured GDF-15 levels in 219 critically ill patients (146 with sepsis, 73 without sepsis) upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), in comparison to 66 healthy controls...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176262/elevated-plasma-levels-of-gas6-are-associated-with-acute-lung-injury-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis
#10
Li-Chun Yeh, Ping-Wun Huang, Kuan-Hsian Hsieh, Chung-Hsuan Wang, Yi-Kai Kao, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Xiao-Lun Lee
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the complications of severe sepsis, causing sudden deaths. However, information regarding predictive factors for the onset of ALI in severe sepsis is limited. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is secreted by endothelial cells and is important for the activation of endothelium during inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of plasma Gas6 in patients with severe sepsis. Collection of plasma samples was carried out from 129 participants with severe sepsis following with or without ALI development...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157085/sequential-occurrence-of-small-cell-and-non-small-lung-cancer-in-a-male-patient-is-it-a-transformation
#11
Ahsan Wahab, Kavitha Kesari, Siddique Chaudhary, Mahin Khan, Hafiz Khan, Susan Smith, Yanis Boumber
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and is categorized into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present a patient with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant-NSCLC who developed metastatic SCLC after initial therapy with second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, afatinib. A 65-year-old male non-smoker was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the right lung, stage IVA (M1a). Due to tumor positivity for EGFR-Exon 19 deletion, the patient was started on oral afatinib, which resulted in a partial response...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122754/limited-role-of-kininogen-in-the-host-response-during-gram-negative-pneumonia-derived-sepsis
#12
Chao Ding, Cornelis Van't Veer, Joris J T H Roelofs, Meenal Shukla, Keith R McCrae, Alexey S Revenko, Jeff Crosby, Tom van der Poll
High molecular weight kininogen (HK), together with Factor XI, Factor XII and prekallikrein, is part of the contact system, which has proinflammatory, prothrombotic and vasoactive properties. We hypothesized that HK plays a role in the host response during pneumonia derived sepsis. To this end mice were depleted of kininogen (KNG) to plasma HK levels of 28% of normal by repeated treatment with a specific antisense oligonucleotide (KNG ASO) for three weeks prior to infection with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae via the airways...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118755/apoptotic-cells-induced-signaling-for-immune-homeostasis-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#13
REVIEW
Uriel Trahtemberg, Dror Mevorach
Inefficient and abnormal clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) contributes to systemic autoimmune disease in humans and mice, and inefficient chromosomal DNA degradation by DNAse II leads to systemic polyarthritis and a cytokine storm. By contrast, efficient clearance allows immune homeostasis, generally leads to a non-inflammatory state for both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and contributes to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As many as 3 × 10(8) cells undergo apoptosis every hour in our bodies, and one of the primary "eat me" signals expressed by apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074341/the-clinical-significance-of-endocardial-endothelial-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Sonja Smiljic
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is essential in the embryonic development of the heart, the optimal contractility and rhythm as well as the remodeling of the heart. Endocardial endothelium affect the contractility of cardiomyocytes through paracrine signaling substances such as nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), prostaglandins (PGI2, PGF2, PGE2) and angiotensin II (ANG II). Typical lesions of endocardial endothelium have been described in atrial fibrillation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, sepsis, myocardial infarction, inflammation and thrombosis...
September 21, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046432/alk-is-a-therapeutic-target-for-lethal-sepsis
#15
Ling Zeng, Rui Kang, Shan Zhu, Xiao Wang, Lizhi Cao, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by infection, is a major public health concern with limited therapeutic options. We provide evidence to support a role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tumor-associated receptor tyrosine kinase, in the regulation of innate immunity during lethal sepsis. The genetic disruption of ALK expression diminishes the stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated host immune response to cyclic dinucleotides in monocytes and macrophages. Mechanistically, ALK directly interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to trigger serine-threonine protein kinase AKT phosphorylation and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, enabling STING-dependent rigorous inflammatory responses...
October 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042256/antiseptic-effects-of-dabrafenib-on-tgfbip-induced-septic-responses
#16
In-Chul Lee, Jong-Sup Bae
Transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp), an extracellular protein, is expressed on several cell types in response to TGF-β stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-derived TGFBIp functions as a mediator of sepsis. Screening of bioactive compound libraries is an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new treatments for human diseases (drug repositioning). Dabrafenib (DAB), a B-Raf inhibitor, was initially used for treating metastatic melanoma...
October 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028771/mechanisms-of-thrombocytopenia-during-septic-shock-a-multiplex-cluster-analysis-of-endogenous-sepsis-mediators
#17
Alexandre Bedet, Keyvan Razazi, Florence Boissier, Mathieu Surenaud, Sophie Hue, Stéphane Giraudier, Christian Brun-Buisson, Armand Mekontso Dessap
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a common feature of sepsis and may involve various mechanisms often related to the inflammatory response. This study aimed at evaluating factors associated with thrombocytopenia during human septic shock. In particular, we used a multiplex analysis to assess the role of endogenous sepsis mediators. METHODS: Prospective, observational study. Thrombocytopenia was defined as an absolute platelet count <100 G/L or a 50% relative decrease in platelet count during the first week of septic shock...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983473/extracellular-signals-of-a-human-epithelial-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-caco-2-cell-line-facilitate-the-penetration-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-strain-through-the-mucin-layer
#18
Naoki Hayashi, Atsushi Yokotani, Masami Yamamoto, Mariko Kososhi, Mayu Morita, Chiaki Fukunishi, Nagisa Nishizawa, Naomasa Gotoh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can penetrate the layer of mucus formed by host intestinal epithelial cells, often resulting in sepsis in immunocompromised patients. We have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa can penetrate the mucin layer by flagellar motility and the degradation of the mucin layer. However, it remains unclear how P. aeruginosa initially recognizes epithelial cells. Using the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell line, we investigated extracellular signaling that could facilitate the penetration of P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926879/-systematic-evaluation-on-effectiveness-and-safety-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-in-treating-adult-patients-with-severe-burn
#19
F Y Tian, B Wu, T Xu, X H Jiang
Objective: To systcmatically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in treating adults with severe burn. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched using key words " burns, thermal, human growth hormone, growth hormone, hGH, and somatropin (human)" , and China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, VIP Database, and Wanfang Database were searched using key words in Chinese version "," to obtain the randomized controlled trials about rhGH in the treatment of adults with severe burn from the establishment of each database to December 2016...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923883/microtubules-associated-rac-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier-a-role-of-asef-in-acute-lung-injury
#20
Pratap Karki, Anna A Birukova
The endothelial barrier function regulated by the cytoskeletal reorganizations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases including asthma, sepsis, edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The extensive studies have established that activation of small GTPase Rac is a key mechanism in endothelial barrier protection but the role of microtubules-associated Rac in the endothelial functions remains poorly understood. With the emerging evidences that microtubules disassembly also plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling leading to endothelial permeability, the knowledge on microtubules-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier is imperative to better understand the etiology of lung injuries as well as to develop novel therapeutics against these disorders...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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