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Dietary patterns

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#1
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812096/perceived-racism-and-incident-diabetes-in-the-black-women-s-health-study
#2
Kathryn L Bacon, Sherri O Stuver, Yvette C Cozier, Julie R Palmer, Lynn Rosenberg, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811511/from-metabolome-to-phenotype-gc-ms-metabolomics-of-developing-mutant-barley-seeds-reveals-effects-of-growth-temperature-and-genotype
#3
Bekzod Khakimov, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Rubini Maya Kannangara, Birthe Møller Jespersen, Lars Munck, Søren Balling Engelsen
The development of crop varieties tolerant to growth temperature fluctuations and improved nutritional value is crucial due to climate change and global population growth. This study investigated the metabolite patterns of developing barley seed as a function of genotype and growth temperature for ideal vegetable protein production and for augmented β-glucan production. Seeds from three barley lines (Bomi, lys3.a and lys5.f) were sampled eight times during grain filling and analysed for metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810891/the-variation-in-urinary-calcium-levels-in-adult-patients-with-fracture-and-surgical-intervention
#4
Junfei Wang, Xin Zheng, Liming Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Jin Xiong, Yixin Cheng, Hongfei Shi, Xusheng Qiu, Leqin Zhou, Xizhao Sun
BACKGROUND: Generally, a higher calcium diet is fed to fracture patients after surgery. However, recent studies have indicated that higher dietary calcium intakes increase the risk of urinary stones for fracture patients. Therefore, this study aimed to observe the variation in urinary calcium levels among fracture patients who underwent surgery, based on fracture type, fracture location, age and gender. METHODS: A total of 768 subjects were enrolled in this study from 2012 to 2015 and were divided into 2 groups: group A (fracture patients who underwent surgery) and group B (normal patients without fracture)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810238/long-term-weight-maintenance-strategies-are-experienced-as-a-burden-by-persons-who-have-lost-weight-compared-to-persons-with-a-lifetime-normal-stable-weight
#5
Maaike Kruseman, Noémi Schmutz, Isabelle Carrard
OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary intake, eating patterns, physical activity and eating behaviors, and to explore strategies and perceptions of the experience of weight maintenance in weight loss maintainers (weight loss maintenance (WLM) ≥ 10% weight loss maintained for ≥1 year) and in matched controls with a lifetime stable normal weight. METHODS: Volunteers (32) were recruited by a snowball procedure in this cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Diet, physical activity, and eating behaviors were assessed with validated questionnaires...
August 16, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810237/tooth-wear-inclination-in-great-ape-molars
#6
Jordan Knight-Sadler, Luca Fiorenza
Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets...
August 16, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810200/influences-of-tio2-nanoparticles-on-dietary-metal-uptake-in-daphnia-magna
#7
Cheng Tan, Wen-Xiong Wang
Increasing applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) have intensified the risk of environmental contamination. Since nano-TiO2 can absorb metals and be consumed as 'food' by zooplankton but also can interact with phytoplankton, they could significantly disturb the existing metal assimilation patterns. In the present study, we quantified the dietary assimilation of Cd and Zn from nano-TiO2 and algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) at comparable particle concentrations as well as in complex food environment (variable food quality and quantity) in a freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna using the radiotracer technique...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807638/food-waste-in-the-national-school-lunch-program-1978-2015-a-systematic-review
#8
Carmen Byker Shanks, Jinan Banna, Elena L Serrano
BACKGROUND: Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). OBJECTIVE: Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. METHODS: A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807503/morphological-physiological-and-dietary-covariation-in-migratory-and-resident-adult-brown-trout-salmo-trutta
#9
Kathryn S Peiman, Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Martin H Larsen, Scott F Colborne, Kathleen M Gilmour, Kim Aarestrup, William G Willmore, Steven J Cooke
The causes and consequences of trait relationships within and among the categories of physiology, morphology, and life-history remain poorly studied. Few studies cross the boundaries of these categories, and recent reviews have pointed out not only the dearth of evidence for among-category correlations but that trait relationships may change depending on the ecological conditions a population faces. We examined changes in mean values and correlations between traits in a partially migrant population of brown trout when migrant sea-run and resident stream forms were breeding sympatrically...
July 14, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807068/secular-trends-in-dietary-patterns-of-young-children-in-brazil-from-1996-to-2006
#10
Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Wolney Lisboa Conde
OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary patterns (DP) from 1996 to 2006 and in the first 5 years of life and to explore individual and contextual characteristics associated with each DP. DESIGN: DP were defined by principal component analysis. The association between DP and individual (sociodemographic, maternal and child) and contextual (geographic regional and year) characteristics was analysed by multilevel analysis. SETTING: Two complex probabilistic Brazilian Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS 1996, 2006)...
August 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807060/current-dietary-supplement-use-of-australian-military-veterans-of-middle-east-operations
#11
Jolieke C van der Pols, Jeeva Kanesarajah, Alison Bell, Chi-Wai Lui
OBJECTIVE: To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss)...
August 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806418/seasonality-affects-dietary-diversity-of-school-age-children-in-northern-ghana
#12
Abdul-Razak Abizari, Fusta Azupogo, Miwako Nagasu, Noortje Creemers, Inge D Brouwer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010) and rainy season (May 2011) among the same school-age children (SAC) in two rural schools in northern Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805900/effects-of-dietary-tannins-on-total-and-extractable-nutrients-from-manure
#13
J J Halvorson, S L Kronberg, A E Hagerman
The effects of condensed tannins on N dynamics in ruminants have been a topic of research for some time, but much less work has focused on their impacts on other nutrients in manure. A 4 × 4 Latin square trial was used to determine if intake of sericea lespedeza (; SL; a condensed tannin source), at 0, 10, 20, or 40% of the diet (as-fed basis), would affect concentrations of nutrients in manure and patterns of total excretion when offered with alfalfa (; ALF) to sheep. With SL additions, average daily manure production increased linearly ( ≤ 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803596/associations-of-baltic-sea-and-mediterranean-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-women
#14
Arja T Erkkilä, Homa Sadeghi, Masoud Isanejad, Jaakko Mursu, Marjo Tuppurainen, Heikki Kröger
OBJECTIVE: Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women. DESIGN: Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803594/does-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-reduce-asthma-symptoms-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#15
Maria M Papamichael, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Nugroho H Susanto, Bircan Erbas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present systematic review was to synthesize evidence from the literature to assess efficacy of the Mediterranean dietary pattern in childhood asthma. Design/Setting A systematic search of six databases, three clinical trial registries and hand-search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to 29 October 2016. Inclusion criteria included exposure to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, measurement of asthma symptoms and study population of children aged <18 years...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803581/nutrition-facts-panel-use-is-associated-with-diet-quality-and-dietary-patterns-among-latinos-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Grace Kollannoor-Samuel, Sofia Segura-Pérez, Fatma M Shebl, Nicola L Hawley, Grace Damio, Jyoti Chhabra, Sonia Vega-López, Maria Luz Fernandez, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
OBJECTIVE: The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802307/optimal-dietary-macronutrient-distribution-in-china-odmdc-a-randomised-controlled-feeding-trial-protocol
#17
Yi Wan, Fenglei Wang, Jihong Yuan, Duo Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Findings from observational studies in China show that increased dietary fat consumption might be a contributor to the developing obesity epidemic. However, some cohort studies suggest that carbohydrate intake, especially from white rice, is a risk factor for obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in China. Our study aims to determine whether the traditional lower-fat, higher-carbohydrate Chinese or the Western higher-fat, lower-carbohydrate dietary pattern is more effective for weight control and the related cardiometabolic profiles increasingly found among contemporary Chinese...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801145/body-image-dissatisfaction-and-dietary-patterns-according-to-nutritional-status-in-adolescents
#18
Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rosemeire Leovigildo Fiaccone, Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição-Machado, Ana Santos Ruiz, Maurício Lima Barreto, Mônica Leila Portela Santana
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake...
August 8, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800091/inverse-associations-between-a-locally-validated-mediterranean-diet-index-overweight-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-chilean-adults
#19
Guadalupe Echeverría, Emma E McGee, Inés Urquiaga, Paulina Jiménez, Sonia D'Acuña, Luis Villarroel, Nicolás Velasco, Federico Leighton, Attilio Rigotti
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data (n = 24,882)...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799894/meal-specific-food-patterns-and-the-incidence-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-chinese-adult-population
#20
Zumin Shi, Malcolm Riley, Anne Taylor, Manny Noakes
This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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