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Neurotrophin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926876/potentiation-of-synaptic-glun2b-nmdar-currents-by-fyn-kinase-is-gated-through-bdnf-mediated-disinhibition-in-spinal-pain-processing
#1
Michael E Hildebrand, Jian Xu, Annemarie Dedek, Yi Li, Ameet S Sengar, Simon Beggs, Paul J Lombroso, Michael W Salter
In chronic pain states, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transforms the output of lamina I spinal neurons by decreasing synaptic inhibition. Pain hypersensitivity also depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and Src-family kinases, but the locus of NMDAR dysregulation remains unknown. Here, we show that NMDAR-mediated currents at lamina I synapses are potentiated in a peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. We find that BDNF mediates NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922332/effect-of-moderate-and-high-intensity-chronic-exercise-on-the-pancreatic-islet-morphometry-in-healthy-rats-bdnf-receptor-participation
#2
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Adolfo Virgen-Ortiz, Valery Melnikov, Alejandrina Rodríguez-Hernández, Armando Gamboa-Domínguez, Sergio Montero, Jesús Muñiz-Murguía, Mónica Lemus, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
A B S T R A C T The function and morphology of β-cells is largely dependent on insulin demand. As β-cells cover a bigger cell proportion in pancreas islets, changes of insulin producer cells affect the whole pancreatic islet morphology. Growth factors as the neurotrophins regulate the pancreas physiology, besides; physical exercise increases insulin sensitivity, and further modifies brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (running in a treadmill for eight weeks) intensity on pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy state...
December 6, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916956/functional-diversity-of-neurotrophin-actions-on-the-oculomotor-system
#4
REVIEW
Beatriz Benítez-Temiño, María A Davis-López de Carrizosa, Sara Morcuende, Esperanza R Matarredona, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) or NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#5
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen Ak, Derya Metin Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913110/downregulated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#8
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904476/impairment-of-the-nerve-growth-factor-pathway-driving-amyloid-accumulation-in-cholinergic-neurons-the-incipit-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-story
#9
REVIEW
Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF) alterations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902378/neuronal-retrograde-transport-of-borna-disease-virus-occurs-in-signaling-endosomes
#10
Caroline M Charlier, Solène Debaisieux, Charlotte Foret, Anne Thouard, Giampetro Schiavo, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia, Cécile Evelyne Malnou
Long-range axonal retrograde transport is a key mechanism for the cellular dissemination of neuro-invasive viruses, such as Borna Disease Virus (BDV), for which entry and egress sites are usually distant from the nucleus, where viral replication takes place. Although BDV is known to disseminate very efficiently in neurons, both in vivo and in primary cultures, the modalities of its axonal transport are still poorly characterized. In this work, we combined different methodological approaches, such as confocal microscopy and biochemical purification of endosomes, to study BDV retrograde transport...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901477/the-neurotrophin-neuritin1-cpg15-is-involved-in-melanoma-migration-attachment-independent-growth-and-vascular-mimicry
#11
Anja Katrin Bosserhoff, Nadja Schneider, Lisa Ellmann, Lucie Heinzerling, Silke Kuphal
The neurotrophin Neuritin1 (NRN1; cpg15) belongs to the candidate plasticity gene (CPG) family and is expressed in postmitotic-differentiating neurons of the developmental nervous system and neuronal structures associated with plasticity in the brain of human adult.Our newest findings document that NRN1 deregulation could contribute also to disease development and have impact on malignant melanoma. Our analyses displayed the over-expression of NRN1 in melanoma in vitro and in vivo, shown by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR on microdissected melanoma tissue; furthermore, soluble NRN1 was detectable in tissue culture supernatant and serum of melanoma patients...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891557/exogenous-expression-of-nt-3-and-trkc-genes-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-elevated-the-survival-rate-of-the-cells-in-the-course-of-neural-differentiation
#12
Houri Edalat, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Vahid Pirhajati, Mahmoud Tavallaei, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive cellular sources for cell therapy of many diseases, specifically neurodegenerative ones. The potential capability of BMSCs could be further augmented by enhancing their neuroprotective property, differentiation potential, and survival rate subsequent to transplantation. Therefore, a concurrent upregulation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high affinity receptor, tyrosin kinase C (TrkC), was utilized in our study. BMSCs were cotransfected with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC plasmids before induction of neural differentiation...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888062/neurotrophin-biology-at-ngf-2016-from-fundamental-science-to-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Joshua L Plotkin, Chengbiao Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888042/changes-in-neurotrophic-and-inflammatory-factors-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-postherpetic-neuralgia
#14
Wenxing Zhao, Yong Wang, Qiwu Fang, Jianping Wu, Xinyou Gao, Hui Liu, Liu Cao, Jianxiong An
Inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are involved in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but the association of these factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the level of pain is poorly known. The present study aimed to examine the changes in neurotrophic and inflammatory factors in the CSF of patients with PHN and to study the correlation between these factors and the degree of pain. Fifty patients with PHN and 28 patients with hemifacial spasm (as controls) were recruited between May 2015 and March 2016...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883060/environmental-intervention-as-a-therapy-for-adverse-programming-by-ancestral-stress
#15
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, YongXin Hao, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Ancestral stress can program stress sensitivity and health trajectories across multiple generations. While ancestral stress is uncontrollable to the filial generations, it is critical to identify therapies that overcome transgenerational programming. Here we report that prenatal stress in rats generates a transgenerationally heritable endocrine and epigenetic footprint and elevated stress sensitivity which can be alleviated by beneficial experiences in later life. Ancestral stress led to downregulated glucocorticoid receptor and prefrontal cortex neuronal densities along with precocious development of anxiety-like behaviours...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878554/the-involvement-of-the-decrease-of-astrocytic-wnt5a-in-the-cognitive-decline-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#16
Saidan Ding, Zhu Xu, Jianjing Yang, Leping Liu, Xueli Huang, Xuebao Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
Wnt signaling plays a key role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. We speculate that the impairment of Wnt signaling may mediate astrocytic neurotrophins (NTs) production and the impairment of Wnt signaling to astrocytic NTs production contributes to the pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Here, we found that induction of astrocytic NTs synthesis was by Wnt5a via the calcium/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II (CaMK II)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway in PCAs...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877111/polymerizing-pyrrole-coated-poly-l-lactic-acid-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-plcl-conductive-nanofibrous-conduit-combined-with-electric-stimulation-for-long-range-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#17
Jialin Song, Binbin Sun, Shen Liu, Wei Chen, Yuanzheng Zhang, Chunyang Wang, Xiumei Mo, Junyi Che, Yuanming Ouyang, Weien Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876366/leishmania-amazonensis-infection-induces-behavioral-alterations-and-modulates-cytokine-and-neurotrophin-production-in-the-murine-cerebral-cortex
#18
Alex Portes, Elizabeth Giestal-de-Araujo, Aline Fagundes, Pablo Pandolfo, Arnaldo de Sá Geraldo, Marie Luce Flores Lira, Veronica Figueiredo Amaral, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Neurological symptoms have been associated with Leishmania infection, however little is known about how the nervous system is affected in leishmaniasis. This work aimed to analyze parasitic load, production of cytokines/neurotrophins in the prefrontal cortex and behavioral changes in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. At 2 and 4months post-infection, infected mice showed a decrease in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 cytokines and BDNF and NGF neurotrophins in prefrontal cortex associated with increased anxiety behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875990/inverse-relationship-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cancer-and-other-factors-contributing-to-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
Ovais Shafi
BACKGROUND: The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD. METHODS: PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870444/sex-differences-and-estrogen-regulation-of-bdnf-gene-expression-but-not-propeptide-content-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#20
Katherine E Kight, Margaret M McCarthy
Sex differences in adult brain function are frequently determined developmentally through the actions of steroid hormones during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal life. In rodents, various cellular end points of the developing brain are affected by estradiol that is derived from the aromatization of circulating testosterone and/or synthesized within the brain. We have previously described a sex difference in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats that is modulated by estradiol. In this report, we examined a potential downstream regulator of the effects of estradiol on hippocampal cell proliferation by measuring gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) in male and female neonatal rats in response to estradiol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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