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cardiovascular computed tomography

Yoshitaka Shimizu, Takahito Okazaki, Tomoaki Hamana, Masahiro Irifune
Treatment of pseudoaneurysms in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is associated with a high risk of cerebral infarction; therefore, vessel ligation for hemostasis must be avoided. A 66-year-old man had intraoral hemorrhaging. At the time of the initial examination, computed tomography angiography showed jaw plate displacement near the ICA. A more detailed image was obtained using digital-subtraction angiography. After evaluation of the image, a pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed. Six days later, there were concerns about aspiration and airway obstruction; therefore, tracheostomy was performed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Morten Schmidt, Michael Maeng, Morten Madsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interventions, 60,000 cardiac computed tomographies, 40,000 cardiac operations, and 2,000 transcatheter aortic valve replacements. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are soon to be added...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gustavo Lemos Pelandré, Nathália Martins Pereira Sanches, Marcelo Souto Nacif, Edson Marchiori
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in nontriggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent nontriggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Naser Ahmadi, Fereshteh Hajsadeghi, Vahid Nabavi, Garth Olango, Mohammed Molla, Matthew Budoff, Nutan Vaidya, Javier Quintana, Robert Pynoos, Peter Hauser, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: Coronary-distensibility-index (CDI) impairments reflect endothelial-dependent process associated with vulnerable-plaque composition. This study investigates the relation of impaired-CDI with posttraumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD) and their predictive value for major-adverse-cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: This study involved 246 patients (age: 63±10 years, 12% women) with (n=50) and without (n=196) PTSD, who underwent computed-tomography angiography (CTA) to determine coronary artery disease (CAD) and CDI...
March 14, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Daniel Shpilsky, Sebhat Erqou, Sanjay R Patel, Kevin E Kip, Oluremi Ajala, Aryan Aiyer, Patrick J Strollo, Steven E Reis, Oladipupo Olafiranye
Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Simon Laurent, Olivier Martinet, Helene Cuq, Alain Rind, Philippe Durasnel, Claire Lenne, Renaud Blondé
Stingray injuries to the chest are rare but potentially life-threatening. They may occur in remote areas where advanced emergency healthcare services are unavailable. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man with tension pneumothorax due to a Himantura fai stingray injury to the left chest. The chest wound was unremarkable, with no external bleeding or evidence of a foreign body. Decompression was performed at the scene with an improvised knife procedure and a hollow writing pen, which served as a chest tube...
March 9, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Elizabeth C Oelsner, Benjamin M Smith, Eric A Hoffman, Ravi Kalhan, Kathleen M Donohue, Joel D Kaufman, Jennifer N Nguyen, Ani W Manichaikul, Jerome I Rotter, Erin D Michos, David R Jacobs, Gregory L Burke, Aaron R Folsom, Joseph E Schwartz, Karol Watson, R Graham Barr
RATIONALE: Large airway dimensions on computed tomography (CT) have been associated with lung function, symptoms, and exacerbations in COPD, and symptoms in smokers with preserved spirometry. Their prognostic significance in persons without lung disease remains undefined. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between large airway dimensions on CT and respiratory outcomes in a population-based cohort of adults without prevalent lung disease. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants ages 45-84 years without cardiovascular disease in 2000-02; we excluded participants with prevalent chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD)...
March 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kazumasa Tsuda, Norihiko Shiiya, Naoki Washiyama, Katsushi Yamashita, Kazuhiro Ohkura, Daisuke Takahashi, Yumi Kando, Kayoko Natsume, Ken Yamanaka, Yuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: To prevent haemodynamic stroke during cardiovascular surgery in patients with carotid stenosis, we routinely evaluated magnetic resonance angiography and selectively evaluated brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide challenge. Off-pump surgery was preferred when cerebral blood flow reserve was impaired. This strategy's usefulness was investigated. METHODS: Among the 1059 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative carotid screening by magnetic resonance angiography, 84 (7...
February 26, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Hiroshi Mikamo, Meizi Jiang, Mahito Noro, Yasuo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Wolfgang J Schneider, Hideaki Bujo
The upregulation of brown or brown-like beige adipocytes is a potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes and coronary artery diseases in obese patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) differs significantly from subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT) in metabolic properties. To investigate properties of EAT further, thermogenesis gene expression was investigated in human autopsy and murine samples, and adipocytes differentiated from EAT mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, analyzed EAT volume alterations were observed to be associated with weight reduction in obese patients by imaging...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sanna Tolonen, Harri Sievänen, Mirja Hirvensalo, Marika Laaksonen, Vera Mikkilä, Kristiina Pälve, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kähönen
In this cross-sectional study, peripheral bone traits were examined relative to total daily steps measured with pedometer. Higher number of steps was associated with greater bone values at the calcaneus and tibia in women, but not in men. In women, dose-dependent associations at the radius were congruent with the weight-bearing bones. INTRODUCTION: Habitual physical activity measured as daily steps may contribute to bone density and strength at the calcaneus and other weight-bearing bones...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Paul R Scully, Gorka Bastarrika, James C Moon, Thomas A Treibel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article discusses the evolution of extracellular volume (ECV) quantification using both cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT). RECENT FINDINGS: Visualizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and until recently, was restricted to the domain of the pathologist. CMR and CT both use extravascular, extracellular contrast agents, permitting ECV measurement. The evidence base around ECV quantification by CMR is growing rapidly and just starting in CT...
March 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mariangela Carbone, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Gaetano Serviddio, Gianluca Pontone
The prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on cardiovascular outcomes is well known. As a consequence of previous studies showing the high incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients and the relatively poor outcome compared to nondiabetic populations, DM is considered as CAD equivalent which means that diabetic patients are labeled as asymptomatic individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Lessons learned from the analysis of prognostic studies over the past decade have challenged this dogma and now support the idea that diabetic population is not uniformly distributed in the highest risk box...
2018: BioMed Research International
Toshihiro Fukui
Background: Both acute aortic dissection and ruptured aortic aneurysm are leading causes of death in cardiovascular disease. These life-threatening conditions have recently been categorized as acute aortic syndrome. This review describes the etiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic options for acute aortic syndrome including acute aortic dissection and ruptured aortic aneurysm. Main body: Several diagnostic tools for detecting these critical conditions have been developed including computed tomography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and laboratory tests...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
John S Ho, John J Cannaday, Shannon J FitzGerald, David Leonard, Carrie E Finley, Wendy A Wade, Dale B Reinhardt, Joe R Ellis, Carolyn E Barlow, William L Haskell, Laura F Defina, Larry W Gibbons, Kenneth H Cooper
Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when adjusted for traditional risk factors. Mechanisms by which fitness reduces risk have been studied but remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that higher fitness is associated with larger coronary artery diameters independent of its effect on traditional risk factors. Two independent measurements of the proximal diameters of the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries were obtained from gated multidetector computed tomography scans in 500 men from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study (CCLS)...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Joel T Zelt, Joshua H Jones, Daniel M Hirai, Trevor J King, Danilo C Berton, Kyra E Pyke, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases play a major role in morbidity and mortality in the earlier stages of COPD. We hypothesized that systemic vascular dysfunction would be present even in patients who are currently considered at "low-risk" for negative cardiovascular outcomes, i.e., those with largely preserved FEV1 , few exacerbations and only mild burden of respiratory symptoms (GOLD spirometric grade 1, clinical group A). METHODS: 16 patients (FEV1  = 86 ± 13%) and 16 age- and gender-matched controls underwent measurements of: a) central arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity, b) brachial flow-mediated dilation and c) forearm muscle oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Anand Jeevarethinam, Shreenidhi Venuraju, Alain Dumo, Sherezade Ruano, Miranda Rosenthal, Devaki Nair, Mark Cohen, Daniel Darko, Avijit Lahiri, Roby Rakhit
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement and carotid plaque detection by B-mode ultrasound are frequently used as surrogates to predict coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their systematic use in routine clinical management of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has not been studied. The aim of the study was to identify carotid parameters that predict cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic type 2 DM by evaluating the relation between carotid disease and CAD. This multicenter, observational, prospective study included 259 asymptomatic patients with type 2 DM followed-up for 34 months after measurement of CIMT and carotid plaque with carotid ultrasound, and CAD assessment with computed tomography coronary angiography...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Minyoung Lee, Haeri Baek, Jong Suk Park, Sohee Kim, Chanhee Kyung, Su Jung Baik, Byoung Kwon Lee, Jie-Hyun Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Shinae Kang
Helicobacter pylori is a gastrointestinal pathogen known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most analyses about the effect of H. pylori infection have been done in patients with a history of CVD but not in healthy subjects. We evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and subclinical atherosclerosis by using cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in healthy subjects without previous CVD. From December 2007 to February 2014, 463 subjects who underwent the rapid urease test (CLO test), pulse-wave velocity (PWV) measurement, and MDCT for a self-referred health check-up were enrolled to this study...
2018: PloS One
Kaartiga Sivanesan, Subhi J Al'Aref, James K Min, Jessica M Peña, Fay Lin, Erica C Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men around the world. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully capture cardiac risk in women. This review summarizes sex-based differences in the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and risk assessment of ischemic heart disease. We also examine the use of anatomic and functional imaging modalities in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies with women subjects have bolstered the predictive value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and major adverse cardiac events in a graded fashion...
March 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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