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Kendra L Bauer, James C Steeil, Elizabeth A Adkins, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan, Kenton L Kerns, Steven J Sarro, Kali A Holder
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Mahwish Aftab, Iram Amin, Muhammad Idrees, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Shagufta Naz
OBJECTIVES: HBV and HDV are major public health problems with millions affected globally and Pakistan accounts for a significant proportion of the global Hepatitis burden. This cross sectional study was designed to assess the general epidemiological and virological features of HBV and HDV in the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KP) provinces of Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 1890 HBV patients from March 2016 to May 2017 were recruited in the study and the presence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all participants...
June 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Chun Kuen Mak, Ching Yang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Victor Fei Pang, Kuang-Sheng Yeh
An outbreak of reproductive failure in a pig farm in Taiwan was investigated. Coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was diagnosed in a stillborn pig by histopathology, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, and should be considered as a cause of reproductive failure.
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Daniel J Ruzicka, Kentaro Imai, Kenichi Takahashi, Toshio Naito
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of chronic comorbidities and the use of comedications in people living with HIV (PLWH) and on antiretrovirals in Japan, by using a hospital claims database. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: A hospital claims database of Japanese hospitals that have advanced medical treatment capabilities (ie, advanced treatment hospitals, general hospitals, acute care hospitals), which include those providing acute and chronic care (excluding nursing homes or hospices)...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Thirunavukkarasu Prasanna, Kathiresan Jeyashree, Palanivel Chinnakali, Yogesh Bahurupi, Kavita Vasudevan, Mrinalini Das
BACKGROUND: The average expenditure incurred by patients in low- and middle-income countries towards diagnosis and treatment of TB ranges from $55 to $8198. This out-of-pocket expenditure leads to impoverishment of households. One of the three main targets of the End TB Strategy (2016-2035) is that no TB-affected household suffers catastrophic costs due to TB. Study setting was free care under national tuberculosis program (NTP), Puducherry district, India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were among the newly diagnosed and previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients, to (a) estimate patient costs during diagnosis and intensive phase of treatment, (b) determine the proportion of households experiencing catastrophic costs, and (c) explore coping strategies...
2018: Global Health Action
Melanie R Nicol, Joseph A Corbino, Mackenzie L Cottrell
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less forgiveness for missed doses in women exposed through genital tissue compared to people exposed through colorectal tissue...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A Provoost, M Dramé, L Cotte, L Cuzin, R Garraffo, D Rey, F Raffi, I Poizot-Martin, P Pugliese, F Bani-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been reportedly associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) but results are conflicting. AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between chronic HCV and the incidence of DM, and to study the role of factors such as cirrhosis, IFN-based HCV therapy, sustained virologic response (SVR) and chronic HBV infection among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) followed in a large French multicentre cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yoseph Worku, Tewodros Getinet, Shikur Mohammed, Zhenhua Yang
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) programs should design intervention strategies based on the sound knowledge of the existing local epidemiology and sociodemographic characteristics of drug-resistant-TB (DR-TB) cases. The aim of the study was to characterize the pulmonary multidrug-resistant (MDR) and rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB cases enrolled in a referral hospital at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, called All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis, Rehabilitation and Training (ALERT) Hospital. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study based on retrospective review of medical records of 340 pulmonary MDR/RR-TB cases enrolled in ALERT Hospital from November 2011 to December 2016...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Andrea Giacomelli, Stefano Rusconi, Felicia Stefania Falvella, Maria Letizia Oreni, Dario Cattaneo, Valeria Cozzi, Giulia Renisi, Elisa Monge, Stefania Cheli, Emilio Clementi, Agostino Riva, Massimo Galli, Anna Lisa Ridolfo
Background: Only few data are available on the influence of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/A5 polymorphisms on nevirapine plasma concentrations in the Caucasian population. Our aim was to assess the impact of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/A5 polymorphisms on nevirapine plasma concentrations consecutively collected. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of all HIV-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan between January 2000 and December 2015...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Elaine Waite de Souza, Cintia de Moraes Borba, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Ingeborg Maria Langohr, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Camila Rocha da Cunha, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Luisa Helena Monteiro de Miranda, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes
Zoonotic sporotrichosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis is usually severe in cats. This study investigated the associations between clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and response to itraconazole in cats with sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. Fifty-two cats with skin lesions and a definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis were treated with itraconazole for a maximum period of 36 weeks. The animals were submitted to clinical examination and two subsequent collections of samples from the same skin lesion for fungal diagnosis and histopathology, as well as serology for feline immunodeficiency (FIV) and leukaemia (FeLV) viruses...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcio Roberto Silva, Adalgiza da Silva Rocha, Flábio Ribeiro Araújo, Antônio Augusto Fonseca-Júnior, Andrea Padilha de Alencar, Philip Noel Suffys, Ronaldo Rodrigues da Costa, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified human zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis as a neglected issue in the developing world. In a recent cross-sectional study in Brazil, three of 189 TB patients presented with a coinfection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and were selected as cases for this study. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate risk factors (RF) for zoonotic TB in an urban area of Brazil in order to guide preventive programmes...
June 11, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Adela Ngwewondo, Meng Wang, Faustin Pascal T Manfo, Moses Samje, Jessie N'kam Ganin's, Emmanuel Ndi, Raymond J Andersen, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is the only drug currently recommended for the treatment of onchocerciasis, the second leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. This drug kills only the first stage larvae-microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and is to be used cautiously in areas where Loa loa is prevalent because of severe adverse events observed with coinfected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the anti-filarial activities of two Cameroonian medicinal plants, Lantana camara and Tamarindus indica locally used to treat onchocerciasis...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chun-Hong Du, Hong-Bo Liu, Ran Wei, Frans Jongejan, Zi-Hou Gao, Zong-Ti Shao, Xing-De Duan, Bao-Gui Jiang, Yun-Xi Liu, Jia-Fu Jiang, Na Jia, Wu-Chun Cao
BACKGROUND: Rare investigation on tick-borne pathogens was carried out in Yunnan, China. In this study, we did a survey on Ehrlichia infection in small mammals and ticks. A total of 40 small mammals and 49 ticks were collected from Tengchong, Yunnan province. PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), citrate synthase, GroEL heat-shock protein operon, and major outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: The 40 small mammals were identified as 10 species, 2 (5...
June 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kelsey D Wilson, Dirk M Elston
Ixodes ticks are important vectors in the transmission of human disease. In endemic areas, infection with multiple tick-borne diseases may occur. In part 3 of this review, identification and management of coinfection with multiple pathogens is discussed. Methods of tick-bite prevention and tick removal also are discussed.
May 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Adrienne G Randolph, Ruifei Xu, Tanya Novak, Margaret M Newhams, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Scott L Weiss, Ronald C Sanders, Neal J Thomas, Mark W Hall, Keiko M Tarquinio, Natalie Cvijanovich, Rainer G Gedeit, Edward J Truemper, Barry Markovitz, Mary E Hartman, Kate G Ackerman, John S Giuliano, Steven L Shein, Kristin Moffitt
Background: Respiratory coinfection with influenza virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia in children. Sporadic incidence precludes evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children with influenza-MRSA respiratory coinfection and evaluated antibiotic use. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children (<18 years) with influenza infection and acute respiratory failure across 34 pediatric intensive care units Nov 2008 to May 2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lieze Oscar Rouffaer, Mieke Steensels, Marc Verlinden, Muriel Vervaeke, Roschong Boonyarittichaikij, An Martel, Bénédicte Lambrecht
At the end of the summer of 2016, unusually high levels of mortality were detected in Passeriformes and Strigiformes in Flanders, Belgium, mainly in European Blackbirds ( Turdus merula). A passive surveillance program demonstrated a widespread Usutu virus outbreak and revealed a coinfection with Plasmodium in 99% of the dead passerine birds that were necropsied.
June 11, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Gunnar Lewon Lutterkort, Anika Wranke, Julia Hengst, Cihan Yurdaydin, Judith Stift, Birgit Bremer, Svenja Hardtke, Onur Keskin, Ramazan Idilman, Michael P Manns, Hans Peter Dienes, Christine Falk, Heiner Wedemeyer, Benjamin Heidrich
Chronic hepatitis D is caused by coinfection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus. While HDV is the dominant virus over HBV in the majority of cases, mechanisms and consequences of viral dominances are largely unknown. We aimed to investigate associations between viral dominance patterns and patients' characteristics and inflammatory features. 109 HDV patients treated with PEG-IFNa-2a within the international multicentre, prospective HIDIT-2 trial were studied. Patients were classified as D- or B-dominant if the viral load of one virus exceeded that of the other virus by more than 1log10 ...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Marco Ligozzi, Liliana Galia, Maria Carelli, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Erica Diani, Davide Gibellini
In this study, we describe a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of KIPyV and WUPyV polyomaviruses based on TaqMan probes. This assay detected 500 copies/mL both for KIPyV and WUPyV in 100% of tested positive samples. We assessed this technique on 482 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from hospitalized pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms, previously analyzed with commercial multiplex assay for 16 major respiratory viruses. Our assay detected KIPyV genome in 15 out of 482 samples (3...
June 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Haitham H Mohammed, Eric Peatman
Unusual persistent natural mortality occurred in a floating in-pond raceway system intensively stocked with channel and hybrid catfish beginning in early November 2016 up until March 2017. The temperature during the period of outbreak ranged from 7.2 to 23.7°C. Gross examination of freshly dead and moribund fish revealed pale gills, slight abdominal distension and swollen inflamed vents. Comprehensive necropsy of 20 fish demonstrated vast amounts of bloody ascitic fluid in the coelomic cavity, visceral congestion, splenomegaly and pale friable livers but macroscopically normal kidneys, suggesting systemic bacterial infection...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
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