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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633630/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-taiwan-2015-2016-observations-from-a-tertiary-medical-center
#1
Nan-Yu Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Shian-Sen Shie, Tsung-Hsing Chen, Ting-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis A is a fecal-oral transmitted disease related to inadequate sanitary conditions. In addition to its traditional classification, several outbreaks in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population have resulted in acute hepatitis A being recognized as a sexually transmitted disease. However, few studies have clarified the clinical manifestations in these outbreaks involving the MSM population. METHODS: Beginning in June 2015, there was an outbreak of acute hepatitis A involving the MSM population in Northern Taiwan...
June 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631705/-vaccination-in-rheumatology-evolution-of-views-on-the-problem
#2
B S Belov, M S Sergeeva, G M Tarasova, D V Bukhanova
The problem of coinfections that are due to both a rheumatic disease (RD) itself and the need to use immunosuppressive drugs deserves apparent attention in modern rheumatology. Coinfections substantially affect morbidity and mortality rates, especially in diffuse connective tissue diseases. The data available in the literature on the above subject matter suggest that vaccination is a powerful method for prevention of infectious diseases that are the most important problem for patients with RD.
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628366/culex-flavivirus-during-west-nile-virus-epidemic-and-interepidemic-years-in-chicago-united-states
#3
Christina M Newman, Bethany L Krebs, Tavis K Anderson, Gabriel L Hamer, Marilyn O Ruiz, Jeffrey D Brawn, William M Brown, Uriel D Kitron, Tony L Goldberg
Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628016/-antiretroviral-therapy-and-the-risk-of-liver-fibrosis-progression-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#4
M Arystanbekova, I Balmasova, E Malova, R Sepiashvili
The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the development of liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), depending on the order of pathogens acquisition. The fact is that the HIV/HCV coinfection is one of the most common pathological conditions worldwide and liver disease is a major cause of death for these patients. We have previously described the phenomenon, according to which the order of viral pathogens acquisition in HIV/HCV coinfected patients has a significant impact on the degree of progression of liver fibrosis...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623531/elevated-serum-beta-d-glucan-with-pseudomonas-aspergillus-and-a-partially-acid-fast-organism-in-respiratory-cultures-a-case-of-hickam-s-dictum-over-occam-s-razor
#5
Salman Khan, Camille Hamula, Meenakshi Rana, Timothy Sullivan, Dallas Dunn, Pinki Patel, Aaron Mishkin, Shirish Huprikar
We describe a case of a man with ectopic Cushing's syndrome, elevated serum beta-D-glucan, and respiratory cultures with Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, and a partially acid-fast organism. Our case highlights challenges in diagnosis and management of coinfection in an immunocompromised host.
June 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622951/population-approach-to-efavirenz-therapy
#6
Hélder Duarte, João Paulo Cruz, Natália Aniceto, Ana Clara Ribeiro, Ana Fernandes, Paulo Paixão, Francisco Antunes, José Morais
Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor commonly used as first line therapy in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, with a narrow therapeutic range and a high between-subject variability which can lead to central nervous system toxicity or therapeutic failure. To characterize the sources of variability and better predict EFV steady state plasma concentrations, a population pharmacokinetic model was developed form 96 HIV positive individuals, using a nonlinear mixed effect method with Monolix® software...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622640/clinical-course-and-core-variability-in-hbv-infected-patients-without-detectable-anti-hbc-antibodies
#7
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Jens Verheyen, Johannes Korth, Guido Gerken, Fabian A Helfritz, Ali Canbay, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek
BACKGROUND: The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN: From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative for anti-HBc. The absence of anti-HBc could be confirmed in 19 patients using an alternative assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619168/comparison-of-asian-porcine-high-fever-disease-isolates-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-to-united-states-isolates-for-their-ability-to-cause-disease-and-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-swine
#8
Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving, Mitchel V Palmer, Allyn Spear, Tracy L Nicholson, Kay S Faaberg, Kelly M Lager
Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isolates of PRRSV predispose to secondary bacterial infections as well, but the severity of disease that occurred in Asia in pigs infected with these HP-PRRSV strains has not been reported in the U.S. The objectives of this research were to compare the pathogenesis of Asian and U...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618152/potential-risk-of-hbv-reactivation-in-patients-with-resolved-hbv-infection-undergoing-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-for-hcv
#9
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Masayuki Murata, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Takeo Hayashi, Kazuya Ura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite a known risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HBV coinfection, it remains unclear whether patients with past HBV infection are at risk for reactivation. This study evaluated the risk of HBV reactivation during treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens, focusing on patients with resolved HBV infection. METHODS: This study analyzes the data of 183 consecutive patients treated with SOF-based regimens...
June 15, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617855/stroke-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-and-without-hcv-coinfection-in-spain-in-the-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#10
Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Juan Berenguer, Asunción Díaz, Dariela Micheloud, Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarría, Chiara Fanciulli, Salvador Resino
The incidence of stroke in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been well analyzed in recent epidemiological studies. However, little is known about the specific contribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to stroke among HIV-infected individuals. The aims of this study were to analyze trends in the incidence rates of stroke in HIV-infected individuals during the combination antiretroviral (cART) era in Spain and to categorize them by the presence or absence of HCV coinfection. We analyzed hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke in Spain according to ICD-9-CM during 1997-2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616719/are-partner-race-and-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-incident-and-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-in-african-american-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Matthew R Beymer, Nina T Harawa, Robert E Weiss, Chelsea L Shover, Brian R Toynes, Steven Meanley, Robert K Bolan
Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience a disparate rate of HIV infections among MSM. Previous analyses have determined that STI coinfection and undiagnosed HIV infection partly explain the disparity. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of partner-level variables on HIV incidence among BMSM. Data were analyzed for BMSM who attended the Los Angeles LGBT Center from August 2011 to July 2015 (n = 1974) to identify risk factors for HIV infection. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors for HIV prevalence among all individuals at first test (n = 1974; entire sample)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616444/incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-outpatient-study-cohort-2000-2013
#12
Taraz Samandari, Ellen Tedaldi, Carl Armon, Rachel Hart, Joan S Chmiel, John T Brooks, Kate Buchacz
BACKGROUND: There are few recent studies of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the United States. METHODS: We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen in 9 HIV-specialty clinics who had ≥1 clinical encounter during 2000-2013 and ≥2 HCV-related tests, the first of which was a negative HCV antibody test (Ab). Hepatitis C virus incident cases were identified by first positive HCV Ab, viral load, or genotype...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616442/human-coronavirus-hku1-infection-among-adults-in-cleveland-ohio
#13
Anubhav Kanwar, Suresh Selvaraju, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (CoV) have been long recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract disease including severe respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus-HKU1 has been described predominantly among children less than 5 years of age in the United States with few studies characterizing the disease spectrum among adults. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens of patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for CoV-HKU1 by NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel multiplex assay from February 7, 2016 to April 30, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615935/serum-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-clinical-outcomes-of-copd-exacerbation-caused-by-different-pathogens
#14
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Apitch Apiwattanaporn, Warisara Siricharoonwong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD exacerbation is characterized by worsening of symptoms, warranting change in treatment. Systemic and airway inflammation play roles in the pathogenesis of COPD exacerbation. We hypothesized whether increased serum inflammatory biomarkers are associated with the clinical outcomes of COPD exacerbation caused by different infectious pathogens. METHODS: COPD patients with exacerbation were recruited from a hospital emergency department during 2014-2015...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614446/-factors-associated-with-tb-hiv-coinfection-evidence-from-notification-data-in-the-state-of-amazonas-brazil-2001-2012
#15
Evela da Silva Magno, Valeria Saraceni, Alexandra Brito de Souza, Regma da Silva Magno, Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva, Samira Bührer-Sékula
Tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) is the leading infectious cause of AIDS-related death. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection, evaluate notification of the two diseases over time by probabilistic database linkage, and identify factors associated with AIDS and TB notifications. Prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was 7.7%. The group of PLHIV with subsequent TB diagnosis was the most representative, despite available preventive measures. Underreporting of TB among AIDS cases was 35%, and 19...
June 12, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614401/hepatitis-b-testing-and-treatment-in-hiv-patients-in-the-gambia-compliance-with-international-guidelines-and-clinical-outcomes
#16
Gibril Ndow, Mindy L Gore, Yusuke Shimakawa, Penda Suso, Abdoulie Jatta, Saydiba Tamba, Amina Sow, Coumba Touré-Kane, Fouzia Sadiq, Saihou Sabally, Ramou Njie, Mark R Thursz, Maud Lemoine
BACKGROUND: Compliance with WHO guidelines on HBV screening and treatment in HIV-coinfected patients is often challenging in resource limited countries and has been poorly assessed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, we assessed physician's compliance with WHO guidelines on HIV-HBV coinfection in the largest HIV clinic in The Gambia, and the hepatic outcomes in HIV-HBV coinfected patients as compared to randomly selected HIV-monoinfected controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614382/genome-wide-transposon-mutagenesis-of-proteus-mirabilis-essential-genes-fitness-factors-for-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-and-the-impact-of-polymicrobial-infection-on-fitness-requirements
#17
Chelsie E Armbruster, Valerie Forsyth-DeOrnellas, Alexandra O Johnson, Sara N Smith, Lili Zhao, Weisheng Wu, Harry L T Mobley
The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611341/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-d-virus-in-saudi-arabia-a-single-center-study
#19
Ghazi A Jamjoom, Mai M El-Daly, Esam I Azhar, Hind I Fallatah, Hisham O Akbar, Mohammed Babatin, Abdullah S Alghamdi, Mohammed I Dgdgi, Mohamed A Hamid, Yousef A Qari, Sherif A El-Kafrawy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that is dependent on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for transmission and replication. HDV significance arises from the possibility of poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In Saudi Arabia, HDV prevalence varied from 8 to 32% before the HBV vaccination program and ranged from 0 to 14.7% after the vaccination program was started. The last study, performed in 2004, showed a prevalence of 8.6% in hospital-based HBV cases and 3...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610939/outcome-of-challenging-hiv-case-consultations-provided-via-teleconference-by-the-clinician-consultation-center-to-the-federal-bureau-of-prisons
#20
Betty J Dong, Michelle R Williams, J Tyler Bingham, Jason Tokumoto, Jeffery D Allen
OBJECTIVES: To describe the collaboration and prospective outcome of challenging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases presented by Board of Prisons (BOP) pharmacists in consultation with Clinician Consultation Center (CCC) clinical pharmacists and physicians to improve correctional patient care. SETTING: Federal correctional facilities. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Pharmacists improve care of incarcerated persons infected with HIV. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacists evaluate, implement, and provide successful oversight of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) care...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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