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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719492/fifty-men-3510-marathons-cardiac-risk-factors-and-coronary-artery-calcium-scores
#1
William O Roberts, Robert S Schwartz, Ross F Garberich, Samantha Carlson, Thomas Knickelbine, Jonathan G Schwartz, Gretchen Peichel, John R Lesser, Kelly Wickstrom, Kevin M Harris
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Many male marathon runners have elevated coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores despite high physical activity. We examined the association between CAC scores, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle habits in long term marathoners. METHODS: We recruited men who had run ≥1 marathon annually for 25 consecutive years. CAC was assessed using coronary computed tomography angiography. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk factors were measured with a 12-lead ECG, serum lipid panel, height, weight, resting blood pressure and heart rate, and a risk factor questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718091/nutritional-and-micronutrient-care-of-bariatric-surgery-patients-current-evidence-update
#2
REVIEW
Michael A Via, Jeffrey I Mechanick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The continued success of bariatric surgery to treat obesity and obesity-associated metabolic conditions creates a need for a strong understanding of clinical nutrition both before and after these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgically induced alteration of gastrointestinal physiology can affect the nutrition of individuals, especially among those who have undergone malabsorptive procedures. While uncommon, a subset of patients may develop protein-calorie malnutrition...
July 17, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718057/immobilized-enzymes-from-geotrichum-spp-improve-wine-quality
#3
Yao Lu, Jing Zhu, Junling Shi, Yanlin Liu, Dongyan Shao, Chunmei Jiang
Higher alcohols are the byproducts of yeasts in alcohol fermentation and are harmful to human health at high concentrations. In this study, immobilized crude enzymes extracted from Geotrichum spp. strains S12 and S13 were separately employed to treat red wine, then GC and GC-MS analyses were used to determine the profiles of volatile compounds in untreated and treated wine samples. Immobilized enzymes from S13 (SA-S13E) were more active in decreasing higher alcohols than enzymes from S12. Conditions for preparing SA-S13E were optimized, and best results were obtained at a sodium alginate concentration of 35 g/L, calcium chloride of 20 g/L, and crude enzyme dosage of 3 mL...
July 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717175/snake-venom-vegf-vammin-induces-a-highly-efficient-angiogenic-response-in-skeletal-muscle-via-vegfr-2-nrp-specific-signaling
#4
Pyry I Toivanen, Tiina Nieminen, Johanna P Laakkonen, Tommi Heikura, Minna U Kaikkonen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are promising molecules for the treatment of ischemic diseases by pro-angiogenic therapy. Snake venom VEGFs are a novel subgroup with unique receptor binding profiles and as such are potential new therapeutic agents. We determined the ligand-receptor interactions, gene regulation and angiogenic properties of Vipera ammodytes venom VEGF, Vammin, and compared it to the canonical angiogenic factor VEGF-A to evaluate the use of Vammin for therapeutic angiogenesis. Vammin efficiently induced VEGFR-2 mediated proliferation and expression of genes associated with proliferation, migration and angiogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716924/insights-into-the-red-algae-and-eukaryotic-evolution-from-the-genome-of-porphyra-umbilicalis-bangiophyceae-rhodophyta
#5
Susan H Brawley, Nicolas A Blouin, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Glen L Wheeler, Martin Lohr, Holly V Goodson, Jerry W Jenkins, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Katherine E Helliwell, Cheong Xin Chan, Tara N Marriage, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anita S Klein, Yacine Badis, Juliet Brodie, Yuanyu Cao, Jonas Collén, Simon M Dittami, Claire M M Gachon, Beverley R Green, Steven J Karpowicz, Jay W Kim, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, Senjie Lin, Gurvan Michel, Maria Mittag, Bradley J S C Olson, Jasmyn L Pangilinan, Yi Peng, Huan Qiu, Shengqiang Shu, John T Singer, Alison G Smith, Brittany N Sprecher, Volker Wagner, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Juying Yan, Charles Yarish, Simone Zäuner-Riek, Yunyun Zhuang, Yong Zou, Erika A Lindquist, Jane Grimwood, Kerrie W Barry, Daniel S Rokhsar, Jeremy Schmutz, John W Stiller, Arthur R Grossman, Simon E Prochnik
Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715881/comparison-of-bone-metabolism-based-on-the-different-ages-and-competition-levels-of-junior-and-high-school-female-rhythmic-gymnasts
#6
Taewoong Oh, Tatsuki Naka
PURPOSE: This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. METHODS: The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715143/repetitive-short-span-application-of-extracellular-calcium-is-osteopromotive-to-osteoprogenitor-cells
#7
Hyungjin Jung, Thomas Mbimba, Mustafa Unal, Ozan Akkus
Extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]E ) concentration has been suggested to stimulate osteoblastic activity; thus, calcium can be used to enhance fracture healing. However, systemic administration of calcium at high dose levels may cause physiological problems such as hypercalcemia. Short span application of single or repetitive [Ca(2+) ]E stimulus may be suggested as a novel regimen to reduce such side effects. However, osteopromotive effect of such short term [Ca(2+) ]E stimulus on osteoprogenitor cells has not yet been evaluated yet...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714864/an-erythroid-specific-atp2b4-enhancer-mediates-red-blood-cell-hydration-and-malaria-susceptibility
#8
Samuel Lessard, Emily Stern Gatof, Mélissa Beaudoin, Patrick G Schupp, Falak Sher, Adnan Ali, Sukhpal Prehar, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Esther Baena, Jonathan Ledoux, Delvac Oceandy, Daniel E Bauer, Guillaume Lettre
The lack of mechanistic explanations for many genotype-phenotype associations identified by GWAS precludes thorough assessment of their impact on human health. Here, we conducted an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping analysis in erythroblasts and found erythroid-specific eQTLs for ATP2B4, the main calcium ATPase of red blood cells (rbc). The same SNPs were previously associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and susceptibility to severe malaria infection. We showed that Atp2b4-/- mice demonstrate increased MCHC, confirming ATP2B4 as the causal gene at this GWAS locus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713798/incidence-and-severity-of-prescribing-errors-in-parenteral-nutrition-for-pediatric-inpatients-at-a-neonatal-and-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#9
Theresa Hermanspann, Mark Schoberer, Eva Robel-Tillig, Christoph Härtel, Rangmar Goelz, Thorsten Orlikowsky, Albrecht Eisert
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric inpatients are particularly vulnerable to medication errors (MEs), especially in highly individualized preparations like parenteral nutrition (PN). Aside from prescribing via a computerized physician order entry system (CPOE), we evaluated the effect of cross-checking by a clinical pharmacist to prevent harm from PN order errors in a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU). METHODS: The incidence of prescribing errors in PN in a tertiary level NICU/PICU was surveyed prospectively between March 2012 and July 2013 (n = 3,012 orders)...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712570/electron-microscopic-reconstruction-of-functionally-identified-cells-in-a-neural-integrator
#10
Ashwin Vishwanathan, Kayvon Daie, Alexandro D Ramirez, Jeff W Lichtman, Emre R F Aksay, H Sebastian Seung
Neural integrators are involved in a variety of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviors. The oculomotor system contains a simple example, a hindbrain neural circuit that takes velocity signals as inputs and temporally integrates them to control eye position. Here we investigated the structural underpinnings of temporal integration in the larval zebrafish by first identifying integrator neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and then reconstructing the same neurons through serial electron microscopic analysis...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712326/calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-as-a-new-generation-vaccine-adjuvant
#11
Yahua Lin, Xin Wang, Xiaofen Huang, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Adjuvants are essential components in vaccine formulations to induce robust immunity against pathogens. The most widely used adjuvants in human vaccines are aluminum salts, that can effectively elicit a T helper type-2 (Th2)-biased humoral immune response for producing a high antibody titer but with a limited cellular immune response. Biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-NPs) with tunable characteristics have potentials to function as adjuvants for inducing more balanced T helper type-1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712055/potential-of-casein-as-a-carrier-for-biologically-active-agents
#12
REVIEW
Tomasz Konrad Głąb, Janusz Boratyński
Casein is the collective name for a family of milk proteins. In bovine milk, casein comprises four peptides: αS1, αS2, β, and κ, differing in their amino acid, phosphorus and carbohydrate content but similar in their amphiphilic character. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of casein show block distribution in the protein chain. Casein peptides carry negative charge on their surface as a result of phosphorylation and tend to bind nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Due to these properties, in suitable conditions, casein molecules agglomerate into spherical micelles...
August 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711905/the-prevalence-subtypes-and-associated-factors-of-hyperuricemia-in-lupus-nephritis-patients-at-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-1-3
#13
Simeng Liu, Yijun Gong, Hong Ren, Wen Zhang, Xiaonong Chen, Tong Zhou, Xiao Li, Nan Chen
There is a high prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. However, there's a dearth of research on HUA's prevalence, subtypes, early detection, and treatment strategies of HUA in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. The aim of this study is to address these knowledge gaps. LN patients presenting to the Department of Nephrology at Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital from January 2011 to January 2016 were recruited. The effective sample size was derived using the power analysis. The demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the LN patients with HUA were compared with those of patients without HUA...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711685/misunderstandings-and-controversies-about-the-insulin-secreting-properties-of-antidiabetic-sulfonylureas
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Claude Henquin
After 60 years of use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic sulfonylureas remain a recommended option in current therapeutic charts. Their binding to sulfonylurea receptor-1, the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the plasma membrane of pancreatic β-cells, leads to closure of the channels, membrane depolarization and influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) triggers exocytosis of insulin granules. Sulfonylureas and glucose thus produce the same triggering signal but, unlike sulfonylureas, glucose does so via acceleration of β-cell metabolism...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711257/seasonal-and-maternal-effects-on-acid-base-l-lactate-electrolyte-and-hematological-status-of-205-dairy-calves-born-to-eutocic-dams
#15
L Kovács, F L Kézér, E Albert, F Ruff, O Szenci
In this study, we used linear mixed models to determine the effects of season, time of sampling relative to birth (factors), duration of the delivery process, duration of maternal grooming, calf body weight (BW) at birth, and time of day (covariates) on values of venous blood gas, acid-base and electrolyte parameters, and l-lactate concentrations in dairy calves born to eutocic dams in summer (SUM, n = 101) and winter (WIN, n = 104). Neonatal vitality was assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after delivery in a linear scoring system using muscle tone, erection of the head, muscle reflexes, heart rate, and sucking drive as criteria...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711248/the-effect-of-source-of-supplemental-dietary-calcium-and-magnesium-in-the-peripartum-period-and-level-of-dietary-magnesium-postpartum-on-mineral-status-performance-and-energy-metabolites-in-multiparous-holstein-cows
#16
B M Leno, S E LaCount, C M Ryan, D Briggs, M Crombie, T R Overton
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding different supplemental sources of Ca and Mg in the peripartum period, and different dietary levels of Mg postpartum, on plasma mineral status, performance, and aspects of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 41) were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments starting at 28 d before expected parturition. Main effects were source assignments (CS = common sources of supplemental Ca and Mg, or MA = a blend of common and commercial mineral sources with supplemental minerals primarily from a commercial Ca-Mg dolomite source; MIN-AD, Papillon Agricultural Company Inc...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710984/aggregation-behavior-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-municipal-effluent-influence-of-ionic-strengthen-and-organic-compounds
#17
Meijie Ren, Harald Horn, Fritz H Frimmel
The influence of ionic strengthen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in municipal effluent was investigated. The results demonstrated that DOM promoted the mobility of NPs in aquatic system by synergism between static repulsion and steric effect, while electrolytes were opposite by charge-neutralization. The physical-chemical characteristics of DOM played the major role on the mobility of NPs. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed the strongest enhancement on the mobility of TiO2 NPs...
July 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710871/detection-and-quantification-of-coronary-calcium-from-dual-energy-chest-x-rays-phantom-feasibility-study
#18
Bo Zhou, Di Wen, Katelyn Nye, Robert C Gilkeson, Brendan Eck, David Jordan, David L Wilson
PURPOSE: We have demonstrated the ability to identify coronary calcium, a reliable biomarker of coronary artery disease, using non-gated, 2-shot, dual energy (DE) chest x-ray imaging. Here we will use digital simulations, backed up by measurements, to characterize DE calcium signals and the role of potential confounds such as beam hardening, x-ray scatter, cardiac motion, and pulmonary artery pulsation. For the DE calcium signal, we will consider quantification, as compared to CT calcium score, and visualization...
July 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710526/exposure-effects-and-absorption-of-lead-in-american-woodcock-scolopax-minor-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Amanda D French, Warren C Conway, Jaclyn E Cañas-Carrell, David M Klein
Due to long term declines of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) and widespread distribution of environmentally available lead (Pb) throughout their geographic range, it is important to assess if Pb exposure is a potential contributor to these declines. Woodcock are exposed to Pb through various environmental sources and are known to exhibit relatively high bone-Pb concentrations. Absorption of Pb by birds, and woodcock specifically, is not well understood. Some studies show that interactions among calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and vitamin D levels may play an important role in Pb absorption...
July 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709993/intracellular-calcium-release-through-ip3r-or-ryr-contributes-to-secondary-axonal-degeneration
#20
Ben C Orem, Nicolas Pelisch, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Severed CNS axons often retract or dieback away from the injury site and fail to regenerate. The precise mechanisms underlying acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of Ca(2+) store mediated intra-axonal Ca(2+) release in acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration. To differentiate between primary (directly transected) and "bystander" axonal injury (axons spared by the initial injury but then succumb to secondary degeneration) in real-time we use our previously published highly focal laser-induced spinal cord injury (LiSCI) ex vivo model...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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