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Analgesic combination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230181/dezocine-exhibits-antihypersensitivity-activities-in-neuropathy-through-spinal-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-activation-and-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibition
#1
Yong-Xiang Wang, Xiao-Fang Mao, Teng-Fei Li, Nian Gong, Ma-Zhong Zhang
Dezocine is the number one opioid painkiller prescribed and sold in China, occupying 44% of the nation's opioid analgesics market today and far ahead of the gold-standard morphine. We discovered the mechanisms underlying dezocine antihypersensitivity activity and assessed their implications to antihypersensitivity tolerance. Dezocine, given subcutaneously in spinal nerve-ligated neuropathic rats, time- and dose-dependently produced mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia, significantly increased ipsilateral spinal norepinephrine and serotonin levels, and induced less antiallodynic tolerance than morphine...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229140/partitioning-of-caffeine-in-lipid-bilayers-reduces-membrane-fluidity-and-increases-membrane-thickness
#2
Adree Khondker, Alexander Dhaliwal, Richard J Alsop, Jennifer Tang, Matilda Backholm, An-Chang Shi, Maikel C Rheinstädter
Caffeine is a small amphiphilic molecule, which is widely consumed as a stimulant to prevent fatigue, but is also used as a common drug adjuvant in modern medicine. Here, we show that caffeine interacts with unsaturated lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). By combining X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, we present evidence that caffeine partitions in lipid membranes and locates at the head group-tail group interface of the bilayers. By attracting water molecules from neighboring lipid molecules, it leads to the formation of "water pockets", i...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229071/bilateral-vertebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-causing-cervical-spinal-cord-compression-in-a-dog
#3
Kathryn E Rhue, Amanda R Taylor, Robert C Cole, Randolph L Winter
A 10-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog was evaluated for cervical hyperesthesia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spinal cord identified an extradural compressive lesion over the body of C2 caused by marked dilation of the vertebral venous sinuses. Following intravenous contrast administration both vertebral sinuses had heterogeneous contrast enhancement consistent with incomplete thrombi formation. An abdominal ultrasound also showed a distal aortic thrombus. A definitive cause for the thrombi formation was not identified, but the patient had several predisposing factors which may have contributed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217052/topical-versus-caudal-ketamine-bupivacaine-combination-for-postoperative-analgesia-in-children-undergoing-inguinal-herniotomy
#4
Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar, Seham Mohamed Moeen, Ahmed Mohamed Moeen
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies claim that caudal administration of ketamine causes effective postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of ketamine after caudal or topical administration in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, comparative, double-blind study included eighty children (aged 6 months to 6 years) received either 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg for caudal analgesia (caudal group) or 0...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213817/breakthrough-cancer-pain-and-rational-drug-use
#5
Juan Manuel Núñez Olarte
Recent data indicate that there are large disparities in the use of opioid analgesics to control breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in Europe and worldwide. While it is clear that affordability is a key factor, it is certainly not the only one, and other factors, such as cultural differences and overall awareness, are undoubtedly responsible. More work remains to be done to overcome barriers in the use of these medications when warranted. When prescribing a medication for BTcP, it must be considered that its time profile is different from chronic persistent pain...
February 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212146/multimodal-analgesia-for-acute-postoperative-and-trauma-related-pain
#6
Rosemary C Polomano, Mechele Fillman, Nicholas A Giordano, April Hazard Vallerand, Kelly L Wiltse Nicely, Carla R Jungquist
: Multimodal analgesia, which combines analgesic drugs from different classes and employs analgesic techniques that target different mechanisms of pain, is recommended in the treatment of acute postoperative and trauma-related pain because its synergistic effect maximizes pain relief at lower analgesic doses, thereby reducing the risk of adverse drug effects. Using a case-based approach, this article reviews various multimodal analgesic therapies used in the treatment of acute pain; discusses their benefits; and summarizes findings from related research, recommendations from evidence-based practice guidelines, and expert consensus reports...
March 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212102/prediction-of-patient-controlled-analgesic-consumption-a-multimodel-regression-tree-approach
#7
Yuh-Jyh Hu, Tien-Hsiung Ku, Yu-Hung Yang, Jia-Ying Shen
Several factors contribute to individual variability in postoperative pain; therefore, individuals consume postoperative analgesics at different rates. Although many statistical studies have analyzed postoperative pain and analgesic consumption, most have identified only the correlation and have not subjected the statistical model to further tests in order to evaluate its predictive accuracy. In this study involving 3052 patients, a multistrategy computational approach was developed for analgesic consumption prediction...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211128/staged-intraperitoneal-brachytherapy-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-in-an-adolescent-novel-anesthetic-challenges-for-pediatric-anesthetists
#8
Andrew D Weatherall, Tristan R Bennett, Mark Lovell, Winnie Fung, Jonathan de Lima
Newer techniques that have found a place in cancer management in adults are offered far less commonly in pediatric patients. We present a case of a patient with recurrent Wilms' tumor managed with a novel combination of cytoreductive surgery, intraperitoneal brachytherapy, and subsequent hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Each stage presents challenges that the pediatric anesthetist is unlikely to have faced before. Such cases require flexibility and thorough planning to manage the combination of major surgery, remote anesthesia with brachytherapy and hyperthermic chemotherapy with its potential for metabolic derangement, significant fluid shifts, analgesic care, and potential exposure of staff to cytotoxic agents...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208979/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-bupivacaine-0-5-alone-or-with-clonidine-1%C3%AE-g-kg-versus-control-in-a-single-level-paravertebral-blockin-patients-undergoing-pcnl-procedure
#9
Trupti S Kamble, Charulata Mahesh Deshpande
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a widely used procedure to remove complex upper tract renal calculi by means of a nephroscope. Although less invasive, PCNL is associated with significant pain owing to soft tissue injury. Most of these patients have mild to moderately compromised renal function. An anaesthesia plan that reduces intraoperative requirement of anaesthetics, analgesics, muscle relaxants and postoperative requirement of systemic analgesics is essential...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205208/skin-to-skin-care-for-procedural-pain-in-neonates
#10
REVIEW
Celeste Johnston, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Timothy Disher, Britney Benoit, Ananda Fernandes, David Streiner, Darlene Inglis, Rebekah Zee
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin care (SSC), often referred to as 'kangaroo care' (KC) due to its similarity with marsupial behaviour of ventral maternal-infant contact, is one non-pharmacological intervention for pain control in infants. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of the amount of SSC (duration in minutes), method of administration (e...
February 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179349/does-rectus-sheath-block-analgesia-alter-levels-of-the-oxidative-stress-biomarker-glutathione-peroxidase-a-randomised-trial-of-patients-with-cancer-and-benign-disease
#11
Martin Purdy, Jari Kärkkäinen, Merja Kokki, Maarit Anttila, Samuli Aspinen, Petri Juvonen, Hannu Kokki, Kari Pulkki, Tuomo Rantanen, Matti Eskelinen
AIM: To evaluate whether the overall satisfaction, as measured by numeric rating scale (NRS), regarding rectus sheath block (RSB) analgesia is associated with the plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) level. The second end-point of the study was to evaluate the differences in GPX1 levels in patients with and without RSB analgesia, with special emphasis on benign or malign disease status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Initially, 56 patients were randomized to the placebo group (n=12) and to one of three active RSB analgesia groups: single-dose (n=16), repeated-dose (n=12) and continuous infusion (n=16) groups...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178072/side-effects-can-enhance-treatment-response-through-expectancy-effects-an-experimental-analgesic-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Chantal Berna, Irving Kirsch, Sean R Zion, Yvonne C Lee, Karin B Jensen, Pamela Sadler, Ted J Kaptchuk, Robert R Edwards
In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby majoring drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind RCT of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos...
February 4, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176913/peripherally-acting-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonists-as-treatment-options-for-constipation-in-noncancer-pain-patients-on-chronic-opioid-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert B Raffa, Marco Pappagallo, Charles Fleischer, Joseph Pergolizzi, Gianpietro Zampogna, Elizabeth Duval, Janan Hishmeh, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC), a prevalent and distressing side effect of opioid therapy, does not reliably respond to treatment with conventional laxatives. OIC can be a treatment-limiting adverse event. Recent advances in medications with peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists, such as methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, and alvimopan, hold promise for treating OIC and thus extending the benefits of opioid analgesia to more chronic pain patients. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists have been clinically tested to improve bowel symptoms without compromise to pain relief, although there are associated side effects, including abdominal pain...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166783/active-surveillance-study-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-of-children-in-the-czech-republic
#14
Jana Danova, Aneta Kocourkova, Alexander M Celko
BACKGROUND: Despite the undisputed public health benefits of routine vaccination, adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) remain a concern. As most adverse events are mild, they may be under-reported; this may underlie the wide range of AEFI rates reported in the literature. We investigated the rates of AEFI related to routine vaccination of children 0-10 years old in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study reviewed patients' records in a sample of 49 paediatric GP practices covering all 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013...
February 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155805/effects-of-buprenorphine-methylnaltrexone-and-their-combination-on-gastrointestinal-transit-in-healthy-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#15
Manuel Martin-Flores Bhupinder Singh Courtney A Walsh Elizabeth P Brooks Laci C Taylor And Lisa M Mitchell
Among the many analgesic agents available, buprenorphine appears to be the analgesic used most often in rabbits. Unfortunately,deleterious side effects of opioids, such as gastrointestinal stasis and anorexia, may discourage the use of these agents.Methylnaltrexone is a peripheral opioid antagonist that ameliorates opioid-induced gastrointestinal stasis in others species yet preserves the analgesic effects of buprenorphine. We evaluated whether methylnaltrexone reversed buprenorphine-inducedgastrointestinal stasis in 8 healthy male New Zealand White rabbits...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150939/antinociceptive-effects-of-a-novel-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#16
Lakeisha A Lewter, Janet L Fisher, Justin N Siemian, Kashi Reddy Methuku, Michael M Poe, James M Cook, Jun-Xu Li
Pain remains a challenging clinical condition and spinal GABAA receptors are crucial modulators of pain processing. α2/α3-subtype GABAA receptors mediate the analgesic actions of benzodiazepines. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at α2/α3-subtype GABAA receptors may have analgesic potential. Here we report a new selective α2/α3-subtype GABAA receptor PAM in in vitro and in vivo pain assays. KRM-II-81 demonstrated similar efficacy at α1/α2/α3 GABAA receptors and negligible efficacy at α4/α5/α6 GABAA receptors, with α2 and α3-subtypes being 17- and 28-fold more potent than α1 subtypes in HEK-293T cells expressing GABAA receptors with different α subunits...
February 2, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150417/the-ethics-of-postoperative-pain-management-mapping-nurses-views
#17
Maria Dolores Cano Romero, Maria Teresa Muñoz Sastre, Bruno Quintard, Paul C Sorum, Etienne Mullet
AIM: We explored the positions of nurses working in hospitals regarding the acceptability of refusing to give a repeat dose of painkiller to a postoperative patient who requested it. These positions were compared with that of lay people, physicians, and other health professionals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Factorial design was used to assess the impact of 6 situational factors: the patient's age, the current level of pain as assessed by the nurse, the number of requests, the level of risk associated with the administration of a repeat dose, the outcome of surgery, and the giving of alternative mild analgesics...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150108/cyclooxygenase-in-cancer-prevention-and-treatments-for-actinic-keratosis
#18
REVIEW
Gareth J Thomas, Colin A Morton
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a chemically diverse class of drugs that target the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Elevated expression of COX-2 has been associated with tumor progression in skin cancer through multiple mechanisms. We present evidence for a chemoprotective effect of NSAIDs and discuss potential mechanisms of action of COX-2 in cancer. We also discuss the challenges associated with the treatment of actinic keratosis and the factors that should be taken into consideration when selecting a treatment regimen...
January 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149957/illuminating-phenylazopyridines-to-photoswitch-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-from-the-flask-to-the-animals
#19
Xavier Gómez-Santacana, Silvia Pittolo, Xavier Rovira, Marc Lopez, Charleine Zussy, James A R Dalton, Adèle Faucherre, Chris Jopling, Jean-Philippe Pin, Francisco Ciruela, Cyril Goudet, Jesús Giraldo, Pau Gorostiza, Amadeu Llebaria
Phenylazopyridines are photoisomerizable compounds with high potential to control biological functions with light. We have obtained a series of phenylazopyridines with light dependent activity as negative allosteric modulators (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5). Here we describe the factors needed to achieve an operational molecular photoisomerization and its effective translation into in vitro and in vivo receptor photoswitching, which includes zebrafish larva motility and the regulation of the antinociceptive effects in mice...
January 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148969/structural-connectivity-variances-underlie-functional-and-behavioral-changes-during-pain-relief-induced-by-neuromodulation
#20
Richard L Lin, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Nicola Filippini, Thomas W Okell, Charlotte J Stagg, Irene Tracey
An increased understanding of the relationship between structural connections and functional and behavioral outcomes is an essential but under-explored topic in neuroscience. During transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced analgesia, neuromodulation occurs through a top-down process that depends on inter-regional connections. To investigate whether variation in anatomical connectivity explains functional and behavorial outcomes during neuromodulation, we first combined tDCS and a tonic pain model with concurrent arterial spin labelling that measures cerebral perfusion related to ongoing neural activity...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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