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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228463/transition-metal-catalyzed-selective-functionalization-of-c-sp3-h-bonds-in-natural-products
#1
Rashad R Karimov, John F Hartwig
Direct functionalization of natural products is important for studying structure-activity and structure-property relationships of these molecules. Recent advances in transition-metal-catalyzed functionalizations of C(sp3)-H bonds, the most abundant yet inert bonds in natural products, have been shown to create natural product derivatives selectively. Strategies to achieve such transformation are reviewed.
December 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228460/emissive-synthetic-cofactors-enzymatic-interconversions-of-tza-analogues-of-atp-nad-nadh-nadp-and-nadph
#2
Yitzhak Tor, François Hallé, Andrea Fin, Alexander R Rovira
A series of enzymatic transformations, which generate visibly emissive isofunctional cofactors based on an isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine analogue of adenosine (tzA), is described. Nicotinamide adenylyl transferase condenses nicotinamide mononucleotide and tzATP to yield NtzAD+, which can be enzymatically phosphorylated by NAD+ kinase and ATP or tzATP to the corresponding NtzADP+. The latter can be engaged in NADP-specific coupled enzymatic transformations involving conversion to NtzADPH by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and reoxidation to NtzADP+ by glutathione reductase...
December 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228428/inhibition-of-mmps-cat-g-and-downregulates-the-signaling-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-in-chronic-photodamaged-human-fibroblasts
#3
Y Zheng, Q-F Xu, H-Y Chen, C-X Ye, W Lai, H I Maibach
OBJECTIVE: To understand the action of Cathepsin G (Cat G) and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) on the β/Smad pathway of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in chronically photodamaged human fibroblasts. Cat G plays a significant role in the process of skin photoaging and in collagen synthesis and degradation which is induced by UV irradiation it could interact with TGF-β/Smad signaling. No available studies have thoroughly explored its molecular mechanisms of photoaging regulation...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228378/neural-mechanisms-mediating-degrees-of-strategic-uncertainty
#4
Rosemarie Nagel, Andrea Brovelli, Frank Heinemann, Giorgio Coricelli
In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of fMRI with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228370/a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signature-predicts-low-grade-glioma-prognosis-a-precision-medicine-approach-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells
#5
Tamara Ius, Yari Ciani, Maria Elisabetta Ruaro, Miriam Isola, Marisa Sorrentino, Michela Bulfoni, Veronica Candotti, Cecilia Correcig, Evgenia Bourkoula, Ivana Manini, Enrico Pegolo, Damiano Mangoni, Stefania Marzinotto, Slobodanka Radovic, Barbara Toffoletto, Federica Caponnetto, Andrea Zanello, Laura Mariuzzi, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Silvano Piazza, Miran Skrap, Daniela Cesselli
Background: While recent genome wide association studies have suggested novel low-grade glioma (LGG) stratification models based on a molecular classification, we explored the potential clinical utility of patient-derived cells. Specifically, we assayed glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) that are patient-derived stem cells representative of the glioma microenvironment. Methods: By next generation sequencing, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of GASC derived from patients that underwent anaplastic transformation either within 48 months (GASC-BAD) or ≥7 years (GASC-GOOD) after surgery...
December 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228300/dna-synthesis-by-fragment-assembly-using-extra-cellular-dna-delivered-by-artificial-controlled-horizontal-transfer
#6
Shinya Kaneko, Hiromi Fukushima, Misako Nakahama, Satomi Asano, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Yasunori Aizawa, Mitsuhiro Itaya
DNA synthesis in the Bacillus subtilis cells has become possible using extra-cellular DNA. Generally, purified DNAs in a test tube have been required to introduce into the host cells for molecular cloning technology in the laboratory. We have developed a cell lysis technique for natural transformation using stable extra-cellular plasmid DNAs, in which the extra-cellular plasmid DNAs are released from lysed Escherichia coli cells. DNA synthesis then proceeds by fragment assembly using the stable extracellular DNAs, without biochemical purification...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228234/tgfbr2-inactivation-facilitates-cellular-plasticity-and-development-of-pten-null-prostate-cancer
#7
Wei Zhao, Peng Tan, Qingyuan Zhu, Adebusola Ajibade, Teng Long, Wenyong Long, Qingtian Li, Pinghua Liu, Bo Ning, Helen Y Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
Mutations in tumors can create a state of increased cellular plasticity that promotes resistance to treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies for identifying key factors that regulate cellular plasticity in order to combat resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Here we report that prostate epithelial cell reprogramming could be exploited to identify key factors required for promoting prostate cancer tumorigenesis and cellular plasticity. Deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 2 (Tgfbr2) may increase prostate epithelial cell reprogramming efficiency in vitro and cause rapid tumor development and early mortality in vivo...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228188/the-impact-of-environmental-factors-on-co2-fixation-by-microalgae
#8
Marcia Morales, León Sánchez, Sergio Revah
Microalgae are among the most productive biological systems for converting sunlight into chemical energy which is used to capture and transform inorganic carbon into biomass. The efficiency of CO2 capture depends on the cultivation system configuration (photobioreactors or open systems) and can vary according to the state of the algal physiology, the chemical composition of the nutrient medium and environmental factors, such as irradiance, temperature and pH. This mini-review is focused on some of the most important environmental factors determining photosynthetic activity, CO2 biofixation, cell growth rates and biomass productivities by microalgae...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228156/feedback-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Xiaohua Yan, Xiangyang Xiong, Ye-Guang Chen
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity...
December 8, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228123/role-of-yes-associated-protein-1-angiomotin-and-mitogen-activated-kinase-kinase-1-2-in-development-of-the-bovine-blastocyst
#10
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Peter J Hansen
The morula-stage embryo is transformed into a blastocyst composed of epiblast, hypoblast and trophectoderm (TE) through mechanisms that, at least in the mouse, involve the Hippo signaling and mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathways. Using the cow as an additional model, we tested the hypotheses that TE and hypoblast differentiation were regulated by the Hippo pathway regulators, YAP1 and AMOT, and MAPK kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2). The presence of YAP1 and CDX2 in the nucleus and cytoplasm of MII oocytes and embryos was evaluated by immunofluorescence labeling...
December 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228113/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-oppositely-regulate-mir-221-that-targets-thrombospondin-1-in-bovine-luteal-endothelial-cells
#11
Svetlana Farberov, Rina Meidan
Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is an important mediator of corpus luteum (CL) regression. Highly induced during luteolysis, it acts as a natural anti-angiogenic, proapoptotic compound. THBS1 expression is regulated in bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs) by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1) acting in an opposite manner. In this study we sought to identify specific microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting THBS1 and investigate their possible involvement in FGF2 and TGFB1-mediated THBS1 expression...
December 6, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227989/non-linear-auto-regressive-models-for-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-time-series
#12
Tom Dupré la Tour, Lucille Tallot, Laetitia Grabot, Valérie Doyère, Virginie van Wassenhove, Yves Grenier, Alexandre Gramfort
We address the issue of reliably detecting and quantifying cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in neural time series. Based on non-linear auto-regressive models, the proposed method provides a generative and parametric model of the time-varying spectral content of the signals. As this method models the entire spectrum simultaneously, it avoids the pitfalls related to incorrect filtering or the use of the Hilbert transform on wide-band signals. As the model is probabilistic, it also provides a score of the model "goodness of fit" via the likelihood, enabling easy and legitimate model selection and parameter comparison; this data-driven feature is unique to our model-based approach...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227967/monte-carlo-simulations-of-electrical-percolation-in-multicomponent-thin-films-with-nanofillers
#13
Xiaojuan Ni, Chao Hui, Ninghai Su, Wei Jiang, Feng Liu
We develop a 2D disk-stick percolation model to investigate the electrical percolation behavior of an insulating thin film reinforced with 1D and 2D conductive nanofillers via Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical predictions of the percolation threshold in single component thin films show good agreement with the previous published work, validating our model for investigating the characteristics of the percolation phenomena. Parametric studies of size effect, i.e., length of 1D nanofiller and diameter of 2D nanofiller, have been carried out to predict the electrical percolation threshold for hybrid systems...
December 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227957/synergistic-cytotoxicity-and-mechanism-of-caffeine-and-lysozyme-on-hepatoma-cell-line-hepg2
#14
Hongchao Yang, Jingjuan Li, Lin Cui, Yanqing Ren, Liying Niu, Xinguo Wang, Yun Huang, Lijian Cui
The influences of caffeine, lysozyme and the joint application of them on the hepatoma cell line HepG2 proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis were observed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342, which showed the proliferation inhibition rate of the joint application on HepG2 cells was 47.21%, significantly higher than caffeine or lysozyme, and the joint application promoted the apoptosis of HepG2 cells obviously. Van't Hoff classical thermodynamics formula, the Föster theory of non-radiation energy transfer and fluorescence phase diagram were used to manifest that the process of lysozyme binding to caffeine followed a two-state model, which was spontaneous at low temperature driven by enthalpy change, and the predominant intermolecular force was hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals force to stabilize caffeine-lysozyme complex with the distance 5...
December 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227858/bilateral-ovarian-angiosarcoma-arising-from-the-mature-cystic-teratomas-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Erik Kudela, Marcela Nachajova, Kamil Biringer, Pavol Slavik, Lukas Plank, Jan Danko
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian teratomas undergo the malignant transformation in 0.2-2% of cases. The behavior of malignancies in mature cystic teratomas (MCT) is determined by their phenotype and not their derivation from germ cells. We can recognize pure angiosarcomas or as a part of other tumors like malignant mixed Mullerian tumors and adenosarcomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the first case of bilateral ovarian angiosarcoma arising from the mature teratomas. Due to widespread disease, we performed limited surgical procedure consisting of bilateral adnexectomy and omentectomy...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227777/towards-a-theoretically-informed-policy-against-a-rakghoul-plague-outbreak
#16
Dimitrios-Georgios Kontopoulos, Theano Kontopoulou, Hsi-Cheng Ho, Bernardo García-Carreras
A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, the Sith Lord Karness Muur engineered the rakghoul plague, a disease that transformed infected humans into near-mindless predatory rakghouls. At its peak, the disease infected millions of individuals, giving rise to armies of rakghouls on a number of planets. Whether rakghoul populations have persisted until this day is not known, making a rakghoul invasion on Earth not completely improbable. Further, a strategy for defence against an outbreak of the disease on Earth has not yet been proposed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227715/human-papillomavirus-genome-integration-and-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
L M Pinatti, H M Walline, T E Carey
We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227618/tackling-the-challenges-of-dynamic-experiments-using-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#18
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227580/electrodeposition-of-nickel-composite-nanoparticles-for-alkaline-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-correlating-electrocatalytic-behavior-and-chemical-composition-obtained-by-xps
#19
Shasha Tao, Florent Yang, Jona Schuch, Wolfram Jaegermann, Bernhard Kaiser
Ni Nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of Ni, NiO and Ni(OH)2 have been formed on Ti substrates by electrodeposition as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The deposition parameters including the potential range and the scan rate were varied, and the resulting NPs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the chemical composition of the NPs changes using different conditions, and it was found that the catalytic activity increases with an increasing amount of NiO...
December 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227558/rna-sequencing-identifies-gene-regulatory-networks-controlling-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-in-intervertebral-disk-tissues
#20
Scott M Riester, Yang Lin, Wei Wang, Lin Cong, Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Ali, Sun H Peck, Lachlan J Smith, Bradford L Currier, Michelle Clark, Paul Huddleston, William Krauss, Michael J Yaszemski, Mark E Morrey, Matthew P Abdel, Mohamad Bydon, Wenchun Qu, A Noelle Larson, Andre J van Wijnen, Ahmad Nassr
Degenerative disk disease of the spine is a major cause of back pain and disability. Optimization of regenerative medical therapies for degenerative disk disease requires a deep mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling the structural integrity of spinal tissues. In this investigation, we sought to identify candidate regulatory genes controlling extracellular matrix synthesis in spinal tissues. To achieve this goal we performed high throughput next generation RNA sequencing on 39 annulus fibrosus and 21 nucleus pulposus human tissue samples...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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