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Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Lun Peng, Zhiyun Li, Xiaohui Li, Hui Xue, Weidong Zhang, Gaojian Chen
Glycopolymers attached to a surface possess the ability to bind to certain carbohydrate binding proteins in a highly specific manner, and because of this, the fabrication of glycopolymer-modified surfaces has evolved as an effective route toward bioresponsive systems. Poly(N-3,4-dihydroxybenzenethyl methacrylamide-co-2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose) copolymers, containing sugar and catechol functionalities, are for the first time successfully prepared in a well-controlled manner via room temperature single-electron transfer initiation and propagation through radical addition fragmentation chain transfer technique...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Huihua Li, Juan Song, Linlin Wang, Xiaomiao Feng, Ruiqing Liu, Wenjin Zeng, Zhendong Huang, Yanwen Ma, Lianhui Wang
Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are crucial to meet the growing needs for portable electronic devices such as foldable phones and wearable electronics. As promising candidates for pseudocapacitor electrode materials, polyaniline (PANI) orderly nanotube arrays are prepared via a simple template electrodeposition method. The structures of the final product were characterized using various characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Bindang Xue, Yi Liu, Linyan Cui, Xiangzhi Bai, Xiaoguang Cao, Fugen Zhou
Video stabilization in atmosphere turbulent conditions is aimed at removing spatiotemporally varying distortions from video recordings. Conventional shaky video stabilization approaches do not perform effectively under turbulent circumstances due to the erratic motion common to those conditions. Using complex-valued image pyramids, we propose a method to mitigate this erratic motion in videos. First, each frame of a video is decomposed into different spatial frequencies using the Laplacian pyramid. Second, a Riesz transform is adopted to extract the local amplitude and the local phase of each sub-band...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Isaac Trumper, Heejoo Choi, Dae Wook Kim
An instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry measurement method is presented and implemented by measuring a time varying deformable mirror with an iPhone <sup>®</sup> 6. The instantaneous method is based on multiplexing phase shifted fringe patterns with color, and decomposing them in x and y using Fourier techniques. Along with experimental data showing the capabilities of the instantaneous deflectometry system, a quantitative comparison with the Fourier transform profilometry method, which is a distinct phase measuring method from the phase shifting approach, is presented...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Jingdong Zhang, Tao Zhu, Huan Zhou, Shihong Huang, Min Liu, Wei Huang
We demonstrate a cost-effective distributed fiber sensing system for the multi-parameter detection of the vibration, the temperature, and the strain by integrating phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (φ-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (B-OTDR). Taking advantage of the fast changing property of the vibration and the static properties of the temperature and the strain, both the width and intensity of the laser pulses are modulated and injected into the single-mode sensing fiber proportionally, so that three concerned parameters can be extracted simultaneously by only one photo-detector and one data acquisition channel...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Dongfang Li, Jing Feng, Domenico Pacifici
We compare the intensity modulation of passive light transmission and active fluorescence emission in planar plasmonic interferometers consisting of a nano-scale hole flanked by circular grooves etched in a silver film. Discrete fast Fourier transform applied to plasmonic interferograms - i.e., optical interferograms obtained by varying the propagation phase of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) - reveals higher-order interference effects that can be enhanced by optimizing in-plane SPP scattering and reflection...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Champak Khurmi, Nicolas Bourbeau Hébert, Wen Qi Zhang, Shahraam Afshar V, George Chen, Jérôme Genest, Tanya M Monro, David G Lancaster
We report mode-locked ~1550 nm output of transform-limited ~180 fs pulses from a large mode-area (diameter ~50 μm) guided-wave erbium fluorozirconate glass laser. The passively mode-locked oscillator generates pulses with 25 nm bandwidth at 156 MHz repetition rate and peak-power of 260 W. Scalability to higher repetition rate is demonstrated by transform-limited 410 fs pulse output at 1.3 GHz. To understand the origins of the broad spectral output, the laser cavity is simulated by using a numerical solution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Unni V S, Deepak Mishra, G R K S Subrahmanyam
The need for image fusion in current image processing systems is increasing mainly due to the increased number and variety of image acquisition techniques. Image fusion is the process of combining substantial information from several sensors using mathematical techniques in order to create a single composite image that will be more comprehensive and thus more useful for a human operator or other computer vision tasks. This paper presents a new approach to multifocus image fusion based on sparse signal representation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Dilip K Prasad, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek
This paper addresses the problem of horizon detection, a fundamental process in numerous object detection algorithms, in a maritime environment. The maritime environment is characterized by the absence of fixed features, the presence of numerous linear features in dynamically changing objects and background and constantly varying illumination, rendering the typically simple problem of detecting the horizon a challenging one. We present a novel method called multi-scale consistence of weighted edge Radon transform, abbreviated as MuSCoWERT...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Deyun Wei, Ruikui Wang, Yuan-Min Li
Linear canonical transforms (LCTs) are a family of integral transforms with wide applications in optical, acoustical, electromagnetic, and other wave propagation problems. In this paper, we propose the random discrete linear canonical transform (RDLCT) by randomizing the kernel transform matrix of the discrete linear canonical transform (DLCT). The RDLCT inherits excellent mathematical properties from the DLCT along with some fantastic features of its own. It has a greater degree of randomness because of the randomization in terms of both eigenvectors and eigenvalues...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Tianjing Guo, Christos Argyropoulos
We present terahertz metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband terahertz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on the arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated terahertz systems...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
N H Matlis, A Maksimchuk, V Yanovsky, W P Leemans, M C Downer
We present an analytical formalism elucidating how information is stored in chirped optical probes by describing the effects of sinusoidal temporal modulations on the electric field. We show that the modulations produce spectral sidebands which can be interpreted as temporal sidebands due to the time-wavelength mapping, an effect we call temporally encoded spectral shifting (TESS). A derivation is presented for the case of chirped-pulse spectral interferometry showing how to recover both the amplitude and the periodicity of the modulation from a Fourier transform of the interferogram...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Xiaolei Zhao, Lin Zhu, Cai Yuan, Jianquan Yao
A grating-coupled double-layer graphene hybrid system is proposed to investigate the plasmon-induced transparency effect at far-infrared frequencies. Based on the guided mode resonance principle, a diffractive grating is used to couple the normally incident waves and excite the plasmonic resonances on two graphene films separated by a spacer, thereby avoiding the need for patterning graphene. It is found that the origin of the observed transparency window transforms from Autler-Townes splitting to electromagnetically induced transparency with the increase of the separation distance between the two graphene films...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Shen Dai, Bo Wang, Wen Li, Liyang Wang, Xingguo Song, Chun Guo, Yulan Li, Fengming Liu, Faliang Zhu, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yongyu Shi, Jianing Wang, Wei Zhao, Lining Zhang
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we tested the effect of two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-chromone (LY294002), commonly used as inhibitors of autophagy, in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Systemic application of 3-MA but not LY294002 markedly reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaque and increased the stability of lesions in high-fat diet-fed mice as compared with controls...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Xi Chen, Xinwei Cao, Xiaohua Sun, Rong Lei, Pengfei Chen, Yongxu Zhao, Yuhang Jiang, Jie Yin, Ran Chen, Deji Ye, Qi Wang, Zhanjie Liu, Sanhong Liu, Chunyan Cheng, Jie Mao, Yingyong Hou, Mingliang Wang, Ulrich Siebenlist, Y Eugene Chin, Ying Wang, Liu Cao, Guohong Hu, Xiaoren Zhang
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling in breast cancer is selectively associated with pulmonary metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that Bcl-3, a member of the IκB family, serves as a critical regulator in TGFβ signaling to modulate breast cancer pulmonary metastasis. Bcl-3 expression was significantly associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. Bcl-3 deletion inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, as well as breast cancer lung metastasis in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Sujogya Kumar Panda, Kunal Biswas, Abiral Tamang, Jaya Bandyopadhyay, Debashis De, Dambarudhar Mohanta, Akshaya Kumar Bastia
The present study reports on biogenic-synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived by treating Ag ions with an extract of Cassia fistula leaf, a popular Indian medicinal plant found in natural habitation. The progress of biogenic synthesis was monitored time to time using a ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The effect of phytochemicals present in C. fistula including flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds and alkaloids on the homogeneous growth of AgNPs was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Alok Pani, Tran Duy Thanh, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Soon-Il Yun
Sustainable methods are needed for rapid and efficient detection of environmental and food pollutants. The Sudan group of dyes has been used extensively as adulterants in food and also are found to be polluting the soil and water bodies. There have been several methods for detection of Sudan dyes, but most of them are not practical enough for common use. In this study, the electrochemical detection efficiency and stability of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs), silver NPs and Au-Ag bionanocomposites, synthesised by peanut skin extract, modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Karikalan Kulandaivelu, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal
Tea polyphenols (TPPs) comprise preventive and therapeutic potentials against cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Chemical instability of TPP which leads to low bioavailability is the major constrain to its use as therapeutic agent. The authors prepared TPP encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (TPP-SLNs) to increase its stability and bioefficacy. Comparison of Fourier transformed infrared spectra of unloaded SLN, free TPP and TPP-SLN indicated encapsulation of TPP. Sustained release of TPP from TP-SLN was observed...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
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