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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805145/pdgf-vegf-related-receptor-affects-transglutaminase-activity-to-control-cell-migration-during-crustacean-hematopoiesis
#1
Kingkamon Junkunlo, Chadanat Noonin, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, a tyrosine kinase receptor whose ligand is PDGF, is crucial in the transduction of extracellular signals into cells and mediates numerous processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and migration. We demonstrate the important roles of a receptor tyrosine kinase related to the PDGF/VEGF family protein (PVR) in controlling hematopoietic progenitor cell migration by affecting extracellular transglutaminase (TGase) activity. Pl_PVR1, GenBank accession number KY444650, is highly expressed in hemocytes and the hematopoietic tissue (HPT)...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803958/identification-and-characterization-of-lymph-organ-micrornas-in-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#2
Zhi-Qiang Du, Xiao-Yun Leng, Xiu-Li Shen, Yan-Hui Jin, Xin-Cang Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were important post-transcriptional regulators and played vital roles in innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In this study, using high-throughput small RNAs Illumina sequencing system, differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs) from lymph organs in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, infected with white spot syndrome virus, were identified. As a result, 32 known miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs were identified in crayfish lymph organ small RNAs library of NG and WG...
August 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801606/linkage-mapping-aided-by-de-novo-genome-and-transcriptome-assembly-in-portunus-trituberculatus-applications-in-growth-related-qtl-and-gene-identification
#3
Jianjian Lv, Baoquan Gao, Ping Liu, Jian Li, Xianliang Meng
A high-resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for decoding genetics and genomics in non-model organisms. In this study, a linkage map was constructed for the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) with 10,963 markers; as far as we know, this number of markers has never been achieved in any other crustacean. The linkage map covered 98.85% of the whole genome with a mean marker interval of 0.51 cM. The de novo assembly based on genome and transcriptome sequencing data enabled 2,378 explicit annotated markers to be anchored to the map...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799256/understanding-processes-at-the-origin-of-species-flocks-with-a-focus-on-the-marine-antarctic-fauna
#4
Anne Chenuil, Thomas Saucède, Lenaïg G Hemery, Marc Eléaume, Jean-Pierre Féral, Nadia Améziane, Bruno David, Guillaume Lecointre, Charlotte Havermans
Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses...
August 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798951/histomorphological-description-of-the-digestive-system-of-pebbly-fish-alestes-baremoze-joannis-1835
#5
Nasser Kasozi, Gerald Iwe Degu, Julius Mukalazi, Charles Drago Kato, Majid Kisekka, Akisoferi Owori Wadunde, Godfrey Kityo, Victoria Tibenda Namulawa
Histomorphological studies of the digestive system of Alestes baremoze captured from Lake Albert, Uganda, were done using standard procedures. These revealed that A. baremoze has a fleshy-lipped terminal small mouth, large molar, short oesophagus, a three-lobed liver, pouch-like stomach, a nine-fingered caeca, and a long tubular intestine. A stratified squamous epithelium with numerous mucus-secreting cells lined the lips with no taste buds. Stratified squamous epithelia lined the oesophagus in the anterior portion which turned into a columnar epithelium towards the stomach...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796463/defensin-neurotoxin-dyad-in-a-basally-branching-metazoan-sea-anemone
#6
Chan-Hee Kim, Ye Jin Lee, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Tae Kwan Lee, Ji Been Park, Nam Gyu Park
Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783326/tracking-dietary-sources-of-short-and-medium-chlorinated-paraffins-in-marine-mammals-through-a-subtropical-marine-food-web
#7
Lixi Zeng, James C W Lam, Hui Chen, Bibai Du, Kenneth Mei Yee Leung, Kwan Sing Paul Kwan-Sing Lam
Our previous study revealed an elevated accumulation of SCCPs and MCCPs in marine mammals from Hong Kong waters in the South China Sea. To examine the bioaccumulation potential and biomagnification in these apex predators, we sampled the dietary items of marine mammals and tracked the sources of SCCPs and MCCPs through a marine food web in this region. Sixteen fish species, seven crustacean species and four mollusk species were collected and the main prey species were identified for two species of marine mammals...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777041/acute-hydrogen-peroxide-h2o2-exposure-does-not-cause-oxidative-stress-in-late-copepodite-stage-of-calanus-finmarchicus
#8
Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Anna Hallmann, Dag Altin, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Tomasz M Ciesielski
Use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for removal of salmon lice in the aquaculture industry has created concern that non-target organisms might be affected during treatment scenarios. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential for H2O2 to produce oxidative stress and reduce survival in one of the most abundant zooplankton species in Norwegian coastal areas, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Copepods were subjected to two 96-hr tests: (1) acute toxicity test where mortality was determined and (2) treated copepods were exposed to concentrations below the No Observed Effect Concentration (0...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770675/photoperiodism-of-male-offspring-production-in-the-water-flea-daphnia-pulex
#9
Kenji Toyota, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Taisen Iguchi
Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770080/dna-metabarcoding-for-diet-analysis-and-biodiversity-a-case-study-using-the-endangered-australian-sea-lion-neophoca-cinerea
#10
Tina E Berry, Sylvia K Osterrieder, Dáithí C Murray, Megan L Coghlan, Anthony J Richardson, Alicia K Grealy, Michael Stat, Lars Bejder, Michael Bunce
The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea lion scats collected across 1,500 km of its distribution in southwest Western Australia...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769658/a-new-anchialine-stephos-scott-from-the-yucatan-peninsula-with-notes-on-the-biogeography-and-diversity-of-the-genus-copepoda-calanoida-stephidae
#11
Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Martha A Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Adrián Cervantes-Martínez, Thomas M Iliffe
Surveys of the anchialine crustacean fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico, have revealed the occurrence of calanoid copepods. The genus Stephos Scott, 1892, belonging to the family Stephidae is among the most frequent and widely distributed groups in anchialine caves but has not been hitherto recorded from the YP. Recent collections from an anchialine cave in an island off the northern coast of the YP yielded many specimens of a new species of Stephos. The new taxon, S. fernandoisp. n., is described here based on male and female specimens...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765773/astaxanthin-induces-migration-in-human-skin-keratinocytes-via-rac1-activation-and-rhoa-inhibition
#12
Dakanda Ritto, Supita Tanasawet, Sawana Singkhorn, Wanwimol Klaypradit, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Wanida Sukketsiri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Re-epithelialization has an important role in skin wound healing. Astaxanthin (ASX), a carotenoid found in crustaceans including shrimp, crab, and salmon, has been widely used for skin protection. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ASX on proliferation and migration of human skin keratinocyte cells and explored the mechanism associated with that migration. MATERIAL/METHOD: HaCaT keratinocyte cells were exposed to 0.25-1 µg/mL of ASX...
August 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764892/expression-and-function-of-spineless-orthologs-correlate-with-distal-deutocerebral-appendage-morphology-across-arthropoda
#13
Emily V W Setton, Logan E March, Erik D Nolan, Tamsin E Jones, Holly Cho, Ward C Wheeler, Cassandra G Extavour, Prashant P Sharma
The deutocerebral (second) head segment is putatively homologous across Arthropoda, in spite of remarkable disparity of form and function of deutocerebral appendages. In Mandibulata this segment bears a pair of sensory antennae, whereas in Chelicerata the same segment bears a pair of feeding appendages called chelicerae. Part of the evidence for the homology of deutocerebral appendages is the conserved function of homothorax (hth), which has been shown to specify antennal or cheliceral fate in the absence of Hox signaling, in both mandibulate and chelicerate exemplars...
July 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763937/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-commonly-used-anti-sea-lice-formulations-on-non-target-crab-metacarcinus-edwardsii-larvae
#14
Paulina Gebauer, Kurt Paschke, Claudia Vera, Jorge E Toro, Miguel Pardo, Mauricio Urbina
The pesticides used by the salmon industry to treat sea lice, are applied in situ via a bath solution and are subsequently discharged into the surrounding medium. The effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, azamethiphos and hydrogen peroxide were assessed on the performance of Metacarcinus edwardsii larvae, an important crab for Chilean fishery. All larvae were dead or dying after 30 min of exposure to cypermethrin and after 40 min to deltamethrin at concentrations 100 and 20 times lower (0.15 and 0.1 μg L(-1), respectively) than the concentrations and exposure times recommended by the manufacturers (CRM) to treat sea lice...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763037/isolation-and-tissue-distribution-of-an-insulin-like-androgenic-gland-hormone-iag-of-the-male-red-deep-sea-crab-chaceon-quinquedens
#15
Amanda Lawrence, Shadaesha Green, Jum Sook Chung
The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG); however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG), and to examine its tissue distribution...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761110/characterisation-and-pharmacological-analysis-of-a-crustacean-g-protein-coupled-receptor-the-red-pigment-concentrating-hormone-receptor-of-daphnia-pulex
#16
Heather G Marco, Heleen Verlinden, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Gerd Gäde
This is the first pharmacological characterisation of a neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in a crustacean. We cloned the ORF of the red pigment-concentrating hormone from a German strain of Daphnia pulex (Dappu-RPCH), as well as that of the cognate receptor (Dappu-RPCHR). Dappu-RPCHR has the hallmarks of the rhodopsin superfamily of GPCRs, and is more similar to insect adipokinetic hormone (AKH) receptor sequences than to receptor sequences for AKH/corazonin-like peptide or corazonin. We provide experimental evidence that Dappu-RPCH specifically activates the receptor (EC50 value of 65 pM) in a mammalian cell-based bioluminescence assay...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760973/plant-feeding-promotes-diversification-in-the-crustacea
#17
Alistair G B Poore, Shane T Ahyong, James K Lowry, Erik E Sotka
About half of the world's animal species are arthropods associated with plants, and the ability to consume plant material has been proposed to be an important trait associated with the spectacular diversification of terrestrial insects. We review the phylogenetic distribution of plant feeding in the Crustacea, the other major group of arthropods that commonly consume plants, to estimate how often plant feeding has arisen and to test whether this dietary transition is associated with higher species numbers in extant clades...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756491/nitrogen-effects-on-the-pelagic-food-web-are-modified-by-dissolved-organic-carbon
#18
A Deininger, C L Faithfull, A-K Bergström
Global environmental change has altered the nitrogen (N) cycle and enhanced terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loadings to northern boreal lakes. However, it is still unclear how enhanced N availability affects pelagic food web efficiency (FWE) and crustacean zooplankton growth in N limited boreal lakes. Here, we performed in situ mesocosm experiments in six unproductive boreal Swedish lakes, paired across a DOC gradient, with one lake in each pair fertilized with N (2011: reference year; 2012, 2013: impact years)...
July 29, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756134/molecular-phylogeny-of-pasiphaeidae-crustacea-decapoda-caridea-reveals-systematic-incongruence-of-the-current-classification
#19
Yunshi Liao, Sammy De Grave, Tsz Wai Ho, Brian H Y Ip, Ling Ming Tsang, Tin-Yam Chan, Ka Hou Chu
Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753215/towards-in-situ-determination-of-3d-strain-and-reorientation-in-the-interpenetrating-nanofibre-networks-of-cuticle
#20
Y Zhang, P De Falco, Y Wang, E Barbieri, O Paris, N J Terrill, G Falkenberg, N M Pugno, H S Gupta
Determining the in situ 3D nano- and microscale strain and reorientation fields in hierarchical nanocomposite materials is technically very challenging. Such a determination is important to understand the mechanisms enabling their functional optimization. An example of functional specialization to high dynamic mechanical resistance is the crustacean stomatopod cuticle. Here we develop a new 3D X-ray nanostrain reconstruction method combining analytical modelling of the diffraction signal, fibre-composite theory and in situ deformation, to determine the hitherto unknown nano- and microscale deformation mechanisms in stomatopod tergite cuticle...
July 28, 2017: Nanoscale
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