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Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Viet Tuan Nguyen, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. METHODS: To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology...
2016: PeerJ
Mei-Mei Gu, Jing-Rong Kong, Di-Huang, Ting Peng, Chen-Ying Xie, Kai-Yuan Yang, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
Prohibitin2 (PHB2), a potential tumor suppressor protein, plays important roles in inhibition of cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. To explore its potential roles in crustaceans' immune responses we have identified and characterized LvPHB2, a 891 bp gene encoding a 297 amino acids protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Expression analyses showed that LvPHB2 is expressed in all examined tissues, and largely present in cytoplasm, correlating with its known anti-oxidation function in mitochondria...
October 15, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
A Ochocka, A Pasztaleniec
Herein, we report the response of indices based on phytoplankton and zooplankton and their combination to different nutrient concentrations in lakes. The study was carried out in ten lakes in northeastern Poland. Integrated samples were collected from the epilimnion during the summer of 2012-2013. Secchi disk visibility (SD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a were used as proxies for eutrophication. We calculated 16 plankton indices: two phytoplankton indices, six crustacean indices, five rotiferan indices, two zooplankton diversity indices, and one combined phytoplankton and zooplankton index...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Susana Barros, Rosa Montes, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Jorge M A Oliveira, Miguel M Santos, Teresa Neuparth
Triclocarban (TCC), a common antimicrobial agent widely used in many household and personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to its high lipophilicity and persistence in the aquatic ecosystems, TCC is of emerging environmental concern. Despite the frequently reported detection of TCC in the environment and significant uncertainties about its long term effects on aquatic ecosystems, few studies have addressed the chronic effects of TCC in aquatic organisms at ecologically relevant concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
G D Stentiford, A Ramilo, E Abollo, R Kerr, K S Bateman, S W Feist, D Bass, A Villalba
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Naoaki Tsutsui, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Fumio Arisaka, Masaru Tanokura, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Koji Nagata
The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the major hormones in crustaceans, and peptides belonging to the CHH superfamily have been found in diverse ecdysozoans. Although the basic function of CHH is to control energy metabolism, it also plays various roles in crustacean species, such as in molting and vitellogenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of Pej-SGP-I-Gly, a partially active precursor of CHH from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, which has an additional Gly residue in place of the C-terminal amide group of the mature Pej-SGP-I...
October 15, 2016: FEBS Journal
Calvin Zhang, Timothy J Lewis
Many neuronal circuits driving coordinated locomotion are composed of chains of half-center oscillators (HCOs) of various lengths. The HCO is a common motif in central pattern generating circuits (CPGs); an HCO consists of two neurons, or two neuronal populations, connected by reciprocal inhibition. To maintain appropriate motor coordination for effective locomotion over a broad range of frequencies, chains of CPGs must produce approximately constant phase-differences in a robust manner. In this article, we study phase-locking in chains of nearest-neighbor coupled HCOs and examine how the circuit architecture can promote phase-constancy, i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
H Zhang, P Yu, S Zhong, T Ge, S Peng, Z Zhou, X Guo
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Hongjun Li, Sheng Ye, Jinqing Ye, Jingfeng Fan, Meiling Gao, Hao Guo
A geographically extensive investigation was carried out to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals, PCBs and OCPs in the sediments and marine organisms collected from the Liaohe Estuary. In order to determine the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of heavy metals, the surface sediments were collected from 44 sites in the Liaohe Estuary. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in the sediments were observed in the following order: Cr (11.2-84.8mg/kg)>Cu (1.7-47.9mg/kg)>Pb (4...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xue-Jiao Chang, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yu-Wei Wang, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Hai-Peng Liu
Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
David J Schulz, Brian J Lane
Plasticity of excitability can come in two general forms: changes in excitability that alter neuronal output (e.g. long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability) or excitability changes that stabilize neuronal output (homeostatic plasticity). Here we discuss the latter form of plasticity in the context of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, and a second central pattern generator circuit, the cardiac ganglion. We discuss this plasticity at three levels: rapid homeostatic changes in membrane conductance, longer-term effects of neuromodulation on excitability, and the impacts of activity-dependent feedback on steady-state channel mRNA levels...
October 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tian Tao, Xi Xie, Mingxin Liu, Qinghua Jiang, Dongfa Zhu
The sesquiterpenoid methyl farnesoate (MF) is the unepoxidized form of insect juvenile hormone (JH) III, and is considered an equivalent of JH in crustaceans. Degradation of MF is similar to that of JH which occurs through ester hydrolysis by specific carboxylesterases (CXEs). In this study, the full-length cDNAs of two JH esterase-like CXEs were cloned from the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two PtCXEs contain the conserved motifs including catalytic triad and oxyanion hole, which are the hallmark of the CXE family proteins...
October 5, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Xianzong Wang, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer (HT) of genetic materials is increasingly being found in both animals and plants and mainly concerns transposable elements (TEs). Many crustaceans have big genome sizes and are thus likely to harbor high TE contents. Their habitat might offer them ample opportunities to exchange genetic materials with organisms that are ecologically close but taxonomically distant to them. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), an important economic crustacean, to explore traces of HT events...
October 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ariadna B Juárez-Martínez, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are dimeric proteins that play a key role in phase II cellular detoxification. Here, the first crystal structure of a GST class-mu from marine crustacean shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is reported at a resolution of 2.0 Å. The coordinates reported here have the lowest sequence identity with previously reported GSTs class-mu deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB), although they have subtle conformational differences. One key feature of GST class-mu from L. vannamei is the active site crevice markedly reduced when it is compared with other GSTs class-mu...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Isabel E Olivera, Katrina C Fins, Sara A Rodriguez, Sumayyah K Abiff, Jaime L Tartar, Aurélien Tartar
BACKGROUND: Although interest in animal pathogenic oomycetes is increasing, the molecular basis mediating oomycete-animal relationships remains virtually unknown. Crinkler (CRN) genes, which have been traditionally associated with the cytotoxic activity displayed by plant pathogenic oomycetes, were recently detected in transcriptome sequences from the entomopathogenic oomycete Lagenidium giganteum, suggesting that these genes may represent virulence factors conserved in both animal and plant pathogenic oomycetes...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Julien Verdon, Pierre Coutos-Thevenot, Marie-Helene Rodier, Celine Landon, Segolene Depayras, Cyril Noel, Sylvain La Camera, Bouziane Moumen, Pierre Greve, Didier Bouchon, Jean-Marc Berjeaud, Christine Braquart-Varnier
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mingxin Liu, Xi Xie, Tian Tao, Qinghua Jiang, Juan Shao, Dongfa Zhu
Methoprene-tolerant (Met) belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family of nuclear transcriptional regulators, and is the leading candidate receptor for the insect Juvenile hormone (JH) and the crustacean methyl farnesoate (MF). In the present study, a full-length cDNA of Met was cloned from the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus (PtMet). The PtMet amino acid sequence was found to contain domains characteristic of the bHLH-PAS family proteins and to have several conserved amino acid residues specifically responsible for JH or MF binding...
September 29, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
You Song, Jan Thomas Rundberget, Linn Mari Evenseth, Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Tore Høgåsen, Taisen Iguchi, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is an anti-sea lice chemical widely used in the aquaculture that may also unintentionally affect non-target crustaceans in the environment. Although the adverse effects of this compound are well documented in various species, the full modes of action (MoAs) are still not well characterized. The current study was therefore conducted to characterize the MoAs of EMB and link perturbations of key toxicological pathways to adverse effects in the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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