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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344111/no-sight-no-smell-brain-anatomy-of-two-amphipod-crustaceans-with-different-lifestyles
#1
Till Ramm, Gerhard Scholtz
The brain anatomy of Niphargus puteanus and Orchestia cavimana, two amphipod species with different lifestyles, has been studied using a variety of recent techniques. The general aspects of the brain anatomy of both species correspond to those of other malacostracans. However, both species lack hemiellipsoid bodies. Furthermore, related to their lifestyle certain differences have been observed. The aquatic subterranean species Niphargus puteanus lacks eye structures, the optic nerve, and the two outer optic neuropils lamina and medulla...
March 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342560/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-surfactants-in-the-bioaccumulation-kinetics-of-sulfamethoxazole-and-oxazepam-in-benthic-invertebrates
#2
Maria Jesus Garcia-Galan, Martin Sordet, Audrey Buleté, Jeanne Garric, Emmanuelle Vulliet
The potential ecotoxicological effects of mixtures of contaminants in the aquatic environment are generating a global concern. Benthic invertebrates, such as the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, are key in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and are frequently used as sentinel species of water quality status. The aim of this work was to study the effects of a mixture of the most frequently detected surfactants in the bioconcentration kinetics of two pharmaceuticals in G. fossarum, evaluating their potential enhancing or suppressing effects...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342010/aridity-promotes-bet-hedging-via-delayed-hatching-a-case-study-with-two-temporary-pond-crustaceans-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#3
Tom Pinceel, Bram Vanschoenwinkel, Wouter Hawinkel, Karen Tuytens, Luc Brendonck
Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments...
March 24, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341647/estimating-seven-coefficients-of-pairwise-relatedness-using-population-genomic-data
#4
Matthew S Ackerman, Parul Johri, Ken Spitze, Sen Xu, Thomas G Doak, Kimberly Young, Michael Lynch
Population structure can be described by genotypic correlation coefficients between groups of individuals, the most basic of which are the pair-wise relatedness coefficients between any two individuals. There are nine pair-wise relatedness coefficients in the most general model, and we show that these can be reduced to seven coefficients for biallelic loci. Although all nine coefficients can be estimated from pedigrees, six coefficients have been beyond empirical reach. We provide a numerical optimization procedure that estimates all seven reduced coefficients from population-genomic data...
March 24, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336096/multigenerational-effects-of-two-glucocorticoids-prednisolone-and-dexamethasone-on-life-history-parameters-of-crustacean-ceriodaphnia-dubia-cladocera
#5
Navdeep Bal, Anupama Kumar, Jun Du, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) and prednisolone (PDS) have been used since the 1940s to cure inflammatory and auto-immune disorders. Their use has been linked to a host of deleterious effects in aquatic ecosystems such as osteoporosis in vertebrates, developmental impairments in molluscs and reduced fecundity and growth in cladocerans. Apart from these handful of studies, the effects of GCs on aquatic biota are largely unknown. The present study is a first of its kind aiming to assess the multi-generational exposure effects of DEX and PDS on the life history parameters of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#6
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331392/marine-biodiversity-baseline-for-%C3%A3-rea-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-costa-rica-published-records
#7
REVIEW
Jorge Cortés
The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930's by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990's, except for the marine turtles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330926/a-new-crustacean-from-the-herefordshire-silurian-lagerst%C3%A3-tte-uk-and-its-significance-in-malacostracan-evolution
#8
David J Siveter, Derek E G Briggs, Derek J Siveter, Mark D Sutton, David Legg
Cascolus ravitis gen. et sp. nov. is a three-dimensionally preserved fossil crustacean with soft parts from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK. It is characterized by a head with a head shield and five limb pairs, and a thorax (pereon) with nine appendage-bearing segments followed by an apodous abdomen (pleon). All the appendages except the first are biramous and have a gnathobase. The post-mandibular appendages are similar one to another, and bear petal-shaped epipods that probably functioned as a part of the respiratory-circulatory system...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330752/prevalence-and-distribution-of-covert-mortality-nodavirus-cmnv-in-cultured-crustacean
#9
Qingli Zhang, TingTing Xu, Xiaoyuan Wan, Shuang Liu, Xiuhua Wang, Xiaoping Li, Xuan Dong, Bing Yang, Jie Huang
An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330229/production-purification-and-characterization-of-halophilic-organic-solvent-tolerant-protease-from-marine-crustacean-shell-wastes-and-its-efficacy-on-deproteinization
#10
Thirumalai Maruthiah, Beena Somanath, Jebamonydhas Vijila Jasmin, Grasian Immanuel, Arunachalam Palavesam
The quantum of marine fish wastes produced by fish processing industries has necessitated to search new methods for its disposal. Hence, this study is focused on production and purification of halophilic organic solvent tolerant protease (HOSP) from marine Alcaligenes faecalis APCMST-MKW6 using marine shell wastes as substrate. The candidate bacterium was isolated from the marine sediment of Manakudi coast and identified as A. faecalis APCMST-MKW6. The purified protease showed 16.39-fold purity, 70.34 U/mg specific activity with 21...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327713/metabolism-of-2-3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate-by-marine-bacteria
#11
Ersin Celik, Michael Maczka, Nils Bergen, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Stefan Schulz, Jeroen S Dickschat
Both enantiomers of the sulfoquinovose breakdown product 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate, an important sulfur metabolite produced by marine algae, were synthesised in a (34)S-labelled form and used in feeding experiments with marine bacteria. The labelling was efficiently incorporated into the sulfur-containing antibiotic tropodithietic acid and sulfur volatiles by the algal symbiont Phaeobacter inhibens, but not into sulfur volatiles released by marine bacteria associated with crustaceans. The ecological implications and the relevance of these findings for the global sulfur cycle are discussed...
March 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326483/assessment-of-sperm-quality-in-palaemonid-prawns-using-comet-assay-methodological-optimization
#12
Alexandre Erraud, Marc Bonnard, Aurélie Duflot, Alain Geffard, Jean-Michel Danger, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Benoît Xuereb
The aim of this study was to adapt the Comet assay in spermatozoa of the marine prawn Palaemon serratus to use it as a marker of sperm quality. Indeed, due to the characteristics of their spermatozoa, the measurement of DNA integrity is one of the few markers which can be transferred to crustaceans to assess the quality of their semen. In the first step, the methods of collecting and maintaining spermatozoa were optimized. Cell survival was estimated during kinetics of preservation (i.e. 1, 2, 4 and 8 h) in various suspension media to define artificial seawater (ASW) as optimal...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#13
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325173/patterns-and-processes-influencing-helminth-parasites-of-arctic-coastal-communities-during-climate-change
#14
K V Galaktionov
This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322350/agonist-mediated-assembly-of-the-crustacean-methyl-farnesoate-receptor
#15
Elizabeth K Medlock Kakaley, Helen Y Wang, Gerald A LeBlanc
The methyl farnesoate receptor (MfR) orchestrates aspects of reproduction and development such as male sex determination in branchiopod crustaceans. Phenotypic endpoints regulated by the receptor have been well-documented, but molecular interactions involved in receptor activation remain elusive. We hypothesized that the MfR subunits, methoprene-tolerant transcription factor (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), would be expressed coincident with the timing of sex programming of developing oocytes by methyl farnesoate in daphnids...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315939/the-transient-potassium-outward-current-has-different-roles-in-modulating-the-pyloric-and-gastric-mill-rhythms-in-the-stomatogastric-ganglion
#16
Lin Zhu, Allen I Selverston, Joseph Ayers
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system is a classic model for understanding the effects of modulating ionic currents and synapses at both the cell and network levels. The stomatogastric ganglion in this system contains two distinct central pattern generators: a slow gastric mill network that generates flexible rhythmic outputs (8-20 s) and is often silent, and a fast pyloric network that generates more consistent rhythmic outputs (0.5-2 s) and is always active in vitro. Different ionic conductances contribute to the properties of individual neurons and therefore to the overall dynamics of the pyloric and gastric mill networks...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315393/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6-participates-in-peroxinectin-gene-expression-in-fenneropenaeus-penicillatus
#17
Shuanghu Cai, Yucong Huang, Bei Wang, Jichang Jian, Youhou Xu
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an important cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. In the study, the full-length cDNA of a TRAF6 homolog (FpTRAF6) was identified from Fenneropenaeus penicillatus. The full-length cDNA of FpTRAF6 is 2033 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, and a conserved C-terminal meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain...
March 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#18
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300613/identification-and-characterization-of-a-masculinizer-masc-gene-involved-in-sex-differentiation-in-artemia
#19
Dong-Rui Li, Hui-Li Ye, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, Mo-Ran Wang, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
The sex of relatively primitive animals such as invertebrates is mostly determined by environmental factors and chromosome ploidy. Heteromorphic chromosomes may also play an important role, as in the ZW system in lepidopterans. However, the mechanisms of these various sex determination systems are still largely undefined. In the present study, a Masculinizer gene (Ar-Masc) was identified in the crustacean Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1140-bp full-length open reading frame of Ar-Masc encodes a 380-aa protein containing two CCCH-type zinc finger domains having a high degree of shared identities with the MASC protein characterized in the silkworm Bombyx mori, which has been determined to participate in the production of male-specific splice variants...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299929/metal-transfer-among-organs-following-acute-and-chronic-exposures-using-autoradiography-cadmium-bioaccumulation-by-macrobrachium-australiense
#20
Tom Cresswell, Debashish Mazumder, Paul D Callaghan, An Phuc Nguyen, Michael Corry, Stuart L Simpson
The uptake, depuration and organ distribution of the radioisotope 109Cd was used to explore the internal kinetics of this non-essential metal following accumulation from solution by the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense. Acute (6 h) and chronic (7 to 14 d) exposures to the radioisotope in solutions of 0.56 µg Cd/L, were followed by depuration in metal- and isotope-free water for up to 21 d. The anatomical distribution of the radionuclide was visualised using autoradiography at pre-defined time points...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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