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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231503/ecotoxicity-assessment-of-ionic-as-iii-as-v-in-iii-and-ga-iii-species-potentially-released-from-novel-iii-v-semiconductor-materials
#1
Chao Zeng, Adrian Gonzalez-Alvarez, Emily Orenstein, Jim A Field, Farhang Shadman, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
III-V materials such as indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are increasingly used in electronic and photovoltaic devices. The extensive application of these materials may lead to release of III-V ionic species during semiconductor manufacturing or disposal of decommissioned devices into the environment. Although arsenic is recognized as an important contaminant due to its high toxicity, there is a lack of information about the toxic effects of indium and gallium ions. In this study, acute toxicity of As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species was evaluated using two microbial assays testing for methanogenic activity and O2 uptake, as well as two bioassays targeting aquatic organisms, including the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition) and the crustacean Daphnia magna (mortality)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#2
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230237/parasitism-drives-host-genome-evolution-insights-from-the-pasteuria-ramosa-daphnia-magna-system
#3
Yann Bourgeois, Anne C Roulin, Kristina Müller, Dieter Ebert
Because parasitism is thought to play a major role in shaping host genomes, it has been predicted that genomic regions associated with resistance to parasites should stand out in genome scans, revealing signals of selection above the genomic background. To test whether parasitism is indeed such a major factor in host evolution and to better understand host-parasite interaction at the molecular level, we studied genome-wide polymorphisms in 97 genotypes of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna originating from three localities across Europe...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229028/small-scale-spatial-variation-in-population-and-individual-level-reproductive-parameters-of-the-blue-legged-hermit-crab-clibanarius-tricolor
#4
J Antonio Baeza, Donald C Behringer
Management of the few regulated ornamental fisheries relies on inadequate information about the life history of the target species. Herein, we investigated the reproductive biology of the most heavily traded marine invertebrate in the western Atlantic; the blue-legged hermit crab Clibanarius tricolor. We report on density, individual-level, and population-level reproductive parameters in 14 populations spanning the Florida Keys. In C. tricolor, abundance, population-level, and individual-level reproductive parameters exhibited substantial small-scale spatial variation in the Florida Keys...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223924/insect-like-organization-of-the-stomatopod-central-complex-functional-and-phylogenetic-implications
#5
Hanne H Thoen, Justin Marshall, Gabriella H Wolff, Nicholas J Strausfeld
One approach to investigating functional attributes of the central complex is to relate its various elaborations to pancrustacean phylogeny, to taxon-specific behavioral repertoires and ecological settings. Here we review morphological similarities between the central complex of stomatopod crustaceans and the central complex of dicondylic insects. We discuss whether their central complexes possess comparable functional properties, despite the phyletic distance separating these taxa, with mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) belonging to the basal branch of Eumalacostraca...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222980/acute-water-quality-criteria-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pesticides-plastic-additives-and-4-nonylphenol-in-seawater
#6
I Durán, R Beiras
Probabilistic environmental quality criteria for Naphthalene (Nap), Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), Triclosan (TCS), Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorpyrifos (CPY), Diuron (DUR), γ-Hexaclorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) were derived from acute toxicity data using saltwater species representative of marine ecosystems, including algae, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and chordates. Preferably, data concerns sublethal endpoints and early life stages from bioassays conducted in our laboratory, but the data set was completed with a broad literature survey...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222092/the-genetic-basis-of-resistance-and-matching-allele-interactions-of-a-host-parasite-system-the-daphnia-magna-pasteuria-ramosa-model
#7
Gilberto Bento, Jarkko Routtu, Peter D Fields, Yann Bourgeois, Louis Du Pasquier, Dieter Ebert
Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218427/two-vitellogenins-in-the-loliginid-squid-uroteuthis-edulis-identification-and-specific-expression-in-ovarian-follicles
#8
Hajime Kitano, Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
Vitellogenenesis is a physiological process common in oviparous animals. The molecular profile, modifications, and utilization of vitellogenin (VTG), a precursor of yolk protein, have been characterized in various taxa to understand oogenesis within different modes of reproduction. Hormonal regulation of VTGs has been investigated in invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; conversely, little is known for cephalopods. In this study, we isolated two VTG genes (ue-VTG1 and ue-VTG2) from the loliginid swordtip squid, Uroteuthis edulis, via a comprehensive survey of a transcriptome database and subsequent cDNA cloning...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217108/chemotaxis-without-conventional-two-component-system-based-on-cell-polarity-and-aerobic-conditions-in-helicity-switching-swimming-of-spiroplasma-eriocheiris
#9
Peng Liu, Huajun Zheng, Qingguo Meng, Natsuho Terahara, Wei Gu, Shengyue Wang, Guoping Zhao, Daisuke Nakane, Wen Wang, Makoto Miyata
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216094/fusion-of-flagellin-2-with-bivalent-white-spot-syndrome-virus-vaccine-increases-survival-in-freshwater-shrimp
#10
Hansam Cho, Na Hye Park, Yuyeon Jang, Yong-Dae Gwon, Yeondong Cho, Yoon-Ki Heo, Ki-Hoon Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Tae Jin Choi, Young Bong Kim
Despite large economic losses attributable to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an infectious pathogen of penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans worldwide, no efficient vaccines or antiviral agents to control the virus are available at present. Here, we designed and constructed baculovirus-based vaccines delivering genes encoding the WSSV envelope proteins, VP28 and VP19. To enhance the immunogenicity of the baculovirus-based vaccine, we fused a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin 2 (FL2) gene with VP28 or VP19 gene...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212295/short-chain-chitin-oligomers-promoters-of-plant-growth
#11
Alexander J Winkler, Jose Alfonso Dominguez-Nuñez, Inmaculada Aranaz, César Poza-Carrión, Katrina Ramonell, Shauna Somerville, Marta Berrocal-Lobo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose, and it forms an integral part of insect exoskeletons, crustacean shells, krill and the cell walls of fungal spores, where it is present as a high-molecular-weight molecule. In this study, we showed that a chitin oligosaccharide of lower molecular weight (tetramer) induced genes in Arabidopsis that are principally related to vegetative growth, development and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Based on plant responses to this chitin tetramer, a low-molecular-weight chitin mix (CHL) enriched to 92% with dimers (2mer), trimers (3mer) and tetramers (4mer) was produced for potential use in biotechnological processes...
February 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#12
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207859/differential-effects-of-silencing-crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-gene-expression-on-the-metabolic-profiles-of-the-muscle-and-hepatopancreas-in-the-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#13
Wenfeng Li, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Yi-Chun Tien, Shih-Fu Tsai, Li-Jane Shih, Chien-Hsun Lee, Jean-Yves Toullec, Chi-Ying Lee
In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194319/candidate-genes-that-have-facilitated-freshwater-adaptation-by-palaemonid-prawns-in-the-genus-macrobrachium-identification-and-expression-validation-in-a-model-species-m-koombooloomba
#14
Md Lifat Rahi, Shorash Amin, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba, provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. METHODS: The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193816/ontogenetic-adaptations-in-the-visual-systems-of-deep-sea-crustaceans
#15
Tamara M Frank
For all visually competent organisms, the driving force behind the adaptation of photoreceptors involves obtaining the best balance of resolution to sensitivity in the prevailing light regime, as an increase in sensitivity often results in a decrease in resolution. A number of marine species have an additional problem to deal with, in that the juvenile stages live in relatively brightly lit shallow (100-200 m depth) waters, whereas the adult stages have daytime depths of more than 600 m, where little downwelling light remains...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193419/chemical-stability-of-astaxanthin-integrated-into-a-food-matrix-effects-of-food-processing-and-methods-for-preservation
#16
REVIEW
Alejandra Anahí Martínez-Delgado, Sanghamitra Khandual, Socorro Josefina Villanueva-Rodríguez
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187397/environmental-safety-review-of-methoprene-and-bacterially-derived-pesticides-commonly-used-for-sustained-mosquito-control
#17
REVIEW
Sharon P Lawler
Some pesticides are applied directly to aquatic systems to reduce numbers of mosquito larvae (larvicides) and thereby reduce transmission of pathogens that mosquitoes vector to humans and wildlife. Sustained, environmentally-safe control of larval mosquitoes is particularly needed for highly productive waters (e.g., catchment basins, water treatment facilities, septic systems), but also for other habitats to maintain control and reduce inspection costs. Common biorational pesticides include the insect juvenile hormone mimic methoprene and pesticides derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Saccharopolyspora spinosa (spinosad)...
February 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183106/systematics-and-biogeography-of-cuban-porcelain-crabs-decapoda-anomura-porcellanidae
#18
Yander L Diez, Carlos Lira
Marine crustaceans are a well-known invertebrates group in Cuban waters, but some taxa are not well catalogued and the literature about them is scattered. In this work, we present the checklist of porcelain crabs of Cuban Archipelago, including the literature registers and unpublished author's data. A key to the identification of 8 genera and 23 species of the Cuban porcelain crabs is provided. Information about the local distribution of species is presented. In addition, we analyzed the porcelain crab faunal affinities between the ecoregions of the Cuban platform, Greater Antilles islands and the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic (TNA) province...
January 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177846/nuclear-dna-content-correlates-with-depth-body-size-and-diversification-rate-in-amphipod-crustaceans-from-ancient-lake-baikal-russia
#19
Nicholas W Jeffery, Lev Y Yampolsky, Ryan Gregory
Lake Baikal in Russia is a large, ancient lake that has been the site of a major radiation of amphipod crustaceans. Nearly 400 named species are known in this single lake, and it is thought that many more await description. The size and depth of Lake Baikal, in particular, may have contributed to the radiation of endemic amphipods by providing a large number of microhabitats for species to invade and subsequently experience reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the possibility that large-scale genomic changes have also accompanied diversification in these crustaceans...
November 14, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177286/sloppy-morphological-tuning-in-identified-neurons-of-the-crustacean-stomatogastric-ganglion
#20
Adriane G Otopalik, Marie L Goeritz, Alexander C Sutton, Ted Brookings, Cosmo Joseph Guerini, Eve Marder
Neuronal physiology depends on a neuron's ion channel composition and unique morphology. Variable ion channel compositions can produce similar neuronal physiologies across animals. Less is known regarding the morphological precision required to produce reliable neuronal physiology. Theoretical studies suggest that morphology is tightly tuned to minimize wiring and conduction delay of synaptic events. We utilize high-resolution confocal microscopy and custom computational tools to characterize the morphologies of four neuron types in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab Cancer borealis...
February 8, 2017: ELife
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