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Boworn Soonthornsumrith, Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Ronnarong Palasoon, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean species which has also been extensively used as a model in neuroscience research. The crustacean central nervous system is a highly complex structure, especially the brain. However, little information is available on the brain structure, especially the three-dimensional organization. In this study, we demonstrated the three-dimensional structure and histology of the brain of M. rosenbergii together with the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and ovary as well as its effects on ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Xiaozhen Yang, Genyong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Cong Zhang, Yongxu Cheng, Zhigang Yang
Dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in numerous physiological processes such as light adaptation and food intake, and exerts these functions through DA receptors (DARs). This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of the dopamine receptor 2(DA2 receptor) cDNA from the intestinal tissue of Eriocheir sinensis, an economically important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The DA2 receptor cDNA sequence, which was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, is 2369bp long, encode peptide of 589 amino acid, and is highly homologous to related sequences in crustaceans...
2018: PloS One
LiLi Shi, Bin Li, Ting Ting Zhou, Wei Wang, Siuming F Chan
The recent use of RNA-Seq to study the transcriptomes of different species has helped identify a large number of new genes from different non-model organisms. In this study, five distinctive transcripts encoding for neuropeptide members of the CHH/MIH/GIH family have been identified from the spermatophore transcriptome of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. The size of these transcripts ranged from 531 bp to 1771 bp. Four transcripts encoded different CHH-family subtype I members, and one transcript encoded a subtype II member...
2018: PloS One
Jessica A Gilpin, Nanette E Chadwick
Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Márcia Trapp, Sandra Costa Valle, Alan Gomes Pöppl, Ana Lúcia Fernandes Chittó, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Roselis Silveira Martins Da Silva
The present study determined the effect of osmotic stress on the insulin-like receptor binding characteristics and on glucose metabolism in the anterior (AG) and posterior (PG) gills of the crab Neohelice granulata. Bovine insulin increased the capacity of the PG cell membrane to phosphorylate exogenous substrate poly (Glu:Tyr 4:1) and the glucose uptake in the control crab group. The crabs were submitted to three periods of hyperosmotic (HR) and hyposmotic (HO) stress, for 24, 72 and 144 h, to investigate the insulin-like receptor phosphorylation capacity of gills...
March 13, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Thomas Verhaeghe, Christof Van Poucke, Geertrui Vlaemynck, Jan De Block, Marc Hendrickx
Heat-induced color changes of crustaceans are commonly described as the release of astaxanthin. In this study on Crangon crangon, it was found that astaxanthin plays a minor role in the (dis)coloration. By LC-HRMS, two polar, process dependent pigments were found. One pigment was identified as riboflavin and one as drosopterin (level-2 certainty). Thermal treatments had highest effect on drosopterin concentration changes and were chosen as indicator for a kinetic study of heat-induced color changes. The kinetic data fitted a consecutive step model (r2  = 0...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jing-Rong Kong, Wei Wei, Xue-Li Qiao, Huan Kang, Di Huang, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
It is well known that PI3K regulates various processes in mammalian cells by generating a secondary messenger that later activates AKT. However, its innate immune function in crustaceans remains unclear. We report the characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei PI3K (LvPI3K) for investigating how PI3K participates in the innate immunity of crustaceans. Full-length LvPI3K cDNA was 3357 bp long, with a 3222 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 1292 amino acids. The PI3K catalytic domain (PI3Kc) of LvPI3K was found to be rather conserved when the PI3Ks from other species were analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Xin Man, Xin Huang, Yue Wang, Qi-Sheng Song, Kai-Min Hui, Hong-Wei Zhang
C-type lectins are important immune molecules that participate in crustacean defense response. The present work reports a novel C-type lectin (PcLec6) from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. PcLec6 encodes a single-peptide protein of 385 amino acids, which include a C-type lectin domain (CTLD) and a serine-rich region. PcLec6 expression in lymph organ and gills was up-regulated after bacterial challenge by Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Recombinant full-length PcLec6 or its CTLD proteins were used for the functional analyses...
March 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Manuel Elías-Gutiérrez, Martha Valdez-Moreno, Janet Topan, Monica R Young, José Angel Cohuo-Colli
Currently, freshwater zooplankton sampling and identification methodologies have remained virtually unchanged since they were first established in the beginning of the XX century. One major contributing factor to this slow progress is the limited success of modern genetic methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, in several of the main groups. This study demonstrates improved protocols which enable the rapid assessment of most animal taxa inhabiting any freshwater system by combining the use of light traps, careful fixation at low temperatures using ethanol, and zooplankton-specific primers...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Gabriella Di Lena, Irene Casini, Roberto Caproni, Elena Orban
This study investigated mercury contamination levels in eight commercially valuable Crustacean species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy. Total mercury levels were measured by Thermal Decomposition-Amalgamation-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results showed a high variability among species with values ranging between 0.070 and 1.24 (mg kg-1 wet weight). The lowest mercury levels were detected in caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus), warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and European spider crab (Maja squinado), decapods living in shallow waters...
March 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Paula Pierozan, Marie Andersson, Ingvar Brandt, Oskar Karlsson
The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a glutamate receptor agonist that can induce oxidative stress and has been implicated as a possible risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Detection of BMAA in mussels, crustaceans and fish, illustrates that the sources of human exposure to this toxin are more abundant than previously anticipated. The aim of this study was to determine uptake of BMAA in the pineal gland and subsequent effects on melatonin production in primary pinealocyte cultures and a rat model...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Andrew E Christie, Micah G Pascual, Andy Yu
Peptides are the largest/most diverse class of molecules used by animals for chemical communication, and with their cognate receptors, are key players in modulating physiological/behavioral control systems, including those involved in adaptation to environmental change. Crustaceans have long served as models for investigating peptidergic control of physiology/behavior, and members of Notostraca, an ancient branchiopod order, have recently been proposed as models for investigating the genetic/physiological underpinnings of ecoresponsiveness; nothing is currently known about the genes/proteins underlying peptidergic signaling in any member of this crustacean taxon...
March 8, 2018: Marine Genomics
Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Michelle Giltrap, Peng Lu, P J Cullen, Paula Bourke
Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Renée Katrin Bechmann, Emily Lyng, Stig Westerlund, Shaw Bamber, Mark Berry, Maj Arnberg, Alfhild Kringstad, Piero Calosi, Paul J Seear
Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB...
February 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Fu, Fang Zhu, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Weiwei Song, Ce Shi, Yangfang Ye, Chunlin Wang
The swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) is among the most economically important seawater crustacean species in Asia. Despite its commercial importance and being well-studied status, genomic and transcriptomic data are scarce for this crab species. In the present study, limb bud tissue was collected at different developmental stages post amputation for transcriptomic analysis. Illumina RNA-sequencing was applied to characterise the limb regeneration transcriptome and identify the most characteristic genes...
March 7, 2018: Gene
Sangily Jayanthi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramachandran Ishwarya, Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Csaba Vágvölgyi
Prophenoloxidase is a conserved Cu-containing enzyme acting as a major defense molecule in the immune response of crustaceans. In the present research, we purified prophenoloxidase from the haemolymph of Portunus pelagicus (Pp-proPO) by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Pp-proPO exhibited only one band with molecular weight of 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified Pp-proPO was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pp-proPO showed phagocytic activity on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as encapsulation on sepharose CL-6B beads associated with CM sepharose and beads of sodium alginate...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Amanda L Dawson, So Kawaguchi, Catherine K King, Kathy A Townsend, Robert King, Wilhelmina M Huston, Susan M Bengtson Nash
Microplastics (plastics <5 mm diameter) are at the forefront of current environmental pollution research, however, little is known about the degradation of microplastics through ingestion. Here, by exposing Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) to microplastics under acute static renewal conditions, we present evidence of physical size alteration of microplastics ingested by a planktonic crustacean. Ingested microplastics (31.5 µm) are fragmented into pieces less than 1 µm in diameter. Previous feeding studies have shown spherical microplastics either; pass unaffected through an organism and are excreted, or are sufficiently small for translocation to occur...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
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