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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155966/crustacean-larvae-vision-in-the-plankton
#1
Thomas W Cronin, Michael J Bok, Chan Lin
We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154857/astakines-in-arthropods-phylogeny-and-gene-structure
#2
Lena Ericsson, Irene Söderhäll
Astakine1 was isolated as a hematopoietic cytokine in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study we detect and compare 79 sequences in GenBank, which we consider to be possible astakine orthologs, among which eleven are crustacean, sixteen are chelicerate and 52 are from insect species. Available arthropod genomes are searched for astakines, and in conclusion all astakine sequences in the current study have a similar exon containing CCXX(X), thus potentially indicating that they are homologous genes with the structure of this exon highly conserved...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152671/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-differentially-expressed-genes-and-long-non-coding-rnas-between-ovary-and-testis-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#3
Xiaolong Yang, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Xincang Li, Fan Lin, Qingyang Wu, Yueling Zhang, Cuihong You, Wenhua Liu, Yinwei Cheng, Xi Shi, Shuqi Wang, Hongyu Ma
The molecular mechanism underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) has received considerable attention, due to the remarkably biological and economic differences between sexes. However, sex-biased genes, especially non-coding genes, which account for these differences, remain elusive in this crustacean species. In this study, the first de novo gonad transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify both differentially expressed genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between male and female S...
November 20, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151571/host-genotype-dependent-gut-microbiota-drives-zooplankton-tolerance-to-toxic-cyanobacteria
#4
Emilie Macke, Martijn Callens, Luc De Meester, Ellen Decaestecker
The gut microbiota impacts many aspects of its host's biology, and is increasingly considered as a key factor mediating performance of host individuals in continuously changing environments. Here we use gut microbiota transplants to show that both host genotype and gut microbiota mediate tolerance to toxic cyanobacteria in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Interclonal variation in tolerance to cyanobacteria disappears when Daphnia are made germ-free and inoculated with an identical microbial inoculum...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#5
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148084/size-shape-and-sex-dependent-variation-in-force-production-by-crayfish-chelae
#6
Brian M Malavé, Joseph M Styga, Ethan D Clotfelter
The ability to generate large closing forces is important for many animals. Several studies have demonstrated that bite or pinching force capacity is usually related to the linear dimensions of the closing apparatus. However, relatively few studies have applied geometric morphometrics to examine the effects of size-independent shape on force production, particularly in studies of crustacean pinching force. In this study, we utilized traditional and geometric morphometric techniques to compare the pinching force of Procambarus clarkii crayfish to their chela morphology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141033/transcriptome-profiling-of-claw-muscle-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-at-different-fattening-stages
#7
Qingling Jiang, Chenchang Bao, Ya'nan Yang, An Liu, Fang Liu, Huiyang Huang, Haihui Ye
In crustaceans, muscle growth and development is complicated, and to date substantial knowledge gaps exist. In this study, the claw muscle, hepatopancreas and nervous tissue of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were collected at three fattening stages for sequence by the Illumina sequencing. A total of 127.87 Gb clean data with no less than 3.94 Gb generated for each sample and the cycleQ30 percentages were more than 86.13% for all samples. De Bruijn assembly of these clean data produced 94,853 unigenes, thereinto, 50,059 unigenes were found in claw muscle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140656/an-analysis-of-%C3%A2-natural%C3%A2-food-litigation-to-build-a-sesame-allergy-consumer-class-action
#8
Dana Shaker
In a world where food allergy is still an incurable disease, law and regulation stand as necessary mechanisms to provide food-allergic consumers with the information they need to protect their health. The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 provided specific labeling requirements for the “Top Eight” allergens in the U.S.: milk, soy, gluten, egg, tree nut, peanut, fish, and Crustacean shellfish. Since then, sesame has become more prevalent as an allergen and remains just as dangerous, inducing anaphylactic shock in some sesame-allergic individuals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137620/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-in-vibrio-anguillarum-results-in-virulence-attenuation-and-immunoprotection-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Xiangyu Mou, Edward J Spinard, Shelby L Hillman, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V...
November 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134016/a-new-species-of-notodiaptomus-from-the-ecuadorian-andes-copepoda-calanoida-diaptomidae
#10
Miguel Alonso, Edinaldo N Dos Santos-Silva, Damià Jaume
Notodiaptomus cannarensissp. n. is described from a reservoir on the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species is unique among diaptomid calanoid copepods in the display of hypertrophied, symmetrical wing-like extensions at each side of the female composite genital somite. Furthermore, it displays a female urosome reduced to only two somites due to the incorporation of abdominal somites III and IV to the composite genital double-somite, and a male right fifth leg with the outer spine of second exopodal segment recurved and implanted proximally on margin...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133147/cdna-sequences-of-ghf9-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-glucanases-in-terrestrial-crustacea
#11
Michael Gray, Stuart M Linton, Benjamin J Allardyce
This study aimed to sequence and identify a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) endo-β-1,4-glucanase expressed in the midgut gland of the herbivorous gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis. Hence this would explain the gene responsible for the production of previously purified and characterised endo-β-1,4-glucanases. Three different transcripts, two complete and one partial were sequenced from cDNA and an open reading frame of 1383bp was produced. Translated, this would produce a putative protein of 460 amino acid residues, including a 16 amino acid residue signal peptide...
November 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125954/going-deeper-into-phosphorus-adsorbents-for-lake-restoration-combined-effects-of-magnetic-particles-intraspecific-competition-and-habitat-heterogeneity-pressure-on-daphnia-magna
#12
Ana Del Arco, Gema Parra, Inmaculada de Vicente
Aquatic population responses to chemical exposure may be exacerbated by intraspecific competition pressures, being also shaped by habitat heterogeneity. Magnetic particles (MPs) have been recently proposed as promising phosphorus (P) adsorbents for lake restoration. This study focuses on assessing the effects of MPs on the abundance of the crustacean Daphnia magna under different levels of both intraspecific competition pressure and habitat heterogeneity. The experimental design consisted of two experiments (in homogeneous and heterogeneous habitats) done in glass jars with four concentrations of MPs: controls of 0g MPsL(-1), and treatments of 1, 1...
November 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124633/an-update-of-the-worldwide-integrated-assessment-wia-on-systemic-insecticides-part-2-impacts-on-organisms-and-ecosystems
#13
Lennard Pisa, Dave Goulson, En-Cheng Yang, David Gibbons, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Edward Mitchell, Alexandre Aebi, Jeroen van der Sluijs, Chris J K MacQuarrie, Chiara Giorio, Elizabeth Yim Long, Melanie McField, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121070/identification-and-characterization-of-intestine-micrornas-and-targets-in-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#14
Zhi-Qiang Du, Kai Wang, Xiu-Li Shen, Yan-Hui Jin, Hai-Xia Jin, Xin-Cang Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in the innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In the present study, high-throughput small RNA Illumina sequencing systems were used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) from the intestines of Procambarus clarkii that were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). As a result, 39 known and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in both NG and WG small RNA libraries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120774/a-group-specific-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-crab-a-crustacean-shellfish-allergen-in-complex-food-matrices
#15
Anne C Eischeid, Sarah R Stadig
A real-time PCR assay was developed for detection of crab, a crustacean allergen, in food products. Group-specific primers and probes were developed to detect numerous species of crab. Method validation included tests of detection in complex food matrices, evaluation of commercial food products, and cross-reactivity testing on a wide variety of crustaceans. The method was able to detect several species of crab spiked into complex food matrices at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10(5) parts per million (weight/weight), worked equally well on different platforms, exhibited high specificity for crab over other types of crustaceans, and yielded much higher signals from commercial food products listing crab as an ingredient than from those containing other crustaceans...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119204/benzalkonium-chloride-and-anticancer-drugs-in-binary-mixtures-reproductive-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-in-the-freshwater-crustacean-ceriodaphnia-dubia
#16
Chiara Russo, Michael Kundi, Margherita Lavorgna, Alfredo Parrella, Marina Isidori
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a cationic surfactant commonly used as a disinfectant. Its ubiquitous nature is the result of high usage and frequent discharge into the environment and evidence of interaction with numerous contaminants, such as pharmaceutical active compound residues. Anticancer drugs, among these compounds, are able to exert eco-genotoxic effects at sub ng-µg/L. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive toxicity and the genotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide (ET), and imatinib mesylate (IM)-binary mixtures combined with BAC in Ceriodaphnia dubia...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117456/testing-hypotheses-for-maternal-effects-in-daphnia-magna
#17
C M Coakley, E Nestoros, T J Little
Maternal effects are widely observed, but their adaptive nature remains difficult to describe and interpret. We investigated adaptive maternal effects in a clone of the crustacean Daphnia magna, experimentally varying both maternal age and maternal food and subsequently varying food available to offspring. We had two main predictions: that offspring in a food environment matched to their mothers should fare better than offspring in unmatched environments, and that offspring of older mothers would fare better in low food environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112116/application-of-chitosan-chitooligosaccharide-and-their-derivatives-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Qian-Qian Ouyang, Shannon Zhao, Si-Dong Li, Cai Song
Classic hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuron death, acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency, metal ion dynamic equilibrium disorder, and deposition of amyloid and tau. Increased evidence suggests neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may cause AD. However, none of these factors induces AD independently, but they are all associated with the formation of Aβ and tau proteins. Current clinical treatments based on ACh deficiency can only temporarily relieve symptoms, accompanied with many side-effects...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110589/antimicrobial-peptides-of-marine-crustaceans-the-potential-and-challenges-of-developing-therapeutic-agents
#19
Negar Talaei Zanjani, Monica Miranda-Saksena, Anthony L Cunningham, Fariba Dehghani
The alarming increase of antimicrobial resistance has led to a fast growing body of studies aiming to develop novel antimicrobial therapeutics. Natural antimicrobial peptides possess a potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity combined with diverse and unique structural motifs, which confer their different mechanisms of action. These peptides are ubiquitous in organisms and are integral to the innate immune system. Recently, identification of antimicrobial peptides from marine crustaceans has become the centre of attention of many researchers...
November 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109403/identification-of-unusual-peptides-with-new-cys-frameworks-in-the-venom-of-the-cold-water-sea-anemone-cnidopus-japonicus
#20
Vladislav V Babenko, Alexander N Mikov, Valentin A Manuvera, Nickolay A Anikanov, Sergey I Kovalchuk, Yaroslav A Andreev, Yulia A Logashina, Daniil A Kornilov, Alexander I Manolov, Nadya P Sanamyan, Karen E Sanamyan, Elena S Kostryukova, Sergey A Kozlov, Eugene V Grishin, Vadim M Govorun, Vassili N Lazarev
Sea anemones (Actiniaria) are intensely popular objects of study in venomics. Order Actiniaria includes more than 1,000 species, thus presenting almost unlimited opportunities for the discovery of novel biologically active molecules. The venoms of cold-water sea anemones are studied far less than the venoms of tropical sea anemones. In this work, we analysed the molecular venom composition of the cold-water sea anemone Cnidopus japonicus. Two sets of NGS data from two species revealed molecules belonging to a variety of structural classes, including neurotoxins, toxin-like molecules, linear polypeptides (Cys-free), enzymes, and cytolytics...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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