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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525787/metals-in-the-scheldt-estuary-from-environmental-concentrations-to-bioaccumulation
#1
Evy Van Ael, Ronny Blust, Lieven Bervoets
To investigate the relationship between metal concentrations in abiotic compartments and in aquatic species, sediment, suspended matter and several aquatic species (Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, four crustacean species, three mollusc species and eight fish species) were collected during three seasons at six locations along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands-Belgium) and analysed on their metal content (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and the metalloid As). Sediment and biota tissue concentrations were significantly influenced by sampling location, but not by season...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522173/variation-in-the-immune-state-of-gammarus-pulex-crustacea-amphipoda-according-to-temperature-are-extreme-temperatures-a-stress
#2
Sophie Labaude, Yannick Moret, Frank Cézilly, Charel Reuland, Thierry Rigaud
Temperature is known to impact host-parasite interactions in various ways. Such effects are often regarded as the consequence of the increased metabolism of parasites with increasing temperature. However, the effect of temperature on hosts' immune system could also be a determinant. Here we assessed the influence of temperature on the immunocompetence of the crustacean amphipod Gammarus pulex. Amphipods play a key ecological role in freshwater ecosystems that can be altered by several parasites. We investigated the consequences of three weeks of acclimatization at four temperatures (from 9 °C to 17 °C) on different immunological parameters...
May 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521934/talitrus-saltator-as-a-biomonitor-an-assessment-of-trace-element-contamination-on-an-urban-coastline-gradient
#3
Liam Morrison, Matthew Bennion, Ellen McGrory, William Hurley, M P Johnson
This study reports the first ever application of the trace element pollution index (TEPI) along a coastal, urban gradient using trace element concentrations (Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Zn and Se) in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator. Samples were collected from 10 sites in Galway Bay (Ireland) and concentrations of Pb showed the greatest spatial variation, likely due to the proximity of some sites to a former landfill and busy harbour. The TEPI used alongside the quartile method allowed for the assigning of sites to contamination level categories...
May 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521727/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-innate-immunity-reveals-novel-and-conserved-components-in-crustacean-food-crop-species
#4
Alvina G Lai, A Aziz Aboobaker
BACKGROUND: Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. RESULTS: Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521168/ecotoxicity-testing-and-environmental-risk-assessment-of-iron-nanomaterials-for-sub-surface-remediation-recommendations-from-the-fp7-project-nanorem
#5
Rune Hjorth, Claire Coutris, Nhung H A Nguyen, Alena Sevcu, Juliàn Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Anders Baun, Erik J Joner
Nanoremediation with iron (Fe) nanomaterials opens new doors for treating contaminated soil and groundwater, but is also accompanied by new potential risks as large quantities of engineered nanomaterials are introduced into the environment. In this study, we have assessed the ecotoxicity of four engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron(®) and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515237/increasing-the-illumination-slowly-over-several-weeks-protects-against-light-damage-in-the-eyes-of-the-crustacean-mysis-relicta
#6
Martta L M Viljanen, Noora E Nevala, Cecilia L Calais-Granö, K Magnus W Lindström, Kristian Donner
The eyes of two glacial-relict populations of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta inhabiting the different photic environments of a deep, dark-brown freshwater lake and a variably lit bay of the Baltic Sea differ in their susceptibility to functional depression from strong light exposures. The lake population is much more vulnerable than the sea population. We hypothesized that the difference reflects physiological adaptation mechanisms operating on long time scales rather than genetically fixed differences between the populations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#7
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507815/a-new-molecular-diagnostic-tool-for-surveying-and-monitoring-triops-cancriformis-populations
#8
Graham S Sellers, Larry R Griffin, Bernd Hänfling, Africa Gómez
The tadpole shrimp, Triops cancriformis, is a freshwater crustacean listed as endangered in the UK and Europe living in ephemeral pools. Populations are threatened by habitat destruction due to land development for agriculture and increased urbanisation. Despite this, there is a lack of efficient methods for discovering and monitoring populations. Established macroinvertebrate monitoring methods, such as net sampling, are unsuitable given the organism's life history, that include long lived diapausing eggs, benthic habits and ephemerally active populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506935/retrosynthesis-of-caco3-via-amorphous-precursor-particles-using-gastroliths-of-the-red-claw-lobster-cherax-quadricarinatus
#9
Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, María Soledad Fernández, Gonzalo Poblete Hevia, José Luis Arias, Denis Gebauer, Helmut Cölfen
Gastroliths are highly calcified structures formed in the cardiac stomach wall of crustaceans for the temporary storage of amorphous CaCO3 (ACC). The gastrolithic ACC is stabilized by the presence of biomolecules, and represents a novel model for research into biomineralization. For the first time, an in vitro biomimetic retrosynthesis of scaffolds of gastrolithic matrices with CaCO3 is presented. With the help of synthetic polyacrylic (PAA) and phytic (PA) acids, amorphous precursor particles were stabilized in double (DD) and gas (GD) diffusion crystallization assays...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505132/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-obtained-from-shells-of-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone
#10
Rayane Santa Cruz Martins de Queiroz Antonino, Bianca Rosa Paschoal Lia Fook, Vítor Alexandre de Oliveira Lima, Raid Ícaro de Farias Rached, Eunice Paloma Nascimento Lima, Rodrigo José da Silva Lima, Carlos Andrés Peniche Covas, Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry...
May 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502650/crayfish-immunity-recent-findings
#11
Lage Cerenius, Kenneth Söderhäll
Freshwater crayfish is an important commodity as well as a successful model for studies on crustacean immunity. Due to the ease with which they are kept and the available methods for hemocyte separation and culture they have proven to be very useful. Here, recent progress regarding pattern recognition, immune effector production and antiviral mechanisms are discussed. Several cases of functional resemblance between vertebrate complement and the crayfish immune reactions are highlighted.
May 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498314/photoactive-hybrid-catalysts-based-on-natural-and-synthetic-polymers-a-comparative-overview
#12
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Colmenares, Ewelina Kuna
In the present review, we would like to draw the reader's attention to the polymer-based hybrid materials used in photocatalytic processes for efficient degradation of organic pollutants in water. These inorganic-organic materials exhibit unique physicochemical properties due to the synergistic effect originating from the combination of individual elements, i.e., photosensitive metal oxides and polymeric supports. The possibility of merging the structural elements of hybrid materials allows for improving photocatalytic performance through (1) an increase in the light-harvesting ability; (2) a reduction in charge carrier recombination; and (3) prolongation of the photoelectron lifetime...
May 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493485/comprehensive-characterization-of-the-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiamethoxam-to-a-suite-of-aquatic-primary-producers-invertebrates-and-fish
#13
Meaghean S Finnegan, Leilan R Baxter, Jon Maul, Mark L Hanson, Paul F Hoekstra
Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. Here we report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices (GLP) for over 30 freshwater species (i.e., insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, fish) and four marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492806/plankton-crustaceans-in-bays-with-different-trophic-status-in-llanquihue-lake-41%C3%A2-s-chile
#14
P De Los Ríos Escalante, D Soto, R Santander-Massa, P Acevedo
The Llanquihue lake is included in the called Araucanian or Nord Patagonian lakes located between 38-41° S. These lakes are characterized by their oligo-mesotrophic status due to human intervention which takes to the increase in nutrients inputs from industries and towns. Effects on zooplankton assemblages are observed with marked increase of daphnids abundance. The aim of the present study is to analyze the trophic status and zooplankton relative abundance in different bays of Llanquihue lake. It was found direct associations between chlorophyll a with daphnids percentage, total dissolved nitrogen with reactive soluble phosphorus nitrogen/phosphorus molar radio with cyclopoids percentage, and an inverse relation between daphnids and calanoids percentages...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492174/hematodinium-spp-infections-in-wild-and-cultured-populations-of-marine-crustaceans-along-the-coast-of-china
#15
Jin-Feng Wang, Meng Li, Jie Xiao, Wen-Jun Xu, Cai-Wen Li
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium spp. infects a broad range of marine crustaceans. Its epidemics have impacted wild populations of various commercial fishery species around the world and the sustainability of mariculture in China. To study the epidemiology of Hematodinium spp. in marine crustaceans along the coast of China, we conducted a broad survey of wild and cultured stocks of major crustacean species in 2013 to 2015. Hematodinium sp. infections were identified in wild stocks of Portunus trituberculatus from Huludao, Laizhou, Qingdao, Yangtze River Estuary and Zhoushan, and Scylla paramamosain from Shantou; and cultured stocks of Portunus trituberculatus and Penaeus monodon from a polyculture pond in Qingdao...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492173/disease-ecology-of-hematodinium-perezi-in-a-high-salinity-estuary-investigating-seasonal-trends-in-environmental-detection
#16
K A Lycett, J S Pitula
The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has seen a general decline in population levels. One factor influencing mortality is infections by Hematodinium perezi, a dinoflagellate parasite. A 2 yr study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 to monitor H. perezi DNA within the Maryland (USA) coastal bays, comparing seasonal cycles in the abundance of parasite DNA in environmental samples to parasite presence in host blue crabs. A late summer to early fall peak in H. perezi infections in blue crabs was observed, consistent with previous work...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486514/comparative-study-of-acetylcholinesterase-and-glutathione-s-transferase-activities-of-closely-related-cave-and-surface-asellus-aquaticus-isopoda-crustacea
#17
Anita Jemec, David Škufca, Simona Prevorčnik, Žiga Fišer, Primož Zidar
The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482697/biotransformation-enzyme-activities-and-phase-i-metabolites-analysis-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-following-intramuscular-administration-of-t-2-toxin
#18
Yijia Deng, Yaling Wang, Lijun Sun, Pengli Lu, Rundong Wang, Lin Ye, Defeng Xu, Riying Ye, Ying Liu, Siyuan Bi, Ravi Gooneratne
T-2 toxin (T-2) is a type-A trichothecene produced by Fusarium that causes toxicity to animals. T-2 contamination of grain-based aquatic feed is a concern for the industries related to edible aquatic crustacean species such as the shrimp industry because it can lead to serious food safety issues. T-2, its metabolites, and selected phase I (EROD, CarE) and phase II (GST, UGT, SULT) detoxification enzymes in hemolymph and tissues were monitored at 0, 5, 10 15, 30, 45, and 60 min following T-2 intramuscular administration (3 mg/kg bw) in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482023/understanding-the-genomic-basis-of-adaptive-response-to-variable-osmotic-niches-in-freshwater-prawns-a-comparative-intraspecific-rna-seq-analysis-of-macrobrachium-australiense
#19
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
Understanding the molecular basis of adaptive response to variable environmental conditions is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Here we sought to identify potential outlier SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in three wild populations of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium australiense) that are exposed to differing osmotic niches by using a comparative transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of approximately 542 million (75 nt) pair end reads collected from 10 individuals revealed 123,396 longer contigs/transcripts of variable length, that showed 97...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481897/macroscale-patterns-in-body-size-of-intertidal-crustaceans-provide-insights-on-climate-change-effects
#20
Eduardo Jaramillo, Jenifer E Dugan, David M Hubbard, Heraldo Contreras, Cristian Duarte, Emilio Acuña, David S Schoeman
Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA...
2017: PloS One
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