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Periprosthetic joint infection

Olivier Borens, Pablo S Corona, Lars Frommelt, Stergios Lazarinis, Michael Richard Reed, Carlo Luca Romano
Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) continues to gain acceptance as the standard of care for the treatment of severe degenerative joint disease, and is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions in the history of medicine. A devastating complication after TJA is infection. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), represents one of the major causes of failure and remains a significant challenge facing orthopaedics today. PJI usually requires additional surgery including revision of the implants, fusion or amputations causing tremendous patient suffering but also a heavy health economics burden...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Leif Claassen, Sarah Ettinger, Marc-Frederic Pastor, Stefan Budde, Henning Windhagen, Thilo Floerkemeier
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic algorithm in cases of assumed low-grade infection after total knee arthroplasty is discussed controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of neosynovium biopsies via knee arthroscopies in predicting a periprosthetic knee joint infection (PJI). METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, 56 consecutive patients received a diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee joint by reason of an assumed PJI. In 34 cases, a revision arthroplasty was performed after the diagnostic arthroscopy...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Elham Zeinalzadeh, Najibeh Asl Rahnemaii Akbari, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Infection is a serious complication after implantation of total knee-prostheses. However, fungal infection is rarely found in periprosthetic joints, and in most reports, the infecting organism is a Candida species. This is a case report of infection after left knee total arthroplasty caused by Malassezia species. The patient is still undergoing antifungal therapy with voriconazole and is still being followed-up. To the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first report of Malassezia species in a patient after total knee arthroplasty...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Salvatore J Frangiamore, Anas Saleh, Matthew J Grosso, Mario Farias Kovac, Xiaochun Zhang, Thomas M Daly, Thomas W Bauer, Kathleen A Derwin, Joseph P Iannotti, Eric T Ricchetti
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after shoulder arthroplasty can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of broader synovial fluid cytokine analysis for identifying PJI in patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Synovial fluid levels of 9 cytokines (interleukin [IL] 6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-2, IL-8, interferon-γ, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were measured in 75 cases of revision shoulder arthroplasty with a multiplex immunoassay...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Jakrapun Pupaibool, Eric J Fulnecky, Robert L Swords, William W Sistrunk, Alastair D Haddow
PURPOSE: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) continues to be a significant complication after total joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of PJI can be challenging and elusive in the absence of a gold standard. This purpose of this article is to review the current evidence on the utility of serum and synovial fluid biomarkers to help aid in the diagnosis of PJI with focusing on synovial fluid alpha-defensin. METHODS: Articles and data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE up to June 1, 2016...
October 7, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Alberto V Carli, F Patrick Ross, Samrath J Bhimani, Scott R Nodzo, Mathias P G Bostrom
➤The poor treatment outcomes for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) reflect the limited understanding that currently exists regarding the pathogenesis of this devastating clinical problem.➤Current animal models of PJI are limited in their translational nature primarily because of their inability to recreate the periprosthetic environment.➤A greater mechanistic understanding of the musculoskeletal and immune systems of small animals, such as mice and rats, provides a more robust platform for modeling and examining the pathogenesis of PJI...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
H-R Choi, K Agrawal, H Bedair
AIMS: We hypothesised that the synovial white blood cell (WBC) count in patients with a late periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip would depend on the duration of a patient's symptoms, and that the optimal diagnostic threshold would also depend on this period of time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The synovial WBC count and percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (%PMN), and the serum CRP and ESR levels obtained > six weeks after primary THA were compared between 50 infected and 88 non-infected THAs, and in patients with symptoms for more than or less than two weeks...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Viktor Janz, Georgi I Wassilew, Carsten F Perka, Benjamin Bartek
BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear if an isolated exchange of the mobile components, in cases of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), leads to a complete eradication of all bacteria or if residual bacteria remain attached to the retained components? OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if bacteria only adhere to certain components or materials, or if they are ubiquitously distributed throughout the joint. METHODS: Twenty hundred and eighty four patients undergoing revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty surgery were included in this retrospective cohort study...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
J W P Kuiper, S Vos, T J Burger, S Colen
Recently, guidelines regarding diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been published, but it is unknown how well these are -followed in the Netherlands and Belgium. Therefore, a survey study was performed in the Netherlands and Belgium. 81 orthopedic departments responded (54% in the Netherlands, 52% in Belgium). The majority used protocols for antibiotic and surgical treatment. To discriminate between early and late infection, differences in periods used were seen between respondents, and between countries...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Daniel A Osei, Kelsey A Rebehn, Martin I Boyer
Wound healing complications associated with total knee arthroplasty present a considerable challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. To ensure preservation of a functional joint, the management of periprosthetic soft-tissue defects around the knee requires rapid assessment, early and aggressive débridement, and durable, contoured coverage. Several reconstructive options are available to tailor soft-tissue coverage to the location, size, and depth of the wound. Special consideration should be given to the timing of the intervention, management of infection, and prosthesis salvage...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Georgios K Triantafyllopoulos, Vasileios Soranoglou, Stavros G Memtsoudis, Lazaros A Poultsides
Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) of the hip and the knee are grossly classified as early post-operative, acute hematogenous and late chronic infections. Whereas two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the standard of care in North America for treating chronic infections, irrigation and debridement (I and D) with retention of implants has been used in an attempt to treat the other two types of PJIs. The rationale of this approach is that a PJI may be eradicated without the need of explanting the prostheses, as long as it has not transitioned into a chronic state...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Jared M Newman, Jaiben George, Alison K Klika, Stephen F Hatem, Wael K Barsoum, W Trevor North, Carlos A Higuera
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection is a serious complication after THA and commonly is treated with a two-stage revision. Antibiotic-eluting cement spacers are placed for local delivery of antibiotics. Aspirations may be performed before the second-stage reimplantation for identification of persistent infection. However, limited data exist regarding the diagnostic parameters of synovial fluid aspiration with or without saline lavage from a hip with an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Philipp Born, Thomas Ilchmann, Werner Zimmerli, Lukas Zwicky, Peter Graber, Peter E Ochsner, Martin Clauss
Background and purpose - The use of uncemented revision stems is an established option in 2-stage procedures in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, in 1-stage procedures, they are still rarely used. There are still no detailed data on radiological outcome after uncemented 1-stage revisions. We assessed (1) the clinical outcome, including reoperation due to persistent infection and any other reoperation, and (2) the radiological outcome after 1- and 2-stage revision, using an uncemented stem...
September 23, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
H Liu, Y Zhang, L Li, H C Zou
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic complication after total joint arthroplasty. It has always been difficult to diagnose PJI, which is characterised by existence of biofilm around the implants. The application of sonication has proven advantageous for pathogen detection. This meta-analysis of clinical trials was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sonication and to compare it with traditional bacterial culture. We assessed 16 studies that evaluated sonication fluid cultures (SFC) for the diagnosis of PJI...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Philip J Belmont, Nicholas A Kusnezov, John C Dunn, Julia O Bader, Kelly Kilcoyne, Brian R Waterman
The study was conducted to determine the incidence rate, risk factors, and postoperative conditions associated with 30-day readmission after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). A total of 3547 patients who underwent primary TSA were identified from the 2011-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day readmission rate was 2.9%. The only preoperative predictors of hospital readmission were American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 3 or greater (odds ratio, 2...
September 19, 2016: Orthopedics
Georgios K Triantafyllopoulos, Stavros G Memtsoudis, Wei Zhang, Yan Ma, Thomas P Sculco, Lazaros A Poultsides
BACKGROUND: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the preferred method for treating a chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in North America. However, infection recurrence may occur. Previously, recurrent infections have been classified as persistent (same isolated pathogen) or new (different pathogen identified). We sought to determine (1) recurrence rates among patients with chronic hip and knee PJI, treated with 2-stage exchange arthroplasty; (2) risk factors for infection recurrence; and (3) risk factors for developing persistent vs new infection...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Eythor Orn Jonsson, Hera Johannesdottir, Anna Stefansdottir
: An 80-year old male presented with an infected knee replacement following repeated joint aspirations. They were carried out due to recurrent hemarthrosis resulting from an initially missed quadriceps tendon injury. The infection was eradicated first after arthrodesis. This case highlights that prosthetic joints are sensitive to infection, which once established can be difficult to eradicate. Careful consideration is necessary before aspirating prosthetic joints. Diagnosing quadriceps tendon injuries can be difficult and they must be included in the differential diagnosis of traumatic hemarthrosis...
September 2016: Læknablađiđ
Quentin Flamant, Carlos Caravaca, Sylvain Meille, Laurent Gremillard, Jérôme Chevalier, Katia Biotteau-Deheuvels, Meinhard Kuntz, Rona Chandrawati, Inge K Herrmann, Christopher D Spicer, Molly M Stevens, Marc Anglada
: Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds...
September 14, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Sufian S Ahmad, Roland Becker, Antonia F Chen, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: Due to the juvenility of research in the field of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), approaches employed for diagnosis of PJI vary amongst surgeons in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to determine common diagnostic approaches utilized by European knee arthroplasty surgeons for the diagnosis of PJI. METHODS: A task force was established for questionnaire development, consisting of surgeons and clinical researchers who each had a record of publishing in the field of PJI...
October 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jeremiah D Johnson, Joseph M Nessler, Ryan D Horazdovsky, Sandy Vang, Avis J Thomas, Scott B Marston
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection is the most common cause of readmissions after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Intrawound vancomycin powder (VP) has reduced infection rates in spine surgery; however, there are no data regarding VP in primary TJA. METHODS: Thirty-four TJA patients received 2 g of VP intraoperatively to investigate VP's pharmacokinetics. Serum and wound concentrations were measured at multiple intervals over 24 hours after closure. RESULTS: All serum concentrations were subtherapeutic (<15μg/mL) and peaked 12 hours after closure (4...
October 26, 2015: Journal of Arthroplasty
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