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Immunology of pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224721/progesterone-driven-local-regulatory-t-cell-induction-does-not-prevent-fetal-loss-in-the-cba-j%C3%A3-dba-2j-abortion-prone-model
#1
Anne Schumacher, Dominique Dauven, Ana C Zenclussen
PROBLEM: Best known for its endocrine and immunologic properties, progesterone (P4) is a pivotal player for pregnancy success. However, the immunologic actions underlying P4 protection are not completely understood. Here, we investigated whether P4 application in a murine abortion-prone combination regulates regulatory T cells (Treg) and dendritic cells (DCs) and thereby affects pregnancy outcome. METHOD OF STUDY: Progesterone or vehicle was applied to DBA/2J-mated CBA/J abortion-prone animals in early pregnancy...
March 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224678/microbiome-autoimmunity-allergy-and-helminth-infection-the-importance-of-the-pregnancy-period
#2
Xian Chen, Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#3
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214384/placental-pathology-in-hiv-infection-at-term-a-comparison-with-hiv-uninfected-women
#4
Emma Kalk, Pawel Schubert, Julie A Bettinger, Mark F Cotton, Monika Esser, Amy Slogrove, Colleen A Wright
OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n=120) and HIV-negative (n=103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#5
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178298/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-parasitic-infections-and-to-anthelminthic-treatment-on-antibody-responses-to-routine-immunisations-given-in-infancy-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Stephen Nash, Alexander J Mentzer, Swaib A Lule, Dennison Kizito, Gaby Smits, Fiona R M van der Klis, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring's response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#7
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146189/-young-women-with-hiv-infection-acquired-by-vertical-transmission-expectations-of-having-uninfected-children
#8
Julia Villarroel, Ana M Álvarez, Francisco Salvador, Ana Chávez, Elba Wu, Verónica Contardo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), changed the prognosis of the disease, allowing young women infected by vertical transmission (TV) to be pregnant without risk for their fetus of acquiring this infection. AIM: To describe the clinical-immune status in pregnant women that acquired HV by vertical transmission, treatments received, monitoring of pregnancy and newborn characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A protocol was performed, evaluating clinical and immunological parameters during pregnancy, ART used, protocol preventing vertical transmission (PPTV), and follow up of children to 18 months of age...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141782/effect-of-pregnancy-on-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-detection-of-latent-tb-infection-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-high-burden-setting
#9
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. METHODS: HIV-infected women were serially-tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube [QFT]) in pregnancy and weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and M. tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128050/patterns-of-biomarkers-in-cord-blood-during-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#10
Simmi Kharb, Smiti Nanda
: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is in contact with all the fetal tissues and can reflect the state of fetus and UCB can be compared with maternal blood. Inflammatory, metabolic and immunological disorders during pregnancy can affect the environment in which the fetus is developing and may produce various alterations. OBJECTIVE: To analyze different biochemical parameters in maternal venous blood and new born umbilical cord blood from healthy normotensive pregnant and preeclamptic women...
January 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126366/testing-for-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-key-concepts-to-deal-with-an-emerging-epidemic
#11
REVIEW
Catherine Eppes, Martha Rac, James Dunn, James Versalovic, Kristy O Murray, Melissa A Suter, Magda Sanz Cortes, Jimmy Espinoza, Maxim D Seferovic, Wesley Lee, Peter Hotez, Joan Mastrobattista, Steven L Clark, Michael A Belfort, Kjersti M Aagaard
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114169/outcomes-of-pregnancies-after-kidney-transplantation-lessons-learned-from-ckd-a-comparison-of-transplanted-nontransplanted-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-and-low-risk-pregnancies-a-multicenter-nationwide-analysis
#12
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Rossella Attini, Martina Gerbino, Paola Todeschini, Maria Luisa Perrino, Ana Maria Manzione, Gian Benedetto Piredda, Elisa Gnappi, Flavia Caputo, Giuseppe Montagnino, Vincenzo Bellizzi, Pierluigi Di Loreto, Francesca Martino, Domenico Montanaro, Michele Rossini, Santina Castellino, Marilisa Biolcati, Federica Fassio, Valentina Loi, Silvia Parisi, Elisabetta Versino, Antonello Pani, Tullia Todros
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) may restore fertility in CKD. The reasons why materno-foetal outcomes are still inferior to the overall population are only partially known. Comparison with the CKD population may offer some useful insights for management and counselling.Aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of pregnancy after KT, compared with a large population of non-transplanted CKD patients and with low-risk control pregnancies, observed in Italy the new millennium...
January 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112260/an-altered-endometrial-cd8-tissue-resident-memory-t-cell-population-in-recurrent-miscarriage
#13
J H Southcombe, G Mounce, K McGee, A Elghajiji, J Brosens, S Quenby, T Child, I Granne
When trying to conceive 1% of couples have recurrent miscarriages, defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. This is not accounted for by the known incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy in miscarriage, and it has been suggested that there is an immunological aetiology. The endometrial mucosa is populated by a variety of immune cells which in addition to providing host pathogen immunity must facilitate pregnancy. Here we characterise the endometrial CD8-T cell population during the embryonic window of implantation and find that the majority of cells are tissue resident memory T cells with high levels of CD69 and CD103 expression, proteins that prevent cells egress...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#14
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098245/natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-1-in-mouse-unk-cell-maturation-and-function
#15
A M Felker, B A Croy
Early and midgestational decidua of mice genetically ablated for expression of the natural killer (NK) cell natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR; Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) mice) shows restricted angiogenesis and atypically small uterine (u)NK cells . We hypothesized that NCR1 inactivation disturbs maturation and angiokine production by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells. Using histological and morphometric approaches, we observed that Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) but not control C57BL/6 (B6) implantation sites sustain immature, non-granulated uNK cells into midpregnancy...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#16
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073874/successful-pregnancy-following-treatment-of-recurrent-chronic-histiocytic-intervillositis
#17
Leehe Vardi, Helen Paterson, Noelyn Anne Hung
Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) is a rare placental lesion associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and high recurrence rate. We report a case of six consecutive pregnancies in one woman, where CHI was detected following an intrauterine death in the fifth pregnancy, after being missed in four earlier losses. The successful sixth pregnancy was treated with a combination of immunosuppressive and antithrombotic agents. While low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and aspirin had been shown to improve pregnancy outcome in recurrent pregnancy loss, there was limited evidence of improved outcome in CHI...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067176/the-linkage-between-inflammation-and-immune-tolerance-interfering-with-inflammation-in-cancer
#18
Vladimir Stanislavovich Rogovskii
Inflammation is linked to immune tolerance. In pregnancy and in immune privileged organs constitutive low-grade inflammation is required for maintaining immunological tolerance. Apart from immune tolerance in normality, there is the phenomenon of immune tolerance in cancer which mediates tumor escape from the immune system. It is widely accepted that, in many situations, chronic inflammation critically contributes to cancer. Like other types of immune tolerance, tumor-induced tolerance is also mediated by inflammation...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#19
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061809/oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-their-relationship-with-cytokine-concentrations-in-overweight-obese-pregnant-women-and-their-neonates
#20
María Hernández-Trejo, Araceli Montoya-Estrada, Yessica Torres-Ramos, Aurora Espejel-Núñez, Alberto Guzmán-Grenfell, Rosa Morales-Hernández, Maricruz Tolentino-Dolores, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje
BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage present in obese/overweight mothers may lead to further oxidative stress conditions or inflammation in maternal and cord blood samples. Thirty-four pregnant women/newborn pairs were included in this study to assess the presence of oxidative stress biomarkers and their relationship with serum cytokine concentrations. Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were compared between the mother/offspring pairs. The presence of 27 cytokines was measured in maternal and cord blood samples...
January 7, 2017: BMC Immunology
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