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Immunology of pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428937/intravenous-immunoglobulin-g-in-women-with-reproductive-failure-the-korean-society-for-reproductive-immunology-practice-guidelines
#2
REVIEW
Nayoung Sung, Ae Ra Han, Chan Woo Park, Dong Wook Park, Joon Cheol Park, Na Young Kim, Kyung Sil Lim, Ji Eun Shin, Chang Woo Joo, Seung Eun Lee, Jae Won Kim, Sung Ki Lee
The task force of the Korean Society for Reproductive Immunology recommends intravenous immunoglobulin G treatment in women with reproductive failure, including recurrent pregnancy loss and/or repeated implantation failure, who show cellular immune factors such as abnormal natural killer cell levels, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and/or type 1 T helper immunity.
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424562/immunological-and-hematological-reference-intervals-among-hiv-seronegative-pregnant-women-in-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Meaza Genetu, Debasu Damtie, Meseret Workineh, Biniam Mathewos Tebeje, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Tekalign Deressa
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a state characterized by profound physiological hematological changes. However, hematological reference intervals being used in clinical practice in Ethiopia are derived from nonlocal general populations, despite the significant variations reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological and hematological reference intervals in healthy pregnancy among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 healthy, HIV-seronegative pregnant women were enrolled from February 2015 to June 2015 in a cross-sectional study setting at Gondar University Hospital...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419655/cytokine-and-adipokine-are-biofactors-can-act-in-blood-and-colostrum-of-obese-mothers
#4
Mahmi Fujimori, Eduardo Luzia França, Tassiane Cristina Morais, Vanessa Fiorin, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Adenilda Cristina Honório-França
Breast milk contains bioactive components that contribute to newborn development. However, colostrum may undergo biochemical and immunological changes as a function of maternal overweight and obesity. To investigate this hypothesis, this study determined the levels of hormones and immunological markers in the serum and colostrum of overweight and obese mothers. Colostrum and serum samples were collected from 15 normoweight, 15 overweight, and 15 obese women for determination of leptin, adiponectin, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414589/progesterone-decreases-in-vitro-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-expression-in-dendritic-and-cd4-cells-from-maternal-fetal-interface-of-rats
#5
Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Aline Nayara Poscai, Tulio Yoshinaga, Patrícia Orlandini Gonçalez, José Roberto Kfoury Junior
PROBLEM: Several mechanisms contribute to the tolerogenic state observed during pregnancy, such as the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO). This initializes the catabolism of tryptophan, inducing T cells to apoptosis due to its deprivation and by the action of its catabolites in the placental microenvironment. Progesterone plays an important part on immunological tolerance mechanisms during pregnancy; however, there is no evidence it is related to IDO activity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate progesterone influence on the maternal-fetal interface of pregnant Wistar rats, by identifying IDO positive cells by immunophenotyping and flow cytometry under exogenous progesterone supplementation...
April 17, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407659/peripheral-immunological-cells-in-pregnant-women-and-their-change-during-diabetes
#6
Ulrike Friebe-Hoffmann, Linda Antony, Jan-Steffen Kruessel, Brigitte Pawlowski, Thomas Karl Hoffmann
During the last decades the incidence of diabetes has dramatically increased as well as the number of pregnant diabetic women. There is still missing data regarding patterns and shifts of immune cell populations due to pregnancy with or without diabetes. The study aimed to investigate the impact of pregnancy, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on different immune cells in female. The number and proportion of CD3-, CD4-, CD8- and γδ T-cells as well as B-, NK-, NKT- and dendritic cells (DC) incl...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378851/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-on-c-peptide-preservation-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
M Horvaticek, J Djelmis, M Ivanisevic, S Oreskovic, M Herman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune insulitis. There are evidences that pregnancy and n-3 fatty acids exhibit suppressive effect on human inflammatory system. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with T1DM were included in the prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Forty-seven of them were put on standard diabetic diet enriched with EPA and DHA twice a day (EPA 120 mg and DHA 616 mg; Study group) and 43 pregnant diabetic women were on standard diabetic diet with placebo (Control group)...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#8
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343731/endoplasmic-reticulum-aminopeptidase-2-a-common-immunological-link-to-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-cancer-clearance
#9
Eun D Lee
Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) trims HLA class I-binding peptides, determining the peptide repertoire presented for immune recognition. Variation in the ERAP2 amino acid sequence could affect the ability of some fetuses and tumors to achieve immune evasion. For example, homozygosity for an ERAP2 variant that has increased trimming efficiency for hydrophobic molecules has never been detected in mothers and fetuses. Thus, it is possible that this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ERAP2 gene has been selected against in order to prevent alteration of the immune privileged uterine environment, and to allow tumors to escape immune recognition...
March 18, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340492/hemolysis-elevated-liver-enzymes-low-platelets-syndrome-superimposed-on-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#10
Inês Martins, Madalena Gomes Conceição, Paulo Pereira Gomes, Nuno Clode
A pregnancy complicated by typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is reported. At 20 weeks of gestation, a case of HUS was diagnosed, with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli identified. Plasmapheresis allowed continuation of the pregnancy for 5 weeks. Superimposed preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were diagnosed after the establishment of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypertension and recurrence of hemolysis. This is a singular case, as it demonstrates that HELLP syndrome can superimpose upon HUS, a fact that can impact future research on reproductive immunology...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337875/the-pig-as-a-model-for-premature-infants-the-importance-of-immunoglobulin-supplementation-for-growth-and-development
#11
A Socha-Banasiak, S Pierzynowski, J Woliński, D Grujic, M Boryczka, P Grzesiak, P Szczurek, E Czkwianianc, B Westrom, K Goncharova
Preterm human neonates, contrary to preterm piglets, obtain immunoglobulins from their mothers via the placenta during intrauterine development. However, one should note that the majority of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins in humans takes place during the last trimester of pregnancy. It is also known that the feeding of limited amounts of colostrum or systemic infusion of small amounts of serum improves the survival of preterm and full-term piglets. Full-term piglets deprived of their mother’s immunoglobulins exhibit strong apathy and develop watery diarrhoea, often resulting in death...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332868/is-autoimmunology-a-discipline-of-its-own-a-big-data-based-bibliometric-and-scientometric-analyses
#12
Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Shaye Kivity, Naim Mahroum, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmunology is a super-specialty of immunology specifically dealing with autoimmune disorders. To assess the extant literature concerning autoimmune disorders, bibliometric and scientometric analyses (namely, research topics/keywords co-occurrence, journal co-citation, citations, and scientific output trends - both crude and normalized, authors network, leading authors, countries, and organizations analysis) were carried out using open-source software, namely, VOSviewer and SciCurve. A corpus of 169,519 articles containing the keyword "autoimmunity" was utilized, selecting PubMed/MEDLINE as bibliographic thesaurus...
March 23, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330900/adaptive-immune-responses-to-zika-virus-are-important-for-controlling-virus-infection-and-preventing-infection-in-brain-and-testes
#13
Clayton W Winkler, Lara M Myers, Tyson A Woods, Ronald J Messer, Aaron B Carmody, Kristin L McNally, Dana P Scott, Kim J Hasenkrug, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328655/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-an-emerging-concept-for-burn-reconstruction
#14
Zhi Yang Ng, Alexandre G Lellouch, Tessa Drijkoningen, Irene A Chang, David H Sachs, Curtis L Cetrulo
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has demonstrated utility in the reconstruction of extensive soft-tissue defects following severe burns. However, pre-VCA events such as multiple transfusions, previous transplantation and pregnancies, the use of skin allografts, and mechanical support devices may result in sensitization and ultimately exclude a burn patient, who may benefit most through VCA, from a hand or face transplant. The authors sought to identify the immunologic challenges involved. All reported VCA cases up to July 2016 were reviewed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319902/ultra-high-sensitivity-of-the-non-immunological-affinity-of-graphene-oxide-peptide-based-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensors-to-detect-human-chorionic-gonadotropin
#15
Nan-Fu Chiu, Chia-Tzu Kuo, Ting-Li Lin, Chia-Chen Chang, Chen-Yu Chen
Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance as sensing probes due to their potential in the development of non-immunological assays with high sensitivity, affinity and specificity for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) protein. We combined graphene oxide (GO) sheets with a specific peptide aptamer to create a novel, simple and label-free tool to detect abnormalities at an early stage of pregnancy, a GO-peptide-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor...
March 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#16
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296959/estradiol-alters-the-immune-responsiveness-of-cervical-epithelial-cells-stimulated-with-ligands-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#17
Behnia S Lashkari, Dilly O C Anumba
The mucosa of the female reproductive tract plays a pivotal role in host defence. Pregnancy must alter immunological mechanisms at this interface to protect the conceptus. We sought to determine how estradiol (E2) alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells to ligand stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4. Human ectocervical epithelial cells (HECECs) were cultured and co-incubated with two concentrations of E2 and peptidoglycan (PGN) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over durations that ranged between 10 minutes and 18 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296138/the-regulation-of-uterine-proinflammatory-gene-expression-during-pregnancy-in-the-live-bearing-lizard-pseudemoia-entrecasteauxii
#18
Kevin Hendrawan, Camilla M Whittington, Matthew C Brandley, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson
The evolutionary transition from egg-laying to live-bearing in amniote vertebrates (reptiles and mammals) requires the development of a closer association between the maternal and embryonic tissue to facilitate gas and nutrient exchange with the embryo. Because the embryo is an allograft to the father and mother, it could be considered foreign by the maternal immune system and thus be immunologically rejected during pregnancy. In eutherian ("placental") mammals, the proinflammatory genes interleukin 1B (IL1B), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) are tightly regulated in the pregnant uterus to prevent embryonic rejection...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283683/pre-pregnancy-levels-of-peripheral-natural-killer-cells-as-markers-for-immunomodulatory-treatment-in-patients-with-recurrent-miscarriage
#19
Ruben J Kuon, Franziska Müller, Kilian Vomstein, Maja Weber, Hannes Hudalla, Sabine Rösner, Thomas Strowitzki, Udo Markert, Volker Daniel, Bettina Toth
Immunological risk factors in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) are discussed controversially. Abnormalities of natural killer cells (NK) have been described in RM patients. Lipid infusions are known to modulate lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to identify immune parameters that predict success of treatment with lipid infusions in RM patients with elevated NK. In sum, n = 341 couples with RM were screened for established risk factors and peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations as well as uterine NK cells...
March 11, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273105/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hypertension-among-hiv-patients-in-rural-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Eduardo Rodríguez-Arbolí, Kim Mwamelo, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
INTRODUCTION: Scarce data are available on the epidemiology of hypertension among HIV patients in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for incident hypertension among patients who were enrolled in a rural HIV cohort in Tanzania. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study including HIV patients enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort between 2013 and 2015. Non-ART naïve subjects at baseline and pregnant women during follow-up were excluded from the analysis...
2017: PloS One
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