Read by QxMD icon Read

Immunology of pregnancy

Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Karan Seegobin, Kamille Abdool, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Haramnauth Dyaanand, Fidel Rampersad
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
N M Scott, J F Lauzon-Joset, A C Jones, K T Mincham, N M Troy, J Leffler, M Serralha, S L Prescott, S A Robertson, C Pasquali, A Bosco, P G Holt, D H Strickland
Infection-associated inflammatory stress during pregnancy is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction and/or miscarriage. Treatment strategies for protection of at-risk mothers are limited to a narrow range of vaccines, which do not cover the bulk of the common pathogens most frequently encountered. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that oral treatment during pregnancy with a microbial-derived immunomodulator (OM85), currently used clinically for attenuation of infection-associated airway inflammatory symptoms in infants-adults, markedly reduces risk for fetal loss/growth restriction resulting from maternal challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or influenza...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Cristina Faralla, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, David E Lowe, Byoungkwan Kim, Cara Cooke, Lawrence R Shiow, Anna I Bakardjiev
Intrauterine infection is a major detriment for maternal-child health and occurs despite local mechanisms that protect the maternal-fetal interface from a wide variety of pathogens. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm labor in humans, and serves as a model for placental pathogenesis. Given the unique immunological environment of the maternal-fetal interface we hypothesized that virulence determinants with placental tropism are required for infection of this tissue...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Georgia Fernanda Gelmini, Cynthia Hernandes Costa, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Sibelle Botogosque Mattar, Alessandro Schuffner, Maria da Graça Bicalho, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio Roxo
BACKGROUND: HLA-E products, class Ib human leukocyte antigens, act in the immunology of human reproduction as modulators of the maternal immune system during pregnancy. AIMS: To evaluate HLA-E role in the establishment of a viable pregnancy. MATERIALS & METHODS: HLA-E was genotyped by sequence-based typing (SBT) and analyzed for specific polymorphisms, comparing couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment (ART) and fertile control couples...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
A V C Coelho, R R Moura, S Crovella, F Celsi
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a key tolerogenic molecule mainly expressed in the placenta and is crucial for implantation of the embryo and immunological tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy. However, under pathological conditions, such as cancer or viral infections, HLA-G can be expressed in other tissues. The gene coding for HLA-G (HLA-G, chromosome 6p21.3) presents numerous polymorphisms, some of them influencing its expression. One of the most studied, is the 14 bp ins/del (rs371194629) situated at the 3'-UTR of the gene...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
L Li, J Tu, Y Jiang, J Zhou, D J Schust
Pregnancy loss is the commonest complication of pregnancy. The causes of pregnancy loss are poorly understood. It has been reported that stimulation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells using α-galactosylceramide (αGC) induces pregnancy loss in mice. Here we investigated the mechanisms, especially the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells, in iNKT cell-mediated pregnancy loss. We found that injection of αGC rapidly induced fetal resorption, activated decidual iNKT cells, decreased the percentage of decidual Treg cells and their interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production, and upregulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-4, and IL-10 in serum...
October 5, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Edouard Lecarpentier, Anthony Atallah, Jean Guibourdenche, Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Sarah Vieillefosse, Audrey Chissey, Bassam Haddad, Guillaume Pidoux, Daniele Evain-Brion, Abdul Barakat, Thierry Fournier, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the human syncytiotrophoblast and its biological functions have never been studied. During pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast is the main source of placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic factor involved in the placental angiogenesis and the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. The role of FSS in regulating PlGF expression in syncytiotrophoblasts is unknown. We investigated the impact of FSS on the production and secretion of the PlGF by the human syncytiotrophoblasts in primary cell culture...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Gi Su Lee, Joon Cheol Park, Jeong Ho Rhee, Jong In Kim
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. METHODS: One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation...
September 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
C N Jayasena, A Abbara, A N Comninos, S Narayanaswamy, J Gonzalez Maffe, C Izzi-Engbeaya, J Oldham, T T M Lee, Z Sarang, Z Malik, M K Dhanjal, C Williamson, L Regan, S R Bloom, W S Dhillo
STUDY QUESTION: Are novel circulating placental markers prokineticin-1 (PK-1), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng) and placental growth factor (PlGF) associated with late miscarriage in asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Increased serum sFlt-1 or PlGF, but not sEng or PK-1, were significantly associated with reduced miscarriage risk after adjustment for age, BMI, gestational age, smoking and blood pressure...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Sophie Templer, Gavin Sacks
Few topics in recent reproductive medicine have been the subject of as much controversy, media attention and passionate debate as natural killer (NK) cells and their role in reproductive failure. The question of whether elevated NK cell levels are a cause of infertility and pregnancy loss, and whether they provide a potential target for therapy to improve reproductive outcomes, lacks a definitive answer. It is clear, however, that a significant number of women with reproductive failure have abnormal NK cell parameters reflecting high immunological activity...
September 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Marie-Pierre Piccinni, Letizia Lombardelli, Federica Logiodice, Ornela Kullolli, Paola Parronchi, Sergio Romagnani
Autoimmune disorders are characterized by tissue damage, caused by self-reactivity of different effectors mechanisms of the immune system, namely antibodies and T cells. Their occurrence may be associated with genetic and/or environmental predisposition and to some extent, have implications for fertility and obstetrics. The relationship between autoimmunity and reproduction is bidirectional. This review only addresses the impact of pregnancy on autoimmune diseases and not the influence of autoimmunity on pregnancy development...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Marcia S Driscoll, Kathryn Martires, Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz, Jane M Grant-Kels, Jennifer A Stein
Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Upasana Joneja, D Craig Hooper, James J Evans, Mark T Curtis
Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Here, we describe a case of GH in a 24-year-old female presenting eleven days postpartum...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
Omer Ozkan, Nasuh Utku Dogan, Ozlenen Ozkan, Inanc Mendilcioglu, Selen Dogan, Batu Aydinuraz, Mehmet Simsek
Absolute uterine factor infertility affects 3-5% of the general population, and unfortunately this condition is untreatable. There are some available options, including surrogacy or adoption, but neither of these suits each and every woman who desires to have her own genetic child. With recent advances in surgery and transplant immunology, uterus transplantation may be a source of hope for these women with uterine infertility. In the last decade, a number of animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and primates have been used as experimental models, and pregnancies were achieved in some of these...
July 2016: Women's Health
Cynthia Hernandes Costa, Georgia Fernanda Gelmini, Fabiola Silva Nardi, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio Roxo, Alessandro Schuffner, Maria da Graça Bicalho
HLA-G codes for a non-classical Class I (Ib) protein which is mainly expressed in trophoblast cells. Many pieces of evidence pointed out its essential role conferring immunological tolerance to the fetus. Some HLA-G alleles have been linked to enhanced or reduced HLA-G protein levels expression, which have been associated with reproductive failure. In this study 33 couples undergoing ART (assisted reproduction treatment; n = 66) and 120 couples who conceived naturally (controls; n = 240) were enrolled in the study...
September 8, 2016: Human Immunology
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
S A Zamorina, V P Timganova, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, M B Raev
The role of heterogenic human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG), obtained by the authors' technology, in the regulation of the indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in female blood monocytes has been studied in vitro. PSG stimulated IDO activity under the conditions of induction of the monocytes by interferon-γ. Upon the induction of cell proliferation by lipopolysaccharides, the stimulating effect was obtained only with 10 μg/mL of PSG. Enhanced IDO activity is probably a factor of peripheral immunological tolerance and antimicrobial protection against intracellular infections in the gestation period...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Alistair R D McLean, Machteld E Boel, Rose McGready, Ricardo Ataide, Damien Drew, Takafumi Tsuboi, James G Beeson, François Nosten, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"