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Neural surgery

Helen J Sims-Williams, Hugh P Sims-Williams, Edith Mbabazi Kabachelor, James Fotheringham, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Myelomeningocele (MM) is a neural tube defect complicated by neurological deficits below the level of the spinal lesion and, in many cases, hydrocephalus. Long-term survival of infants treated for MM in a low- and middle-income country has never been reported. This retrospective cohort study reports 10-year outcomes and factors affecting survival for infants undergoing MM repair at CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda. METHODS Patients were traced by telephone or home visit. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Giancarlo D'Andrea, Giovanni Sessa, Veronica Picotti, Antonino Raco
We report the case of a large lumbar schwannoma eroding the vertebra and originating from spinal canal with invasion of the retroperitoneal space. We also review all the cases in literature reporting lumbar schwannomas eroding the vertebral bodies and invading the retroperitoneal space focusing on the surgical strategies to manage them. Spinal CT-scan revealed a 44 mm × 55 mm inhomogeneous soft-tissue mass arising from the right L5-S1 neural foramen and its most anterior portion had a clear colliquative aspect...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Francesco Corrivetti, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
BACKGROUND: Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, with however a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomo-functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Kate Denton, Karen Moritz, Lindsey Booth, Clive May, Geoff Head, Markus Schlaich, Reetu Singh
OBJECTIVE: Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to the control of kidney function and blood pressure. A critical question is whether catheter-based renal denervation (cDNX) has adverse consequences, in situations of clinical challenge, such as hemorrhage. The aim was to examine the effects of cDNX on basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and in response to hemorrhage in hypertensive sheep with chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Hypertension and CKD was induced in sheep by performing fetal unilateral nephrectomy (CKD; N = 14)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Scott L Zuckerman, Ilya Laufer, Arjun Sahgal, Yoshiya J Yamada, Meic H Schmidt, Dean Chou, John H Shin, Naresh Kumar, Daniel M Sciubba
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the techniques, indications, and outcomes of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and separation surgery with subsequent radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with metastatic spine disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The utilization of MIS techniques in patients with spine metastases is a growing area within spinal oncology. Separation surgery represents a novel paradigm where radiosurgery provides long-term control after tumor is surgically separated from the neural elements...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Javier Quillo-Olvera, Javier Quillo-Reséndiz, Carlos-Francisco Gutiérrez-Partida, Manuel Rodríguez-García
BACKGROUND: Arachnoid cysts of spine are a very rare occurrence. The aetiology still remains unclear, but the most accepted explanation is the existence of areas of weakness in the spinal dura. Symptoms depend on the location in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging is used for its diagnosis. Management depends of clinical presentation, and the surgery is reserved for patients with neurological impairment. CLINICAL CASE: A case is described of 67 year-old male with myelopathy and radiculopathy symptoms, both diagnosed simultaneously...
October 14, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Fumihiro Nishimaki, Hiroshi Kurita, Shinya Tozawa, Yuji Teramoto, Rishiho Nishizawa, Shin-Ichi Yamada
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective study was to accumulate data regarding the quality of postoperative neurosensory function after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition for dental implant placement. METHODS: The study included seven consecutive patients who underwent IAN transposition surgery for the insertion of a dental implant into the atrophic posterior mandible. Of these, six patients (seven sides) were available for long-term assessment of postoperative IAN function...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Andreas Kiilerich Andresen, Carsten Ernst, Mikkel Ø Andersen
Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common reason for spinal surgery in Denmark. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion. The options for non-surgical management include drugs and physiotherapy. Treatment outcomes seem to be better for surgical neural decompression than for non-operative treatment...
October 10, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Ang Deng, Hong-Qi Zhang, Ming-Xing Tang, Shao-Hua Liu, Yu-Xiang Wang, Qi-Le Gao
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of posterior-only surgical correction of dystrophic scoliosis in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) using a multiple anchor point method (MAPM). METHODS From 2005 to 2014, 31 patients (mean age 13.5 years old, range 10-22 years old) suffering from dystrophic scoliosis associated with NF1 underwent posterior-only surgical correction using a MAPM. The apex of the deformity was thoracic (n = 25), thoracolumbar (n = 4), and lumbar (n = 2)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Daniele Starnoni, John Michael Duff, Gopalakrishnan Chittur Viswanathan
CONTEXT: Anatomical variations of the filum terminale (FT) have been described in association with split cord malformations (SCM) but they appear to be a rare finding in its absence. We report the first case in literature of a duplicated FT in a patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) without any radiological evidence of SCM. FINDINGS: A 47-year-old man presented with invalidating back pain radiating to both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural dorsal lipoma in a low-lying conus...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Shu Kikuta, Yu Matsumoto, Akihito Kuboki, Tsuguhisa Nakayama, Daiya Asaka, Nobuyoshi Otori, Hiromi Kojima, Takashi Sakamoto, Kashio Akinori, Kaori Kanaya, Rumi Ueha, Ryoji Kagoya, Hironobu Nishijima, Makiko Toma-Hirano, Yayoi Kikkawa, Kenji Kondo, Koichi Tsunoda, Tempei Miyaji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kazunori Kataoka, Kensaku Mori, Tatsuya Yamasoba
A near loss of smell may result from conductive and/or neural olfactory disorders. However, an olfactory test to selectively detect neural disorders has not been established. We investigated whether onset latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection can detect neural disorders in humans and mice. We showed that longer preoperative onset latency of odor recognition to intravenous odor in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis predicted worse recovery of olfactory symptoms following sinus surgery. The onset latency of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) response to intravenous odor using synaptopHluorin signals from OSN axon terminals was delayed in mice with reduced numbers of OSNs (neural disorder) but not with increased mucus or blocked orthonasal pathways (conductive disorders)...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susan W Wesmiller, Susan M Sereika, Catherine M Bender, Dana Bovbjerg, Gretchen Ahrendt, Marguerite Bonaventura, Yvette P Conley
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are two of the most frequent and distressing complications following surgical procedures, with as many as 80% of patients considered to be at risk. Despite recognition of well-established risk factors and the subsequent use of clinical guidelines, 20-30% of women do not respond to antiemetic protocols, indicating that there may be a genetic risk. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the incidence and explore the risk factors associated with PONV after surgery in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer...
September 28, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia, a disproportional fear of dental procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anesthetic, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
A Focquet, Y Péréon, S Ségura, C Ferron, O Malard, F Espitalier
OBJECTIVES: To study the diagnostic and prognostic contribution of laryngeal electromyography in unilateral vocal-fold immobility in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study included patients with unilateral vocal-fold immobility undergoing laryngeal electromyography between 2007 and 2015. Neurogenic, normal or myogenic findings were compared to the clinical aspect. Prognosis for recovery was assessed from motor unit potentials on laryngeal electromyography, and compared to subsequent progress on laryngoscopy...
October 5, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Lyle Wiemerslage, Wei Zhou, Gaia Olivo, Julia Stark, Pleunie S Hogenkamp, Elna-Marie Larsson, Magnus Sundbom, Helgi B Schiöth
Past studies utilizing resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), have shown that obese humans exhibit altered activity in brain areas related to reward compared to normal-weight controls. However, to what extent bariatric surgery-induced weight loss alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans is less well-studied. Thus, we measured the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from eyes-closed, rsfMRI in obese females (n = 11, mean age = 42 years, mean BMI = 41 kg/m(2) ) in both a pre- and post-prandial state at two time points: four weeks before, and four weeks after bariatric surgery...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Guangming Zhang, James J Xia, Michael Liebschner, Xiaoyan Zhang, Daeseung Kim, Xiaobo Zhou
In craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery, a reliable way of simulating the soft tissue deformation resulted from skeletal reconstruction is vitally important for preventing the risks of facial distortion postoperatively. However, it is difficult to simulate the soft tissue behaviors affected by different types of CMF surgery. This study presents an integrated bio-mechanical and statistical learning model to improve accuracy and reliability of predictions on soft facial tissue behavior. The Rubin-Bodner (RB) model is initially used to describe the biomechanical behavior of the soft facial tissue...
October 4, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Tae Hyun Kim, Jun Jae Shin, Woo Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty with a Racz catheter is widely used to treat radicular pain caused by spinal stenosis or a herniated intervertebral disc. The breakage or shearing of an epidural catheter, particularly a percutaneous epidural neuroplasty catheter, is reported as a rare complication. There has been a controversy over whether surgical removal of a shorn epidural catheter is needed. Until now, only three cases related to sheared Racz neuroplasty catheters have been reported...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sol Bee Han, Young Cheol Yoon, Jong Won Kwon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Slice-Encoding Metal Artifact Correction (SEMAC) sequence is one of the metal artifact reduction techniques of anatomical structure, but there has been no report about evaluation of post-operative complications. The purpose of this article is to compare the anatomical visibility between fast spin echo (FSE) and FSE-SEMAC and to evaluate the additional value of FSE-SEMAC in diagnostic confidence of the complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with 54 patients who received lumbar spinal surgery and MR images including FSE-SEMAC...
2016: PloS One
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