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Neural surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819123/active-prosthesis-dependent-functional-cortical-reorganization-following-stroke
#1
Christian Merkel, Janet Hausmann, Jens-Max Hopf, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Lars Buentjen, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with gait improvements triggered by an active prosthesis in patients with drop-foot following stroke during the chronic stage. Eleven patients took part in the study. MEG recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation of the left and right hand as well as gait analyses were performed shortly before or after prosthesis implantation surgery and 3-4 months later. Plastic changes of the sensorimotor cortex of the ipsi- and contralesional hemisphere were revealed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817819/progressive-kyphosis-associated-with-tethered-cord-syndrome-treated-by-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-in-a-pediatric-patient
#2
Kadir Oktay, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Yurdal Gezercan, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Tahsin Erman
Posterior vertebral column resection is a novel surgical approach for the treatment of progressive kyphosis associated with tethered cord syndrome that was first treated with untethering surgery. A patient with tethered cord syndrome associated with kyphosis first underwent untethering surgery, resulting in progressive kyphosis. Posterior vertebral column resection was performed to correct the kyphosis while shortening the spinal column to prevent the spinal cord from stretch injury. Good correction of kyphosis and reduction of tension on the neural elements were achieved without any neurological deficits...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817568/an-optimal-strategy-for-epilepsy-surgery-disruption-of-the-rich-club
#3
Marinho A Lopes, Mark P Richardson, Eugenio Abela, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Marc Goodfellow, John R Terry
Surgery is a therapeutic option for people with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epilepsy drugs. In pre-surgical planning, an array of data modalities, often including intra-cranial EEG, is used in an attempt to map regions of the brain thought to be crucial for the generation of seizures. These regions are then resected with the hope that the individual is rendered seizure free as a consequence. However, post-operative seizure freedom is currently sub-optimal, suggesting that the pre-surgical assessment may be improved by taking advantage of a mechanistic understanding of seizure generation in large brain networks...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815175/platelet-rich-plasma-an-elixir-for-treatment-of-alopecia-personal-experience-on-117-patients-with-review-of-literature
#4
REVIEW
Suruchi Garg, Shweta Manchanda
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery and dermatology. PRP is a simple, cost-effective and feasible treatment option with high patient satisfaction for hair loss and can be regarded as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for androgenic alopecia and other types of non-scarring alopecias. Authors have proposed a hair model termed "Golden anchorage with 'molecular locking' of ectodermal and mesenchymal components for survival and integrity of hair follicle (HF)" in this article...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815033/early-histological-findings-may-predict-the-clinical-phenotype-in-crohn-s-colitis
#5
Amir Klein, Yoav Mazor, Amir Karban, Ofer Ben-Itzhak, Yehuda Chowers, Edmond Sabo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Predicting the clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is relevant for treatment selection. Currently, such diagnostic tools are lacking. In a previous pilot study, morphometric tissue image analysis showed promise in predicting the clinical phenotype and need for surgery. In this study, we aimed to validate our previous results on a larger cohort. METHODS: Colonic biopsies from CD patients with colonic or ileocolonic disease and at least five years of post-biopsy clinical follow-up were analyzed...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812134/elevated-tumor-to-liver-uptake-ratio-tlr-from-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-stage-iia-colorectal-cancer-following-curative-resection
#6
Jun Huang, Liang Huang, Jiaming Zhou, Yinghua Duan, Zhanwen Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Pinzhu Huang, Shuyun Tan, Ping Hu, Jianping Wang, Meijin Huang
PURPOSE: The prognostic value of the tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) in the early stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Notably, some stage IIA CRC patients experience early recurrence even after curative resection and might benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate whether elevated TLR from (18)F-FDG-PET/CT can predict poor prognosis in stage IIA CRC patients undergoing curative resection...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811142/anatomical-analysis-of-human-ligamentum-flavum-in-the-cervical-spine-special-consideration-to-the-attachments-coverage-and-lateral-extent
#7
Mohammad Suhrab Rahmani, Hidetomi Terai, Javid Akhgar, Akinobu Suzuki, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Masatoshi Hoshino, Koji Tamai, Sayed Abdullah Ahmadi, Kazunori Hayashi, Shinji Takahashi, Hiroaki Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Posterior decompression surgeries of cervical spine such as laminoplasty and laminoforaminotomy are well established and increasing in aging population. The anatomical knowledge of cervical ligamentum flavum (LF) is critical to perform posterior spinal surgeries, however, few studies have evaluated it, especially the relation of LF and neural foramen. METHODS: The whole spine was removed en bloc from 15 formalin-embalmed human cadavers and then divided into two segments along the pedicle bases...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809678/ultrasound-aided-vertebral-level-localization-for-lumbar-surgery
#8
Nora Baka, Sieger Leenstra, Theo van Walsum
Localization of the correct vertebral level for surgical entry during lumbar hernia surgery is not straightforward. In this paper we develop and evaluate a solution using free-hand 2D ultrasound (US) imaging in the operation room (OR). Our system exploits the difference in spinous process shapes of the vertebrae. The spinous processes are pre-operatively outlined and labeled in a lateral lumbar X-ray of the patient. Then, in the OR the spinous processes are imaged with 2D sagittal US, and are automatically segmented and registered with the X-ray shapes...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#9
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800395/using-chemistry-to-target-neuroblastoma
#10
Jeanne N Hansen, Xingguo Li, Y George Zheng, Louis T Lotta, Abhishek Dedhe, Nina F Schor
Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the neural crest almost exclusively seen in childhood. While children with single, small primary tumors are often cured with surgery alone, the 65% of children with neuroblastoma whose disease has metastasized have less than a 50% chance of surviving five years after diagnosis. Innovative pharmacological strategies are critically needed for these children. Efforts to identify novel targets that afford ablation of neuroblastoma with minimal toxicity to normal tissues are underway...
August 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799639/paraganglioma-of-the-renal-pelvis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Cheng Yi, Lin Han, Rui Yang, Junfeng Yu
PURPOSE: Paraganglioma, a kind of pheochromocytoma originating from embryonic neural crest, is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm commonly located at extra-adrenal areas such as head, neck, and abdomen. There are a few reports on renal paragangliomas; fewer than 5 reported cases are renal pelvic paragangliomas, including our case. METHODS: Our patient, who had not experienced headache, hypertension, or palpitation, was founded to have a fixed mass in the left renal pelvis incidentally...
August 7, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797980/can-fan-beam-ict-accurately-predict-indirect-decompression-in-miss-fusion-procedures
#12
Insa Janssen, Gernot Lang, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Ajit Jada, Connor Berlin, Aaron Hilis, Micaella Zubkov, Lena Gandevia, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Recently, a novel mobile intraoperative fan-beam CT (iFBCT) was introduced, allowing for real time navigation and immediate intraoperative evaluation of neural decompression in spine surgery. This study sought to investigate whether intraoperatively assessed neural decompression during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has a predictive value for clinical and radiographic outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing iCT-guided extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) was conducted...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796246/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-source-of-adult-human-neural-progenitors
#13
Jinan Behnan, Biljana Stangeland, Tiziana Langella, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Giovanni Tringali, Torstein R Meling, Wayne Murrell
Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) are a potential source for cell based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. These cells have been traditionally isolated from hippocampus, subventricular zone and white matter. However, there is still a need for an easily accessible source with better yield to counter the limitations of small surgical samples of previously characterized aNPCs. Here we show that ultrasonic aspirate (UA) samples currently considered as 'biological waste after surgery,' offer a good source for aNPCs...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775236/patient-derived-dipg-cells-preserve-stem-like-characteristics-and-generate-orthotopic-tumors
#14
Cheng Xu, Xiaoqing Liu, Yibo Geng, Qingran Bai, Changcun Pan, Yu Sun, Xin Chen, Hai Yu, Yuliang Wu, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Yu Wang, Zhen Wu, Juntin Zhang, Zhaohui Wang, Rui Yang, Jenna Lewis, Darell Bigner, Fangping Zhao, Yiping He, Hai Yan, Qin Shen, Liwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating brain tumor, with a median survival of less than one year. Due to enormous difficulties in the acquisition of DIPG specimens and the sophisticated technique required to perform brainstem orthotopic injection, only a handful of DIPG pre-clinical models are available. In this study, we successfully established eight patient-derived DIPG cell lines, mostly derived from treatment-naïve surgery or biopsy specimens. These patient-derived cell lines can be stably passaged in serum-free neural stem cell media and displayed distinct morphologies, growth rates and chromosome abnormalities...
July 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769755/broadband-prosthetic-interfaces-combining-nerve-transfers-and-implantable-multichannel-emg-technology-to-decode-spinal-motor-neuron-activity
#15
Konstantin D Bergmeister, Ivan Vujaklija, Silvia Muceli, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Cosima Prahm, Otto Riedl, Stefan Salminger, Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Martin Aman, Michael-Friedrich Russold, Christian Hofer, Jose Principe, Dario Farina, Oskar C Aszmann
Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768412/receptor-targeted-polymeric-nanostructures-capable-of-navigating-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-for-effective-delivery-of-neural-therapeutics
#16
Taru Dube, Sonika Chibh, Jibanananda Mishra, Jiban Jyoti Panda
The window of neurological maladies encompasses 600 known neurological disorders. In the last few years, an inordinate upsurge in the incidences of neuronal ailments with increased mortality rate has been witnessed globally. Despite noteworthy research in the discovery and development of neural therapeutics, brain drug delivery still encounters limited success due to meager perviousness of most of the drug molecules through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a tight layer of endothelial cells that selectively impedes routing of the molecules across itself...
August 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767479/resistance-to-propofol-induction-in-a-patient-taking-modafinil-a-case-report
#17
Timothy N Harwood
After sedation with midazolam, induction of anesthesia with propofol was attempted in a patient taking modafinil. However, even after administration of a total of 6 mg/kg propofol IV, the patient continued to respond to tactile stimulation. Concurrently, the bispectral index was 72. Subsequent administration of low concentration sevoflurane by facemask induced an anesthetic depth that allowed unproblematic insertion of a laryngeal mask airway. Anesthesia for ophthalmologic surgery was maintained with sevoflurane...
August 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760038/fully-endoscopic-lumbar-interbody-fusion-using-a-percutaneous-unilateral-biportal-endoscopic-technique-technical-note-and-preliminary-clinical-results
#18
Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, Jin Hwa Eum, Choon Keun Park
OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive spine surgery can minimize damage to normal anatomical structures. Recently, fully endoscopic spine surgeries have been attempted for lumbar fusion surgery. In this study, the authors performed a percutaneous unilateral biportal endoscopic (UBE) technique as a minimally invasive surgery for lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to present the UBE technique of fully endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) and to analyze the clinical results. METHODS Patients who were to undergo single-level fusion surgery from L3-4 to L5-S1 were enrolled...
August 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755546/temporal-spatial-characteristics-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-electrocorticogram-for-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Ruihua Zhang, Ye Ren, Chunyan Liu, Na Xu, Xiaoli Li, Fengyu Cong, Tapani Ristaniemi, YuPing Wang
OBJECTIVE: Neural activity of the epileptic human brain contains low- and high-frequency oscillations in different frequency bands, some of which have been used as reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain areas. However, the relationship between the low- and high-frequency oscillations in different cortical areas during the period from pre-seizure to post-seizure has not been completely clarified. METHODS: We recorded electrocorticogram data from the temporal lobe and hippocampus of seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750949/a-machine-learning-approach-for-real-time-modelling-of-tissue-deformation-in-image-guided-neurosurgery
#20
Michele Tonutti, Gauthier Gras, Guang-Zhong Yang
OBJECTIVES: Accurate reconstruction and visualisation of soft tissue deformation in real time is crucial in image-guided surgery, particularly in augmented reality (AR) applications. Current deformation models are characterised by a trade-off between accuracy and computational speed. We propose an approach to derive a patient-specific deformation model for brain pathologies by combining the results of pre-computed finite element method (FEM) simulations with machine learning algorithms...
July 24, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
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