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Sport injury

Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Y M Zheng, W Z Li, Z X Wang, W Zhang, H Lv, J X Xiao, Y Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor enthesopathy. METHODS: Four boys, who were from four unrelated families and aged from 5 to 11 years, were investigated because of the clinical manifestations including myalgia or muscle weakness or the incidental findings of elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and were diagnosed with dystrophinopathy by gene test of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
C M Inness, K L Morgan
Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is played in over 80 countries. It is unique in combining the skills of a person with the agility and performance of an animal in a contact sport. There is only one report of the frequency and type of injuries in this population. Here we report risk perception, mitigation and risk factors for injuries and falls in UK polo players. Data were collected retrospectively from a random sample of 112 UK polo players by telephone questionnaire. Injuries (commonly to a shoulder or wrist) requiring a hospital visit were sustained by 17...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Morteza Khodaee, George T Edelman, Jack Spittler, Randall Wilber, Brian J Krabak, Daniel Solomon, Scott Riewald, Alicia Kendig, Laura M Borgelt, Mark Riederer, Vladimir Puzovic, Scott Rodeo
Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environmental and chemical exposures. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries, overtraining, respiratory problems, and dermatologic conditions are among the most common problems swimmers encounter. Although not unique to swimming, overtraining is a serious condition which can have significant negative impact on swimmers' health and performance...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
C Steingröver, N Wattie, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball players and National Football League (NFL) football players and to investigate the influence of relative age on career length in all three sports...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Jennifer C Reneker, Vinay Cheruvu, Jingzhen Yang, Chad E Cook, Mark A James, M Clay Moughiman, Joseph A Congeni
BACKGROUND: Dizziness is often reported after a sports-related concussion. Forces experienced at the time of the concussion can cause an injury to multiple anatomical areas, including the central nervous system, the vestibular system, and the cervical spine, each of which is sufficient to cause dizziness. Medical professionals routinely use the subjective history to develop hypotheses about what may be causing a patient's dizziness. No previous studies have attempted to differentiate the source of the dizziness through precise patient descriptors or the triggers of dizziness...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Lauren V Fortington, Dara M Twomey, Caroline F Finch
BACKGROUND: Head injuries, particularly concussion, are a major cause of concern in many sports, particularly the football codes, driving a need to better understand injury mechanisms and potential methods of prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms and follow up care of concussion injuries sustained in adult male community Australian football to identify target areas for prevention and management. METHODS: Secondary analysis of injury data collected in a cluster randomised controlled trial in community Australian football across two states of Australia in 2007 and 2008...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Stephen W Marshall, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Viswanathan Shankar, Michael McCrea, Robert C Cantu
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of sports-related concussion is not well-described in the literature. This paper presents a descriptive epidemiology of concussion in seven high school and collegiate sports. METHODS: We used the data from Concussion Prevention Initiative (CPI), which enrolled 8905 athletes at 210 high schools and 26 colleges in a prospective cohort study of 7 sports (football, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's lacrosse, and men's and women's ice hockey) between 1999 and 2001...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Fredrik Röding, Marie Lindkvist, Ulrica Bergström, Jack Lysholm
BACKGROUND: The injury spectrum published in the literature has mainly been presented for a certain age group, as elderly or for a certain type of injury, as fracture and often restricted to in-hospital care cases. Our objective was to give an overview of the major types of injuries for all age groups and trends in the adult population. METHODS: We analyzed 68,159 adult injury events, which occurred between 1999 and 2008 and was treated at the Emergency Department of Umea University Hospital...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Ala'a O Oteir, Karen Smith, Johannes U Stoelwinder, Shelley Cox, James W Middleton, Paul A Jennings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) is relatively uncommon, yet a devastating and costly condition. Despite the human and social impacts, studies describing patients with potential TSCI in the pre-hospital setting are scarce. This paper aims to describe the epidemiology of patients potentially at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI by paramedics, with a view to providing a better understanding of factors associated with potential TSCI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients managed and transported by Ambulance Victoria (AV) between 01 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 who, based on meeting pre-hospital triage protocols and criteria for spinal clearance, paramedic suspicion or spinal immobilisation, were classified to be at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Naja I Beck, Issra Arif, Michelle F Paumier, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. METHODS: We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013...
October 6, 2016: Injury
Sufian S Ahmad, Johannes C Meyer, Anna M Krismer, Suhaib S Ahmad, Dimitrios S Evangelopoulos, Sven Hoppe, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: Clinical research in the area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has shown substantial growth during the last decade. This was accompanied by the establishment of a wide range of outcome measures used to address the demands of clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome measures reported by highly cited level I trials in ACL research and identify factors influencing citation metrics. METHODS: The database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was utilized to screen journals under the subject categories "Orthopaedics", "Sports Sciences", "Radiology" and "General medicine" for the 50 most cited level I ACL trials based on predefined inclusion criteria...
October 14, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Graham Kirkwood, Thomas C Hughes, Allyson M Pollock
BACKGROUND: A pilot injury data collection exercise at the emergency departments (EDs) of Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (OUH) ran from 2012 to 2014 to inform the current development of the new NHS England emergency care data set. METHODS: Data collected at the EDs of OUH 1 January 2012 to 30 March 2014 analysed for Oxford City and Cherwell District Council areas. Data completeness and quality checked against Hospital Episode Statistic (HES) returns...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Raffy Mirzayan, Michael J Lim
BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a rare yet debilitating injury seen in young athletes. This is the first report in the literature describing fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (FOCAT) to treat OCD of the capitellum. METHODS: Nine male baseball players (mean age, 15.3; range, 14-18 years), with OCD of the capitellum were treated with FOCAT. There were 6 pitchers and 3 position players. A ligament-sparing, mini-open approach was used...
November 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos, David O Okonkwo, Jon Almquist, Julian Bailes, Mark Barisa, Jeffrey Bazarian, O Josh Bloom, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Javier Cardenas, Jay Clugston, Randall Cohen, Ruben Echemendia, R J Elbin, Richard Ellenbogen, Janna Fonseca, Gerard Gioia, Kevin Guskiewicz, Robert Heyer, Gillian Hotz, Grant L Iverson, Barry Jordan, Geoffrey Manley, Joseph Maroon, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Anne Mucha, Elizabeth Pieroth, Kenneth Podell, Matthew Pombo, Teena Shetty, Allen Sills, Gary Solomon, Danny G Thomas, Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Tony Yates, Ross Zafonte
BACKGROUND: Conventional management for concussion involves prescribed rest and progressive return to activity. Recent evidence challenges this notion and suggests that active approaches may be effective for some patients. Previous concussion consensus statements provide limited guidance regarding active treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current landscape of treatment for concussion and to provide summary agreements related to treatment to assist clinicians in the treatment of concussion...
October 12, 2016: Neurosurgery
Paul Rothenberg, Luis Grau, Lee Kaplan, Michael G Baraga
Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Melissa N Womble, Michael W Collins
Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Jillian E Sylvester, Luke N Belval, Douglas J Casa, Francis G O'Connor
Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Tim J Gabbett, Rod Whiteley
We have observed that in professional sporting organisations the staff responsible for physical preparation and medical care typically practice in relative isolation and display tension in regards their attitudes toward training load prescription (much more, and much less training respectively). Recent evidence shows that relatively high chronic training loads, when they are appropriately reached, are associated with reduced injury risk and better performance. Understanding this link between performance and training loads removes this tension, but requires a better understanding of the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), and it's association with performance and injury...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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