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Edward P Washabaugh, Tarun Kalyanaraman, Peter G Adamczyk, Edward S Claflin, Chandramouli Krishnan
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system...
April 12, 2017: Gait & Posture
T Pfau, V Simons, N Rombach, N Stubbs, R Weller
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training and rehabilitation techniques aiming at improving core muscle strength may result in increased dynamic stability of the equine vertebral column. A system of elastic resistance bands is suggested to provide proprioceptive feedback during motion to encourage recruitment of core abdominal and hindquarter musculature for improved dynamic stability. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of a specific resistance band system on back kinematics during trot in-hand and during lungeing at beginning and end of a 4-week exercise programme...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Benjamin D Robertson, Siddarth Vadakkeveedu, Gregory S Sawicki
We present a novel biorobotic framework comprised of a biological muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanically coupled to a feedback controlled robotic environment simulation that mimics in vivo inertial/gravitational loading and mechanical assistance from a parallel elastic exoskeleton. Using this system, we applied select combinations of biological muscle activation (modulated with rate-coded direct neural stimulation) and parallel elastic assistance (applied via closed-loop mechanical environment simulation) hypothesized to mimic human behavior based on previously published modeling studies...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Martin A O'Reilly, Darragh F Whelan, Tomas E Ward, Eamonn Delahunt, Brian M Caulfield
Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches offer expert guidance to help those they work with achieve their personal fitness goals. However it is not always practical to operate under the direct supervision of an S&C coach and consequently individuals are often left training without expert oversight. Recent developments in inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile computing platforms have allowed for the possibility of unobtrusive motion tracking systems and the provision of real-time individualised feedback regarding exercise performance...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jeremia P Held, Jasper Reenalda, Fokke B van Meulen, Peter H Veltink, Hermie J Hermens
BACKGROUND: Inertial motion capture systems are used in many applications such as measuring the movement quality in stroke survivors. The absence of clinical effectiveness and usability evidence in these assistive technologies into rehabilitation has delayed the transition of research into clinical practice. Recently, a new inertial motion capture system was developed in a project, called INTERACTION, to objectively measure the quality of movement (QoM) in stroke survivors during daily-life activity...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Eunjeong Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Hyo Suk Nam
BACKGROUND: The pronator drift test (PDT), a neurological examination, is widely used in clinics to measure motor weakness of stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a PDT tool with machine learning classifiers to detect stroke symptoms based on quantification of proximal arm weakness using inertial sensors and signal processing. METHODS: We extracted features of drift and pronation from accelerometer signals of wearable devices on the inner wrists of 16 stroke patients and 10 healthy controls...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Andreea Panaitescu, Xavier Clotet, Arshad Kudrolli
We investigate the drag experienced by a spherical intruder moving through a medium consisting of granular hydrogels immersed in water as a function of its depth, size, and speed. The medium is observed to display a yield stress with a finite force required to move the intruder in the quasistatic regime at low speeds before rapidly increasing at high speeds. In order to understand the relevant time scales that determine drag, we estimate the inertial number I given by the ratio of the time scales required to rearrange grains due to the overburden pressure and imposed shear and the viscous number J given by the ratio of the time scales required to sediment grains in the interstitial fluid and imposed shear...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Meenu Agrawal, A R Premlata, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Badarinath Karri, Kirti Chandra Sahu
The dynamics of an initially nonspherical liquid droplet falling in air under the action of gravity is investigated via three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations in the inertial regime. The surface tension is considered to be high enough so that a droplet does not undergo breakup. Vertically symmetric oscillations which decay with time are observed for low inertia. The amplitude of these oscillations increases for high Gallilei numbers and the shape asymmetry in the vertical direction becomes prominent...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Thomas Hartlep, Jeffrey N Cuzzi, Brian Weston
Turbulent flows preferentially concentrate inertial particles depending on their stopping time or Stokes number, which can lead to significant spatial variations in the particle concentration. Cascade models are one way to describe this process in statistical terms. Here, we use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) dataset of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence to determine probability distribution functions (PDFs) for cascade multipliers, which determine the ratio by which a property is partitioned into subvolumes as an eddy is envisioned to decay into smaller eddies...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Ke Lan, Zhichao Li, Xufei Xie, Yao-Hua Chen, Chunyang Zheng, Chuanlei Zhai, Liang Hao, Dong Yang, Wen Yi Huo, Guoli Ren, Xiaoshi Peng, Tao Xu, Yulong Li, Sanwei Li, Zhiwen Yang, Liang Guo, Lifei Hou, Yonggang Liu, Huiyue Wei, Xiangming Liu, Weiyi Cha, Xiaohua Jiang, Yu Mei, Yukun Li, Keli Deng, Zheng Yuan, Xiayu Zhan, Haijun Zhang, Baibin Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xuewei Deng, Jie Liu, Kai Du, Yongkun Ding, Xiaofeng Wei, Wanguo Zheng, Xiaodong Chen, E M Campbell, Xian-Tu He
Octahedral spherical hohlraums with a single laser ring at an injection angle of 55^{∘} are attractive concepts for laser indirect drive due to the potential for achieving the x-ray drive symmetry required for high convergence implosions. Laser-plasma instabilities, however, are a concern given the long laser propagation path in such hohlraums. Significant stimulated Raman scattering has been observed in cylindrical hohlraums with similar laser propagation paths during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
N V Antonov, N M Gulitskiy, M M Kostenko, T Lučivjanský
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997)TMPHAH0040-577910.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
A G MacPhee, D T Casey, D S Clark, S Felker, J E Field, S W Haan, B A Hammel, J Kroll, O L Landen, D A Martinez, P Michel, J Milovich, A Moore, A Nikroo, N Rice, H F Robey, V A Smalyuk, M Stadermann, C R Weber
Measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth for a high-density carbon ablator for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility are reported. We observe significant unexpected features on the capsule surface created by shadows of the capsule fill tube, as illuminated by laser-irradiated x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall. These shadows increase the spatial size and shape of the fill tube perturbation in a way that can significantly degrade performance in layered implosions compared to previous expectations...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
P Rodriguez Imazio, P D Mininni
We use direct numerical simulations to compute structure functions, scaling exponents, probability density functions, and effective transport coefficients of passive scalars in turbulent rotating helical and nonhelical flows. We show that helicity affects the inertial range scaling of the velocity and of the passive scalar when rotation is present, with a spectral law consistent with ∼k_{⊥}^{-1.4} for the passive scalar variance spectrum. This scaling law is consistent with a phenomenological argument [P...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Jaesuk Choi, Jihun Kim, Jae Youn Hwang, Minkyu Je, Jun-Young Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim
This paper proposes a novel smart surgical navigation system for intramedullary nailing in orthopedic surgery. Using a handle-integrated laser guidance module, the system can target a drill insertion point onto skin, indicating an accurate target position to perpendicularly access an invisible distal hole. The proposed handle-integration-based fixation of the laser guidance module precisely defines the relative position of the module with respect to the distal hole. Consequently, unlike conventional systems, the proposed system can indicate the target insertion point without any help from bulky and costly external position-tracking equipment that is usually required for compensating disturbances generated by external impacts...
2017: PloS One
Xinyu Lu, Chao Liu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
R C Shah, B M Haines, F J Wysocki, J F Benage, J A Fooks, V Glebov, P Hakel, M Hoppe, I V Igumenshchev, G Kagan, R C Mancini, F J Marshall, D T Michel, T J Murphy, M E Schoff, K Silverstein, C Stoeckl, B Yaakobi
We present narrow-band self-emission x-ray images from a titanium tracer layer placed at the fuel-shell interface in 60-laser-beam implosion experiments at the OMEGA facility. The images are acquired during deceleration with inferred convergences of ∼9-14. Novel here is that a systematically observed asymmetry of the emission is linked, using full sphere 3D implosion modeling, to performance-limiting low mode asymmetry of the drive.
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Jacob Chamoun, Michel J F Digonnet
A laser-driven fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is demonstrated with an angular random walk noise of 5.5×10<sup>-4</sup>  deg/√h, a drift of 6.8×10<sup>-3</sup>  deg/h, and an inferred scale-factor stability of 0.15 ppm, making it, to the best of our knowledge, the first laser-driven FOG to satisfy the performance requirements for inertial navigation of commercial aircraft. This is achieved using Gaussian white noise phase modulation to broaden the linewidth of the source laser and to strongly suppress the narrow-linewidth optical carrier...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
M Robinson, H Marks, T Hinsdale, K Maitland, G Coté
Blood, saliva, mucus, sweat, sputum, and other biological fluids are often hindered in their ability to be used in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics because their assays require some form of off-site sample pre-preparation to effectively separate biomarkers from larger components such as cells. The rapid isolation, identification, and quantification of proteins and other small molecules circulating in the blood plasma from larger interfering molecules are therefore particularly important factors for optical blood diagnostic tests, in particular, when using optical approaches that incur spectroscopic interference from hemoglobin-rich red blood cells (RBCs)...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Hyunryul Ryu, Kyungyong Choi, Yanyan Qu, Taehong Kwon, Janet S Lee, Jongyoon Han
Assessment of airway secretion cells, both for research and clinical purposes, is a highly desired goal in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. However, lack of proper cell isolation and enrichment techniques hinder downstream evaluation and characterization of cells found in airway secretions. Here, we demonstrate a novel enrichment method to capture immune-related cells from clinical airway secretions using closed-loop separation of spiral inertial microfluidics (C-sep). By recirculating the output focusing stream back to the input reservoir and running continuously with a high flow processing rate, one can achieve optimal concentration, recovery and purity of airway immune cells from a large volume of diluent, which was not readily possible in the single-pass operation...
April 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Carlos Pérez-López, Albert Samà, Andreu Català, Joan Manuel Moreno Arostegui, Joan Cabestany, Berta Mestre, Sheila Alcaine, Anna Prats, María de la Cruz Crespo, Àngels Bayés
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are devices used, among other fields, in health applications, since they are light, small and effective. More concretely, IMUs have been demonstrated to be useful in the monitoring of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this sense, most of previous works have attempted to assess PD symptoms in controlled environments or short tests. This paper presents the design of an IMU, called 9 × 3, that aims to assess PD symptoms, enabling the possibility to perform a map of patients' symptoms at their homes during long periods...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
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