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Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Robert L McMasters, Reza Mohammadi
HYPOTHESIS: Recently, it has been shown that the contact time of impacting water droplets on a superhydrophobic cylindrical surface decreases when its radius becomes comparable to that of the droplet, yet the correlation of this reduction with the impact velocity is unclear. Moreover, on a flat surface, experiments involving the addition of a single macrotexture, along with covering the surface with macroscopic cylindrical ridges (ribbed pattern), have been reported to shorten the contact time...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Estefania Munoz Diaz, Susanna Kaiser, Dina Bousdar Ahmed
Shoe-mounted inertial sensors are widespread deployed in satellite-denied scenarios because of the possibility to re-calibrate stepwise the estimated position. These re-calibrations, known as zero-velocity corrections, prevent an accumulated positioning error growth over time caused by the noise of current medium- and low-cost sensors. However, the error accumulated over time in the height estimation is still an issue under study. The objective of this article is to propose a height correction that is based on the dynamics of the foot...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Jules Gellaerts, Evgeny Bogdanov, Farzin Dadashi, Benoit Mariani
Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo) is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power) and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack) in order to classify between the different types of locomotion...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Junbo Tie, Juliang Cao, Lubing Chang, Shaokun Cai, Meiping Wu, Junxiang Lian
Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Xu Zhao, Lihua Dou, Zhong Su, Ning Liu
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU)...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Shuai Zhang, Burkhard Militzer, Lorin X Benedict, François Soubiran, Philip A Sterne, Kevin P Driver
Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Beatriz A Pazmiño Betancourt, Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas
Relaxation in glass-forming liquids occurs as a multi-stage hierarchical process involving cooperative molecular motion. First, there is a "fast" relaxation process dominated by the inertial motion of the molecules whose amplitude grows upon heating, followed by a longer time α-relaxation process involving both large-scale diffusive molecular motion and momentum diffusion. Our molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained glass-forming polymer melt indicate that the fast, collective motion becomes progressively suppressed upon cooling, necessitating large-scale collective motion by molecular diffusion for the material to relax approaching the glass-transition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
J A Marozas, M Hohenberger, M J Rosenberg, D Turnbull, T J B Collins, P B Radha, P W McKenty, J D Zuegel, F J Marshall, S P Regan, T C Sangster, W Seka, E M Campbell, V N Goncharov, M W Bowers, J-M G Di Nicola, G Erbert, B J MacGowan, L J Pelz, S T Yang
Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) results from two-beam energy exchange via seeded stimulated Brillouin scattering, which detrimentally reduces ablation pressure and implosion velocity in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Mitigating CBET is demonstrated for the first time in inertial-confinement implosions at the National Ignition Facility by detuning the laser-source wavelengths (±2.3  Å UV) of the interacting beams. We show that, in polar direct-drive, wavelength detuning increases the equatorial region velocity experimentally by 16% and alters the in-flight shell morphology...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Z H Zhong, R X Tang, M Zhou, X H Deng, Y Pang, W R Paterson, B L Giles, J L Burch, R B Tobert, R E Ergun, Y V Khotyaintsev, P-A Lindquist
Secondary flux ropes are suggested to play important roles in energy dissipation and particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection. However, their generation mechanism is not fully understood. In this Letter, we present the first direct evidence that a secondary flux rope was generated due to the evolution of an electron vortex, which was driven by the electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an ion diffusion region as observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The subion scale (less than the ion inertial length) flux rope was embedded within the electron vortex, which contained a secondary electron diffusion region at the trailing edge of the flux rope...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Fabio Giardina, Fumiya Iida
Locomotion of machines and robots operating in rough terrain is strongly influenced by the mechanics of the ground-machine interactions. A rolling wheel in terrain with obstacles is subject to collisional energy losses, which is governed by mechanics comparable to hopping or walking locomotion. Here we investigate the energetic cost associated with overcoming an obstacle for rolling and hopping locomotion, using a simple mechanics model. The model considers collision-based interactions with the ground and the obstacle, without frictional losses, and we quantify, analyse, and compare the sources of energetic costs for three locomotion strategies...
2018: PloS One
Aynur Abdulla, Wenjia Liu, Azarmidokht Gholamipour-Shirazi, Jiahui Sun, Xianting Ding
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells that detach from primary or metastasis tumor and flow into the blood stream. Intact and viable tumor cells are needed for genetic characterization of CTCs, new drug development, and other research. Although separation of CTCs using spiral channel with two outlets has been reported, few literatures demonstrated simultaneous isolation of different types of CTCs from human blood using cascaded inertial focusing microfluidic channel. Herein, we introduce a cascaded microfluidic device consisting of two spiral channels and one zigzag channel designed with different fluid fields, including lift force, Dean drag force, and centrifugal force...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kyungyong Choi, Hyunryul Ryu, Katherine J Siddle, Anne Piantadosi, Lisa Freimark, Daniel J Park, Pardis Sabeti, Jongyoon Han
In blood samples from patients with viral infection, it is often important to separate viral particles from human cells, for example to minimize background in performing viral whole genome sequencing. Here, we present a microfluidic device that uses spiral inertial microfluidics with continuous circulation to separate host cells from viral particles and free nucleic acid. We demonstrate that this device effectively reduces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from both whole blood and plasma samples with excellent recovery of viral nucleic acid...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ning Li, Shilin Niu, Zhengwei Guo, Yabo Liu, Jiaqi Chen
For accurate motion compensation (MOCO) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, a high-precision inertial navigation system (INS) is required. However, an INS is not always precise enough or is sometimes not even included in airborne SAR systems. In this paper, a new, raw, data-based range-invariant motion compensation approach, which can effectively extract the displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, is proposed for high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR mode. In this approach, the sub-aperture radial accelerations of the airborne platform are estimated via a well-developed weighted total least square (WTLS) method considering the time-varying beam direction...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Huixia Li, Xi Wen, Hang Guo, Min Yu
As indoor mobile navigation suffers from low positioning accuracy and accumulation error, we carried out research into an integrated location system for a robot based on Kinect and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In this paper, the close-range stereo images are used to calculate the attitude information and the translation amount of the adjacent positions of the robot by means of the absolute orientation algorithm, for improving the calculation accuracy of the robot's movement. Relying on the Kinect visual measurement and the strap-down IMU devices, we also use Kalman filtering to obtain the errors of the position and attitude outputs, in order to seek the optimal estimation and correct the errors...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Stephan Bosch, Filipe Serra Bragança, Mihai Marin-Perianu, Raluca Marin-Perianu, Berend Jan van der Zwaag, John Voskamp, Willem Back, René van Weeren, Paul Havinga
In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various equine gait modes, and analyzes both upper-body and limb movements. The validation against an optical motion capture system is based on a Bland-Altman analysis that illustrates the agreement between the two systems. The sagittal kinematic results (protraction, retraction, and sagittal range of motion) show limits of agreement of ± 2...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
Hoa Thanh Phan, Thien Xuan Dinh, Phong Nhu Bui, Van Thanh Dau
In this paper, we report on the design, simulation, and experimental analysis of a miniaturized device that can generate multiple circulated jet flows. The device is actuated by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm. The flows in the device were studied using three-dimensional transient numerical simulation with the programmable open source OpenFOAM and was comparable to the experimental result. Each flow is verified by two hotwires mounted at two positions inside each consisting chamber. The experiment confirmed that the flow was successfully created, and it demonstrated good agreement with the simulation...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
Henri De Vroey, Filip Staes, Ive Weygers, Evie Vereecke, Jos Vanrenterghem, Jan Deklerck, Geert Van Damme, Hans Hallez, Kurt Claeys
BACKGROUND: The use of inertial measurement units for the evaluation of temporal parameters of gait has been studied in many populations. However, currently no studies support the use of inertial measurement units for this purpose in the knee arthroplasty population. The objective of the present study was to investigate the agreement between an inertial measurement and camera based system for the assessment of temporal gait parameters in a knee arthroplasty population. METHODS: Sixteen knee arthroplasty patients performed 3 gait trials at a self-selected speed along a 6 m walk-way...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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