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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106452/refractive-index-seen-by-a-probe-beam-interacting-with-a-laser-plasma-system
#1
D Turnbull, C Goyon, G E Kemp, B B Pollock, D Mariscal, L Divol, J S Ross, S Patankar, J D Moody, P Michel
We report the first complete set of measurements of a laser-plasma optical system's refractive index, as seen by a second probe laser beam, as a function of the relative wavelength shift between the two laser beams. Both the imaginary and real refractive index components are found to be in good agreement with linear theory using plasma parameters measured by optical Thomson scattering and interferometry; the former is in contrast to previous work and has implications for crossed-beam energy transfer in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion, and the latter is measured for the first time...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103196/sensor-based-gait-parameter-extraction-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#2
Julius Hannink, Thomas Kautz, Cristian Pasluosta, Karl-Gunter Gassmann, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern Eskofier
Measurement of stride-related, biomechanical parameters is the common rationale for objective gait impairment scoring. State-of-the-art double integration approaches to extract these parameters from inertial sensor data are, however, limited in their clinical applicability due to the underlying assumptions. To overcome this, we present a method to translate the abstract information provided by wearable sensors to context-related expert features based on deep convolutional neural networks. Regarding mobile gait analysis, this enables integration-free and data-driven extraction of a set of eight spatio-temporal stride parameters...
December 8, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099115/examination-of-the-reliability-of-an-inertial-sensor-based-gait-analysis-system
#3
Katja Orlowski, Falko Eckardt, Fabian Herold, Norman Aye, Jürgen Edelmann-Nusser, Kerstin Witte
Gait analysis is an important and useful part of the daily therapeutic routine. InvestiGAIT, an inertial sensor-based system, was developed for using in different research projects with a changing number and position of sensors and because commercial systems do not capture the motion of the upper body. The current study is designed to evaluate the reliability of InvestiGAIT consisting of four off-the-shelf inertial sensors and in-house capturing and analysis software. Besides the determination of standard gait parameters, the motion of the upper body (pelvis and spine) can be investigated...
January 18, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097218/energy-penetration-into-arrays-of-aligned-nanowires-irradiated-with-relativistic-intensities-scaling-to-terabar-pressures
#4
Clayton Bargsten, Reed Hollinger, Maria Gabriela Capeluto, Vural Kaymak, Alexander Pukhov, Shoujun Wang, Alex Rockwood, Yong Wang, David Keiss, Riccardo Tommasini, Richard London, Jaebum Park, Michel Busquet, Marcel Klapisch, Vyacheslav N Shlyaptsev, Jorge J Rocca
Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10(8) J cm(-3) and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095857/real-time-inverse-kinematics-for-the-upper-limb-a-model-based-algorithm-using-segment-orientations
#5
Bence J Borbély, Péter Szolgay
BACKGROUND: Model based analysis of human upper limb movements has key importance in understanding the motor control processes of our nervous system. Various simulation software packages have been developed over the years to perform model based analysis. These packages provide computationally intensive-and therefore off-line-solutions to calculate the anatomical joint angles from motion captured raw measurement data (also referred as inverse kinematics). In addition, recent developments in inertial motion sensing technology show that it may replace large, immobile and expensive optical systems with small, mobile and cheaper solutions in cases when a laboratory-free measurement setup is needed...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093203/a-compound-scheme-on-parameters-identification-and-adaptive-compensation-of-nonlinear-friction-disturbance-for-the-aerial-inertially-stabilized-platform
#6
Xiangyang Zhou, Beilei Zhao, Wei Liu, Haixiao Yue, Ruixia Yu, Yulong Zhao
A compound scheme is proposed to compensate the effect of nonlinear friction disturbance on the control precision of a three-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) for aerial remote sensing applications. The scheme consists of friction parameters identification and adaptive compensation. A LuGre model-based ISP friction model is first developed. Then, a comprehensive experimental scheme is proposed to obtain the static friction parameters. Further, the dynamic parameters are identified by experiments and dynamic optimization...
January 13, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092512/a-hidden-markov-model-for-seismocardiography
#7
Johan Wahlstrom, Isaac Skog, Peter Handel, Farzad Khosrow-Khavar, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Phyllis K Stein, Arye Nehorai
We propose a hidden Markov model approach for processing seismocardiograms. The seismocardiogram morphology is learned using the expectation-maximization algorithm, and the state of the heart at a given time instant is estimated by the Viterbi algorithm. From the obtained Viterbi sequence, it is then straightforward to estimate instantaneous heart rate, heart rate variability measures, and cardiac time intervals (the latter requiring a small number of manual annotations). As is shown in the conducted experimental study, the presented algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in seismocardiogrambased heart rate and heart rate variability estimation Moreover, the isovolumic contraction time and the left ventricular ejection time are estimated with mean absolute errors of about 5 [ms] and 9 [ms], respectively...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088305/inertial-particle-dynamics-in-large-artery-flows-implications-for-modeling-arterial-embolisms
#8
Debanjan Mukherjee, Shawn C Shadden
The complexity of inertial particle dynamics through swirling chaotic flow structures characteristic of pulsatile large-artery hemodynamics renders significant challenges in predictive understanding of transport of such particles. This is specifically crucial for arterial embolisms, where knowledge of embolus transport to major vascular beds helps in disease diagnosis and surgical planning. Using a computational framework built upon image-based CFD and discrete particle dynamics modeling, a multi-parameter sampling-based study was conducted on embolic particle dynamics and transport...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069162/a-constrained-extended-kalman-filter-for-the-optimal-estimate-of-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-a-sagittal-symmetric-exercise
#9
V Bonnet, R Dumas, A Cappozzo, V Joukov, G Daune, D Kulić, P Fraisse, S Andary, G Venture
This paper presents a method for real-time estimation of the kinematics and kinetics of a human body performing a sagittal symmetric motor task, which would minimize the impact of the stereophotogrammetric soft tissue artefacts (STA). The method is based on a bi-dimensional mechanical model of the locomotor apparatus the state variables of which (joint angles, velocities and accelerations, and the segments lengths and inertial parameters) are estimated by a constrained extended Kalman filter (CEKF) that fuses input information made of both stereophotogrammetric and dynamometric measurement data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068376/an-objective-functional-characterisation-of-head-movement-impairment-in-individuals-with-neck-muscle-weakness-due-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Silvia Pancani, Wendy Tindale, Pamela J Shaw, Christopher J McDermott, Claudia Mazzà
BACKGROUND: Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls. METHODS: We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060957/causal-inference-in-multisensory-heading-estimation
#11
Ksander N de Winkel, Mikhail Katliar, Heinrich H Bülthoff
A large body of research shows that the Central Nervous System (CNS) integrates multisensory information. However, this strategy should only apply to multisensory signals that have a common cause; independent signals should be segregated. Causal Inference (CI) models account for this notion. Surprisingly, previous findings suggested that visual and inertial cues on heading of self-motion are integrated regardless of discrepancy. We hypothesized that CI does occur, but that characteristics of the motion profiles affect multisensory processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056712/neonatal-head-and-torso-vibration-exposure-during-inter-hospital-transfer
#12
Laurence Blaxter, Mildrid Yeo, Donal McNally, John Crowe, Caroline Henry, Sarah Hill, Neil Mansfield, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey
Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052769/elasto-inertial-microfluidics-for-bacteria-separation-from-whole-blood-for-sepsis-diagnostics
#13
Muhammad Asim Faridi, Harisha Ramachandraiah, Indradumna Banerjee, Sahar Ardabili, Sergey Zelenin, Aman Russom
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) remain a major challenge with high mortality rate, with an incidence that is increasing worldwide. Early treatment with appropriate therapy can reduce BSI-related morbidity and mortality. However, despite recent progress in molecular based assays, complex sample preparation steps have become critical roadblock for a greater expansion of molecular assays. Here, we report a size based, label-free, bacteria separation from whole blood using elasto-inertial microfluidics...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052130/cervical-spine-injuries-a-whole-body-musculoskeletal-model-for-the-analysis-of-spinal-loading
#14
Dario Cazzola, Timothy P Holsgrove, Ezio Preatoni, Harinderjit S Gill, Grant Trewartha
Cervical spine trauma from sport or traffic collisions can have devastating consequences for individuals and a high societal cost. The precise mechanisms of such injuries are still unknown as investigation is hampered by the difficulty in experimentally replicating the conditions under which these injuries occur. We harness the benefits of computer simulation to report on the creation and validation of i) a generic musculoskeletal model (MASI) for the analyses of cervical spine loading in healthy subjects, and ii) a population-specific version of the model (Rugby Model), for investigating cervical spine injury mechanisms during rugby activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042857/estimation-of-ground-reaction-forces-and-moments-during-gait-using-only-inertial-motion-capture
#15
Angelos Karatsidis, Giovanni Bellusci, H Martin Schepers, Mark de Zee, Michael S Andersen, Peter H Veltink
Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC). From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments...
December 31, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040018/pressure-spectra-in-turbulent-flows-in-the-inertial-and-the-dissipation-ranges
#16
Sipei Zhao, Eva Cheng, Xiaojun Qiu, Ian Burnett, Jacob Chia-Chun Liu
Based on existing studies that provide the pressure spectra in turbulent flows from the asymptotic pressure structure function in the inertial range, this paper extends the pressure spectrum to the dissipation range by proposing a pressure structure function model that incorporates both the inertial and dissipation ranges. Existing experiment results were used to validate the proposed pressure structure function model first, and then the obtained pressure spectrum was compared with the simulation and measurement data in the literature and the wind-induced noise measured outdoors...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039539/a-wearable-proprioceptive-stabilizer-for-rehabilitation-of-limb-and-gait-ataxia-in-hereditary-cerebellar-ataxias-a-pilot-open-labeled-study
#17
Luca Leonardi, Maria Gabriella Aceto, Christian Marcotulli, Giuseppe Arcuria, Mariano Serrao, Francesco Pierelli, Paolo Paone, Alessandro Filla, Alessandro Roca, Carlo Casali
The aim of this pilot study is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a wearable proprioceptive stabilizer that emits focal mechanical vibrations in patients affected by hereditary cerebellar ataxias. Eleven adult patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia or Friedreich's ataxia were asked to wear an active device for 3 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, after the device use (T1), and 3 weeks after (T2). SARA, 9-HPT, PATA, 6MWT, and spatial and temporal gait parameters, measured with a BTS-G-Walk inertial sensor, were used as study endpoints...
December 31, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038673/feature-visualization-and-classification-for-the-discrimination-between-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-under-levodopa-and-dbs-treatments
#18
Alessandro R P Machado, Hudson Capanema Zaidan, Ana Paula Souza Paixão, Guilherme Lopes Cavalheiro, Fábio Henrique Monteiro Oliveira, João Areis Ferreira Barbosa Júnior, Kheline Naves, Adriano Alves Pereira, Janser Moura Pereira, Nader Pouratian, Xiaoyi Zhuo, Andrew O'Keeffe, Justin Sharim, Yvette Bordelon, Laurice Yang, Marcus Fraga Vieira, Adriano O Andrade
BACKGROUND: Over the years, a number of distinct treatments have been adopted for the management of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), including pharmacologic therapies and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Efficacy is most often evaluated by subjective assessments, which are prone to error and dependent on the experience of the examiner. Our goal was to identify an objective means of assessing response to therapy. METHODS: In this study, we employed objective analyses in order to visualize and identify differences between three groups: healthy control (N = 10), subjects with PD treated with DBS (N = 12), and subjects with PD treated with levodopa (N = 16)...
December 30, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027529/automatic-classification-of-gait-in-children-with-early-onset-ataxia-or-developmental-coordination-disorder-and-controls-using-inertial-sensors
#19
Andrea Mannini, Octavio Martinez-Manzanera, Tjitske F Lawerman, Diana Trojaniello, Ugo Della Croce, Deborah A Sival, Natasha M Maurits, Angelo Maria Sabatini
Early-Onset Ataxia (EOA) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two conditions that affect coordination in children. Phenotypic identification of impaired coordination plays an important role in their diagnosis. Gait is one of the tests included in rating scales that can be used to assess motor coordination. A practical problem is that the resemblance between EOA and DCD symptoms can hamper their diagnosis. In this study we employed inertial sensors and a supervised classifier to obtain an automatic classification of the condition of participants...
December 2, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027021/whole-body-movements-in-long-term-weightlessness-hierarchies-of-the-controlled-variables-are-gravity-dependent
#20
Claudia Casellato, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno
Switching between contexts affects the mechanisms underlying motion planning, in particular it may entail reranking the variables to be controlled in defining the motor solutions. Three astronauts performed multiple sessions of whole-body pointing, in normogravity before launch, in prolonged weightlessness onboard the International Space Station, and after return. The effect of gravity context on kinematic and dynamic components was evaluated. Hand trajectory was gravity independent; center-of-mass excursion was highly variable within and between subjects...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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