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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351262/imu-to-segment-assignment-and-orientation-alignment-for-the-lower-body-using-deep-learning
#1
Tobias Zimmermann, Bertram Taetz, Gabriele Bleser
Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation) and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S) assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349475/continuous-splitting-of-aqueous-droplets-at-the-interface-of-co-flowing-immiscible-oil-streams-in-a-microchannel
#2
K S Jayaprakash, A K Sen
We report the continuous splitting of aqueous droplets at the interface between two co-flowing immiscible oil streams in a microchannel. The aqueous droplets initially present in a primary continuous stream (CP1) migrate into a secondary continuous stream (CP2) when the ratio of the non-inertial lift force to the interfacial tension force exceeds a critical value (K. S. Jayaprakash, U. Banerjee and A. K. Sen, Langmuir, 2016, 32, 2136-2143). Here, experiments were performed to understand the droplet splitting phenomenon and demonstrate the splitting of droplets encapsulating microbeads and cells...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347674/alternative-derivation-of-exact-law-for-compressible-and-isothermal-magnetohydrodynamics-turbulence
#3
N Andrés, F Sahraoui
The exact law for fully developed homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics (CMHD) turbulence is derived. For an isothermal plasma, without the assumption of isotropy, the exact law is expressed as a function of the plasma velocity field, the compressible Alfvén velocity, and the scalar density, instead of the Elsasser variables used in previous works. The theoretical results show four different types of terms that are involved in the nonlinear cascade of the total energy in the inertial range. Each category is examined in detail, in particular, those that can be written either as source or flux terms...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347662/deciphering-the-kinetic-structure-of-multi-ion-plasma-shocks
#4
Brett D Keenan, Andrei N Simakov, Luis Chacón, William T Taitano
Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many high-energy-density environments, including inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, their basic structure and its dependence on key parameters (e.g., the Mach number and the plasma ion composition) are poorly understood, and inconsistencies in that regard remain in the literature. In particular, the shock width's dependence on the Mach number has been hotly debated for decades. Using a high-fidelity Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, and direct comparisons to multi-ion hydrodynamic simulations and semianalytic predictions, we resolve the structure of steady-state planar shocks in D-^{3}He plasmas...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347623/origin-of-the-inertial-deviation-from-darcy-s-law-an-investigation-from-a-microscopic-flow-analysis-on-two-dimensional-model-structures
#5
Mehrez Agnaou, Didier Lasseux, Azita Ahmadi
Inertial flow in porous media occurs in many situations of practical relevance among which one can cite flows in column reactors, in filters, in aquifers, or near wells for hydrocarbon recovery. It is characterized by a deviation from Darcy's law that leads to a nonlinear relationship between the pressure drop and the filtration velocity. In this work, this deviation, also known as the nonlinear, inertial, correction to Darcy's law, which is subject to controversy upon its origin and dependence on the filtration velocity, is studied through numerical simulations...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347536/force-fluctuations-on-a-wall-in-interaction-with-a-granular-lid-driven-cavity-flow
#6
François Kneib, Thierry Faug, Gilles Nicolet, Nicolas Eckert, Mohamed Naaim, Frédéric Dufour
The force fluctuations experienced by a boundary wall subjected to a lid-driven cavity flow are investigated by means of numerical simulations based on the discrete-element method. The time-averaged dynamics inside the cavity volume and the resulting steady force on the wall are governed by the boundary macroscopic inertial number, the latter being derived from the shearing velocity and the confinement pressure imposed at the top. The force fluctuations are quantified through measuring both the autocorrelation of force time series and the distributions of grain-wall forces, at distinct spatial scales from particle scale to wall scale...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347520/relativistic-analysis-of-stochastic-kinematics
#7
Massimiliano Giona
The relativistic analysis of stochastic kinematics is developed in order to determine the transformation of the effective diffusivity tensor in inertial frames. Poisson-Kac stochastic processes are initially considered. For one-dimensional spatial models, the effective diffusion coefficient measured in a frame Σ moving with velocity w with respect to the rest frame of the stochastic process is inversely proportional to the third power of the Lorentz factor γ(w)=(1-w^{2}/c^{2})^{-1/2}. Subsequently, higher-dimensional processes are analyzed and it is shown that the diffusivity tensor in a moving frame becomes nonisotropic: The diffusivities parallel and orthogonal to the velocity of the moving frame scale differently with respect to γ(w)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347484/partial-inertia-induces-additional-phase-transition-in-the-majority-vote-model
#8
Pedro E Harunari, M M de Oliveira, C E Fiore
Explosive (i.e., discontinuous) transitions have aroused great interest by manifesting in distinct systems, such as synchronization in coupled oscillators, percolation regime, absorbing phase transitions, and more recently, the majority-vote model with inertia. In the latter, the model rules are slightly modified by the inclusion of a term depending on the local spin (an inertial term). In such a case, Chen et al. [Phys Rev. E 95, 042304 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.042304] have found that relevant inertia changes the nature of the phase transition in complex networks, from continuous to discontinuous...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347474/space-time-modulated-stochastic-processes
#9
Massimiliano Giona
Starting from the physical problem associated with the Lorentzian transformation of a Poisson-Kac process in inertial frames, the concept of space-time-modulated stochastic processes is introduced for processes possessing finite propagation velocity. This class of stochastic processes provides a two-way coupling between the stochastic perturbation acting on a physical observable and the evolution of the physical observable itself, which in turn influences the statistical properties of the stochastic perturbation during its evolution...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347378/interfacial-mixing-in-high-energy-density-matter-with-a-multiphysics-kinetic-model
#10
Jeffrey R Haack, Cory D Hauck, Michael S Murillo
We have extended a recently developed multispecies, multitemperature Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model [Haack et al., J. Stat. Phys. 168, 822 (2017)JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-017-1824-9], to include multiphysics capabilities that enable modeling of a wider range of physical conditions. In terms of geometry, we have extended from the spatially homogeneous setting to one spatial dimension. In terms of the physics, we have included an atomic ionization model, accurate collision physics across coupling regimes, self-consistent electric fields, and degeneracy in the electronic screening...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347369/relaxation-type-nonlocal-inertial-number-rheology-for-dry-granular-flows
#11
Keng-Lin Lee, Fu-Ling Yang
We propose a constitutive model to describe the nonlocality, hysteresis, and several flow features of dry granular materials. Taking the well-known inertial number I as a measure of sheared-induced local fluidization, we derive a relaxation model for I according to the evolution of microstructure during avalanche and dissipation processes. The model yields a nonmonotonic flow law for a homogeneous flow, accounting for hysteretic solid-fluid transition and intermittency in quasistatic flows. For an inhomogeneous flow, the model predicts a generalized Bagnold shear stress revealing the interplay of two microscopic nonlocal mechanisms: collisions among correlated structures and the diffusion of fluidization within the structures...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347339/rheology-of-dense-granular-flows-for-elongated-particles
#12
Dániel B Nagy, Philippe Claudin, Tamás Börzsönyi, Ellák Somfai
We study the rheology of dense granular flows for frictionless spherocylinders by means of 3D numerical simulations. As in the case of spherical particles, the effective friction μ is an increasing function of the inertial number I, and we systematically investigate the dependence of μ on the particle aspect ratio Q, as well as that of the normal stress differences, the volume fraction, and the coordination number. We show in particular that the quasistatic friction coefficient is nonmonotonic with Q: from the spherical case Q=1, it first sharply increases, reaches a maximum around Q≃1...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347277/towards-uncovering-the-structure-of-power-fluctuations-of-wind-farms
#13
Huiwen Liu, Yaqing Jin, Nicolas Tobin, Leonardo P Chamorro
The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347241/viscoinertial-regime-of-immersed-granular-flows
#14
L Amarsid, J-Y Delenne, P Mutabaruka, Y Monerie, F Perales, F Radjai
By means of extensive coupled molecular dynamics-lattice Boltzmann simulations, accounting for grain dynamics and subparticle resolution of the fluid phase, we analyze steady inertial granular flows sheared by a viscous fluid. We show that, for a broad range of system parameters (shear rate, confining stress, fluid viscosity, and relative fluid-grain density), the frictional strength and packing fraction can be described by a modified inertial number incorporating the fluid effect. In a dual viscous description, the effective viscosity diverges as the inverse square of the difference between the packing fraction and its jamming value, as observed in experiments...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346983/three-dimensional-slow-rossby-waves-in-rotating-spherical-density-stratified-convection
#15
T Elperin, N Kleeorin, I Rogachevskii
We develop a theory of three-dimensional slow Rossby waves in rotating spherical density stratified convection. The Rossby waves, with frequencies which are much smaller than the rotating frequency, are excited by a nonaxisymmetric instability from the equilibrium based on the developed convection. These waves interact with the inertial waves and the density stratified convection. The density stratification is taken into account using the anelastic approximation for very low-Mach-number flows. We study long-term planetary Rossby waves with periods which are larger than two years...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346971/drag-force-in-a-cold-or-hot-granular-medium
#16
A Seguin, P Gondret
We measure experimentally and analyze the resisting force exerted by a bidimensional packing of small disks on a larger intruder disk dragged horizontally at constant velocity V_{0}. Depending on the vibration level of the packing that leads to a granular "cold" or "hot" packing, two force regimes are observed. At low vibration level ("cold" granular medium), the drag force F does not depend on V_{0}, whereas for high vibrations ("hot" granular medium), the drag force increases linearly with V_{0}. Both regimes can be understood by the balance of two "granular temperatures" that can be defined in the system: a bulk temperature T_{b} imposed by the external vibration to the overall packing and a local temperature T_{0} induced by the own motion of the intruder disk in its vicinity...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346902/transport-diffusion-and-energy-studies-in-the-arnold-beltrami-childress-map
#17
Swetamber Das, Neelima Gupte
We study the transport and diffusion properties of passive inertial particles described by a six-dimensional dissipative bailout embedding map. The base map chosen for the study is the three-dimensional incompressible Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) map chosen as a representation of volume preserving flows. There are two distinct cases: the two-action and the one-action cases, depending on whether two or one of the parameters (A,B,C) exceed 1. The embedded map dynamics is governed by two parameters (α,γ), which quantify the mass density ratio and dissipation, respectively...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346875/granular-temperature-measured-experimentally-in-a-shear-flow-by-acoustic-energy
#18
Stephanie Taylor, Emily E Brodsky
Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346323/sculling-compensation-algorithm-for-sins-based-on-two-time-scale-perturbation-model-of-inertial-measurements
#19
Lingling Wang, Li Fu, Ming Xin
In order to decrease the velocity sculling error under vibration environments, a new sculling error compensation algorithm for strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) using angular rate and specific force measurements as inputs is proposed in this paper. First, the sculling error formula in incremental velocity update is analytically derived in terms of the angular rate and specific force. Next, two-time scale perturbation models of the angular rate and specific force are constructed. The new sculling correction term is derived and a gravitational search optimization method is used to determine the parameters in the two-time scale perturbation models...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344540/standing-height-as-a-prevention-measure-for-overuse-injuries-of-the-back-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-kinematic-and-kinetic-study-of-giant-slalom
#20
Jörg Spörri, Josef Kröll, Benedikt Fasel, Kamiar Aminian, Erich Müller
Background: In alpine ski racing, typical loading patterns of the back include a combined occurrence of spinal bending, torsion, and high peak loads. These factors are known to be associated with high spinal disc loading and have been suggested to be attributable to different types of spine deterioration. However, little is known about the effect of standing height (ie, the distance between the bottom of the running surface of the ski and the ski boot sole) on the aforementioned back loading patterns...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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