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Shaghayegh Zihajehzadeh, Edward J Park
Walking speed is widely used to study human health status. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) are promising tools for the ambulatory measurement of walking speed. Among wearable inertial sensors, the ones worn on the wrist, such as a watch or band, have relatively higher potential to be easily incorporated into daily lifestyle. Using the arm swing motion in walking, this paper proposes a regression model-based method for longitudinal walking speed estimation using a wrist-worn IMU. A novel kinematic variable is proposed, which finds the wrist acceleration in the principal axis (i...
2016: PloS One
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Felix M Duerr, Alexandra Pauls, Chris Kawcak, Kevin Haussler, Gina Bertocci, Valerie Moorman, Melissa King
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of inertial measurement units (IMU) for quantification of canine limb kinematics. METHODS: Sixteen clinically healthy, medium-sized dogs were enrolled. Baseline kinematic data were acquired using an optical motion capture system. Following this baseline data acquisition, a harness system was used for attachment of IMU to the animals. Optical kinematic data of dogs with and without the harness were compared to evaluate the influence of the harness on gait parameters...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Mariusz Naczk, Artur Lopacinski, Wioletta Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Jarosław Arlet, Alicja Naczk, Zdzisław Adach
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dry-land inertial training (IT) on muscle force, muscle power, and swimming performance. Fourteen young, national-level, competitive swimmers were randomly divided into IT and control (C) groups. The experiment lasted four weeks, during which time both groups underwent their regular swimming training. In addition, the IT group underwent IT using the Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS) three times per week. The muscle groups involved during the upsweep phase of the arm stroke in front crawl and butterfly stroke were trained...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Lin Zhao, Dongxue Guan, Jianhua Cheng, Xiaomin Xu, Zaihui Fei
A ship experiences the random motion of sea waves during its travels. Hence, the coarse alignment of the marine strapdown Inertial Navigation System (INS) suffers from rocking disturbances such as pitch and roll. In this paper, a novel approach of marine coarse alignment was proposed for avoiding the resulting loss of accuracy from rocking disturbances. Unlike several current techniques, our alignment scheme is intuitional and concise. Moreover, the coarse alignment can be implemented without any external information...
October 15, 2016: Sensors
Youngsun Kim, Dong-Hwan Hwang
In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation...
October 12, 2016: Sensors
R Dubbeldam, C Baten, J H Buurke, J S Rietman
Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds...
October 13, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Nicholas M Rathmann, Peter D Ditlevsen
Fully developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence in two dimensions is fundamentally different from that in three dimensions. In two dimensions, the simultaneous inviscid conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy within the inertial range of scales leads to a forward cascade of enstrophy and a reverse cascade of energy. In three dimensions, helicity, the integral of the scalar product of velocity and vorticity, is also an inviscid flow invariant along with the energy. Unlike the enstrophy, however, the helicity does not block the forward cascade of energy to small scales...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Gérald Faussurier, Christophe Blancard
We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Xinbo Huang, Long Zhao, Guimin Chen
Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor...
October 9, 2016: Sensors
Zehua Tian, Jieci Wang, Jiliang Jing, Andrzej Dragan
Casimir-Polder interaction arises from the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field that depend on spacetime curvature and thus is spacetime-dependent. Here we show how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction (RCPI) between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature. We find that the RCPI of two static entangled atoms in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum depends on the de Sitter spacetime curvature relevant to the temperature felt by the static observer. It is characterized by a 1/L(2) power law decay when beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism which could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially-evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should only operate when the arm is being controlled in an earth-fixed rather than body-fixed reference frame...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Xing Jiang, Hai-Bao Duan, Saeed I Khan, Miguel A Garcia-Garibay
Artificial molecular machines are expected to operate under conditions of very low Reynolds numbers with inertial forces orders of magnitude smaller than viscous forces. While these conditions are relatively well understood in bulk fluids, opportunities to assess the role of viscous forces in confined crystalline media are rare. Here we report one such example of diffusion-controlled rotation in crystals and its application as a probe for viscosity of MOF-confined solvent. We describe the preparation and characterization of three pillared paddlewheel MOFs, with 9,10-bis(4-pyridylethynyl)triptycene 3 as a pillar and molecular rotator, and three axially substituted dicarboxylate linkers with different lengths and steric bulk...
September 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
Dalila Vescovi, Stefan Luding
Simple homogeneous shear flows of frictionless, deformable particles are studied by particle simulations at large shear rates and for differently soft, deformable particles. Particle stiffness sets a time-scale that can be used to scale the physical quantities; thus the dimensionless shear rate, i.e. the inertial number I (inversely proportional to pressure), can alternatively be expressed as inversely proportional to the square root of particle stiffness. Asymptotic scaling relations for the field variables pressure, shear stress and granular temperature are inferred from simulations in both fluid and solid regimes, corresponding to unjammed and jammed conditions...
September 26, 2016: Soft Matter
Dan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ronald Sluyter, Qianbin Zhao, Sheng Yan, Gursel Alici, Weihua Li
In this paper, continuous plasma extraction under viscoelastic fluid in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion-contraction cavity arrays (ECCA channel) is demonstrated by exploiting the Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial effects. First, the forces experienced by particles in the ECCA channel were discussed. Then, 4.8 μm diameter particles, which mimic the behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), were used to study the effects of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) concentrations and flow rates on particle viscoelastic focusing...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Gangadhar Eluru, Lourdes Albina Nirupa Julius, Sai Siva Gorthi
The recent rapid growth of microfluidic applications has witnessed the emergence of several particle flow focusing techniques for analysis and/or further processing. The majority of flow focusing techniques employ an external sheath fluid to achieve sample flow focusing independent of the flow rate, in contrast to sheath-free techniques. However, the introduction of a sheath fluid to surround the sample fluid has complicated the device design and fabrication, generally involving multi-layer fabrication and bonding of multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Takaaki Harada, Stephen F Lincoln, Tak W Kee
Curcumin is a yellow polyphenol with multiple medicinal effects. These effects, however, are limited due to its poor aqueous stability and solubility. A hydrogel of 3% octadecyl randomly substituted polyacrylate (PAAC18) has been shown to provide high aqueous stability for curcumin under physiological conditions, offering a route for photodynamic therapy. In this study, the excited-state photophysics of curcumin in the PAAC18 hydrogel is investigated using a combination of femtosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yutong Lin, Lizhou Lin, Mouwen Cheng, Lifang Jin, Lianfang Du, Tao Han, Lin Xu, Alfred C H Yu, Peng Qin
SonoVue microbubbles could serve as artificial nuclei for ultrasound-triggered stable and inertial cavitation, resulting in beneficial biological effects for future therapeutic applications. To optimize and control the use of the cavitation of SonoVue bubbles in therapy while ensuring safety, it is important to comprehensively understand the relationship between the acoustic parameters and the cavitation behavior of the SonoVue bubbles. An agarose-gel tissue phantom was fabricated to hold the SonoVue bubble suspension...
September 20, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, Melissa DiFabio, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Eric E Hall, Caroline J Ketcham, William P Meehan, Thomas A Buckley
Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether pre-existing gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (i.e. walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and non-contact athletes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sara L Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M Smoliga, Kevin R Ford
Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and 2) examine the effects of these BSIPs estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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