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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324504/aspergillus-and-other-respiratory-fungal-infections-in-the-icu-diagnosis-and-management
#1
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286163/using-ifn-%C3%AE-antibodies-to-identify-the-pathogens-of-fungal-rhinosinusitis-a-novel-immunohistochemical-approach
#2
Yuyan Yan, Zuotao Zhao, Gehong Dong, Yiding Han, Dongmei Yang, Hongyan Yin, Yingshi Piao, Chunyan He, Cheng Tian, Hongfei Wan, Xue Li, Yulan Jin, Jugao Fang, Honggang Liu
Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) is commonly caused by various Aspergillus species (spp) and Mucorales fungi, and the treatment and prognosis of cases differ depending on the causative fungus. The present study describes a novel immunohistochemical method that has high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing between these two types of fungi in patients with FRS. Three groups were included in the study. Group A included formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded blocks of 51 nasal tissue specimens of patients with FRS (27 Aspergillus spp and 24 Mucorales) that were continuously obtained from the Department of Pathology of Tongren Hospital in Beijing as the experimental group and 34 cultures (26 Aspergillus spp and 8 Mucorales) of FRS that were randomly selected from the bacterial laboratory of Tongren Hospital in Beijing to verify the staining results of the paraffin‑embedded blocks...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247367/mucoralean-fungi-for-sustainable-production-of-bioethanol-and-biologically-active-molecules
#3
REVIEW
Behzad Satari, Keikhosro Karimi
Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates...
December 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240696/metalaxyl-degradation-by-mucorales-strains-gongronella-sp-and-rhizopus-oryzae
#4
Maria Rosário Martins, Cledir Santos, Pablo Pereira, Júlio Cruz-Morais, Nelson Lima
In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225797/seasonal-clustering-of-sinopulmonary-mucormycosis-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-at-a-large-comprehensive-cancer-center
#5
Shobini Sivagnanam, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel Hoogestraat, Rupali Jain, Zach Stednick, David N Fredricks, Paul Hendrie, Estella Whimbey, Sara T Podczervinski, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jeffrey S Duchin, Steven A Pergam
Background: Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods: Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs) between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199126/chitosan-produced-from-mucorales-fungi-using-agroindustrial-by-products-and-its-efficacy-to-inhibit-colletotrichum-species
#6
Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger, Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford, Kataryne Árabe Rimá de Oliveira, Adjane de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Marcos Antonio Barbosa de Lima, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara, Luciana de Oliveira Franco, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite de Souza
This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41)...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196656/development-of-a-plasmid-free-crispr-cas9-system-for-the-genetic-modification-of-mucor-circinelloides
#7
Gábor Nagy, Csilla Szebenyi, Árpád Csernetics, Amanda Grace Vaz, Eszter Judit Tóth, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
Mucor circinelloides and other members of Mucorales are filamentous fungi, widely used as model organisms in basic and applied studies. Although genetic manipulation methods have been described for some Mucoral fungi, construction of stable integrative transformants by homologous recombination has remained a great challenge in these organisms. In the present study, a plasmid free CRISPR-Cas9 system was firstly developed for the genetic modification of a Mucoral fungus. The described method offers a rapid but robust tool to obtain mitotically stable mutants of M...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188178/tumor-shape-pulmonary-mucormycosis-associated-with-sinonasal-aspergillosis-in-a-diabetic-patient
#8
Sophie Point, Frédéric Gabriel, Hugues Bégueret, Jacques Jougon, Fanny Lanternier, Frédéric Grenouillet, Manal Abdel Fattah, Emilie Catherinot, Chantal Raherison, Elodie Blanchard
Mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening fungal infection of the Mucorales order occurring mainly in immunosuppressed patients. The most common forms are rhinocerebral but pulmonary or disseminated forms may occur. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient in whom pulmonary mucormycosis was diagnosed during his first-ever episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. While receiving liposomal amphotericin B, a sinusal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus occurred. Evolution was slowly favorable under antifungal tritherapy by liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole and caspofungin...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187564/a-comparison-of-aspergillus-and-mucorales-pcr-testing-of-different-bal-fractions-from-patients-with-suspected-invasive-pulmonary-fungal-disease
#9
Jan Springer, P Lewis White, Johanna Kessel, Imke Wieters, Daniel Teschner, Daniel Korczynski, Tobias Liebregts, Oliver A Cornely, Stefan Schwartz, Thomas Elgeti, Lisa Meintker, Stefan W Krause, Raquel B Posso, Werner J Heinz, Sandra Fuhrmann, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Hermann Einsele, Volker Rickerts, Juergen Loeffler
In patients with haematological malignancies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens (BALF) are commonly used for the diagnosis of mould infections. However, it is not clear whether the cellular pellet (P) or the supernatant fraction (S) of the BALF is optimal for molecular diagnostic testing. Thus, 99 BALF specimens from 96 haematology patients with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant were collected. Pellets and supernatants were processed alone and in combination (S/P) by two fungal-specific real-time PCR assays compliant with international recommendations...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172240/disseminated-mucormycosis-masquerading-as-rejection-early-after-orthotopic-heart-transplantation
#10
Lindsay Margoles, David DeNofrio, Ayan Patel, Yoav Golan, Amanda Vest, Knarik Arkun, Helen Boucher, Michael Kiernan, Jenica Upshaw
Mucorales organisms are an uncommon cause of invasive fungal infections after solid organ transplantation but are associated with great morbidity and mortality. We report a fatal case of disseminated Cunninghamella infection early after heart transplantation. The patient developed graft dysfunction and elevated markers of myocyte injury and autopsy revealed fulminant fungal myocarditis. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion in immunocompromised patients who are not improving with standard antimicrobial therapy...
November 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162893/intrinsic-short-tailed-azole-resistance-in-mucormycetes-is-due-to-an-evolutionary-conserved-aminoacid-substitution-of-the-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase
#11
Rita Caramalho, Joel D A Tyndall, Brian C Monk, Thomas Larentis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Mucormycoses are emerging and potentially lethal infections. An increase of breakthrough infections has been found in cohorts receiving short-tailed azoles prophylaxis (e.g. voriconazole (VCZ)). Although VCZ is ineffective in vitro and in vivo, long-tailed triazoles such as posaconazole remain active against mucormycetes. Our goal was to validate the molecular mechanism of resistance to short-tailed triazoles in Mucorales. The paralogous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP51 F1 and CYP51 F5) of Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, and Mucor circinelloides were amplified and sequenced...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152230/rare-fungal-infectious-agents-a-lurking-enemy
#12
REVIEW
Anna Skiada, Ioannis Pavleas, Maria Drogari-Apiranthitou
In the expanding population of immunocompromised patients and those treated in intensive care units, rare fungal infectious agents have emerged as important pathogens, causing invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. These infections may present either as de novo or as breakthrough invasive infections in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies receiving prophylactic or empirical antifungal therapy or in patients with central venous catheters. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122529/rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-caused-by-rhizopus-arrhizus-var-tonkinensis
#13
Y Cheng, Y Gao, X Y Liu, G Y Wang, G Q Zhang, S Q Gao
Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening opportunistic infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. We report a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus var. tonkinensis, the first formally reported case in the literature. Early diagnosis, reversal of predisposing factors, surgical debridement and prompt administration of antifungal therapy are critical for good outcome.
November 6, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027030/diagnostic-accuracy-of-fungal-identification-in-histopathology-and-cytopathology-specimens
#14
V L Kung, R D Chernock, C-A D Burnham
Tools to diagnose fungal infection are microscopic examination, antigen or antibody-based detection tests, molecular diagnostics, and culture, with culture being the "gold standard" for species-level identification. Although these methods are commonly used in concert and yield concordant results, in some cases tissue is not available for culture, and/or different methodologies yield discrepant results. These discrepancies may be clinically significant, causing confusion and inappropriate or delayed initiation of antifungals...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026931/imaging-patterns-of-rhino-orbital-cerebral-mucormycosis-in-immunocompromised-patients-when-to-suspect-complicated-mucormycosis
#15
Peter Raab, Ludwig Sedlacek, Stefanie Buchholz, Stefan Stolle, H Lanfermann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiological imaging findings of a complicated sinusitis, which should raise the suspicion of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis as being the underlying cause. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we describe the cases and imaging findings of 8 patients with proven mucormycosis. These patients presented mostly with new facial or orbital swelling and were referred for imaging to our institution. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography images were classified as abnormal or normal with respect to orbital, paranasal and cerebral signal results...
December 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992337/occurrence-and-species-distribution-of-pathogenic-mucorales-in-unselected-soil-samples-from-france
#16
B Mousavi, J M Costa, P Arné, J Guillot, R Chermette, F Botterel, E Dannaoui
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole...
July 28, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952247/-changes-of-diversity-and-composition-of-fungal-communities-in-rhizosphere-of-panax-ginseng
#17
Lin-Lin Dong, Wei-Hao Niu, Rui Wang, Jiang Xu, Lian-Juan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Shi-Lin Chen
Continuous cropping obstacles resulted in the yield losses of Panax ginseng, and affected the development of ginseng industry. Soil fungal communities participated in the key ecological process, and their changes of diversity and composition were related to the continuous cropping obstacles. We analyzed the changes of fungal diversity and composition in the rhizosphere of ginseng using the high-throughput sequencing method, stated the effects of ginseng cultivation on the micro-ecology, and provided effective strategies for overcoming continuous cropping obstacles...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923009/apophysomyces-variabilis-draft-genome-sequence-and-comparison-of-predictive-virulence-determinants-with-other-medically-important-mucorales
#18
Hariprasath Prakash, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Prasad S Gandham, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Milner M Kumar, Chandan Badapanda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Apophysomyces species are prevalent in tropical countries and A. variabilis is the second most frequent agent causing mucormycosis in India. Among Apophysomyces species, A. elegans, A. trapeziformis and A. variabilis are commonly incriminated in human infections. The genome sequences of A. elegans and A. trapeziformis are available in public database, but not A. variabilis. We, therefore, performed the whole genome sequence of A. variabilis to explore its genomic structure and possible genes determining the virulence of the organism...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919347/invasive-mold-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-hematologic-cancer-or-stem-cell-transplantation-2000-2016-uncommon-with-improved-survival-but-still-deadly-often
#19
Minas P Economides, Leomar Y Ballester, Vinodh A Kumar, Ying Jiang, Jeffrey Tarrand, Victor Prieto, Harrys A Torres, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Historically considered to have very poor outcome, there is paucity of recent data regarding invasive mold infections (IMIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with hematologic cancer (HC) or stem cell transplantation (SCT). METHODS: We reviewed the records of HC patients and/or SCT recipients who were diagnosed with CNS IMIs (EORTC/MSG criteria) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (1/1/2000-6/31/2016). Risk factors for survival at day (d) 42 post diagnosis were assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878325/the-influence-of-the-mating-type-on-virulence-of-mucor-irregularis
#20
Wenqi Xu, Guanzhao Liang, Jingwen Peng, Zhimin Long, Dongmei Li, Meihua Fu, Qiong Wang, Yongnian Shen, Guixia Lv, Huan Mei, Clement K M Tsui, Weida Liu
Mucor irregularis is an emerging fungal pathogen that cause cutaneous infection and could cause death. However, little is known about its mechanism of pathogenesis. There is evidence suggesting virulence vary with mating types in fungi, including the Mucorales. Here, we characterized the mating type locus of M. irregularis and the mating type ratio of 17 clinical isolates in China. Genomic data indicated M. irregularis is heterothallic having two mating types - bearing either SexP or SexM allele. Also, we employed a mice model to study the inflammation and pathological effects of different mating types...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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