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Deepak Venkatesh, Satyajit Dandagi, Pramod Redder Chandrappa, K N Hema
Mucormycosis or zygomycosis, also called phycomycosis, is an uncommon, invasive, potentially lethal and an aggressive fungal infection of the order Mucorales that usually affects patients with alteration of their immunological system. From its initial description (Paltauf, 1885), this entity still has a high mortality. Imaging techniques are not usually diagnostic, and cultures are not totally reliable. Definitive diagnosis is exclusively obtained by means of histopathological examination. Early recognition and aggressive treatment are of paramount importance and have reduced the mortality and morbidity...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Minoru Shinozaki, Naobumi Tochigi, Sota Sadamoto, Somay Yamagata Murayama, Megumi Wakayama, Tetsuo Nemoto
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization (ISH) for the identification of causative fungi in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. Since pathogenic fungi in tissue specimens can be difficult to identify morphologically, PCR and ISH have been usually employed as auxiliary procedures. However, little comparison has been made on the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and ISH using FFPE specimens...
2018: Medical Mycology Journal
Evgenii Shumilov, Ulrike Bacher, Christina Perske, Alexander Mohr, Helmut Eiffert, Justin Hasenkamp, Lorenz Trümper, Gerald G Wulf, Philipp Ströbel, Ashraf S Ibrahim, Vivek Venkataramani
Mucormycosis is probably the most devastating and hard to diagnose invasive mold infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales.….
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Shefali K Sharma, Prasanth Balasubramanian, Bishan Radotra, Manphool Singhal
Mucormycosis, a rare opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi of Mucorales family. It may be confined to the organs, such as rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycosis, or may cause disseminated infection. A 14-year-old boy presented to our clinic with fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and on evaluation was found to have pancytopaenia, and imaging revealed ill-defined splenic collection with thrombus in the splenic vein. He was started on empirical intravenous antibiotics, followed by antifungals empirically as he did not show any improvement clinically...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Loida López-Fernández, Marta Sanchis, Patricia Navarro-Rodríguez, Francisco E Nicolás, Fátima Silva-Franco, Josep Guarro, Victoriano Garre, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Javier Capilla
The increasing number of infections by species of Mucorales and their high mortality constitute an important concern for public health. This study aims to decipher the genetic basis of Mucor circinelloides pathogenicity, which displays virulence in a strain dependent manner. Assuming that genetic differences between strains may be linked to different pathotypes, we have conducted a study to explore genes responsible for virulence in M. circinelloides by whole genome sequencing of the avirulent strain NRRL3631 and comparison with the virulent strain CBS277...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Jin Shao, Zhe Wan, Ruoyu Li, Jin Yu
This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering 6 genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
E Fréalle, S Rocchi, M Bacus, H Bachelet, L Pasquesoone, B Tavernier, D Mathieu, L Millon, M Jeanne
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous mucormycoses, mainly due to Lichtheimia (Absidia), have occurred on several occasions in the Burn Unit of the University Hospital of Lille, France. AIM: To investigate the potential vector role of non-sterile bandages used to hold in place sterile gauze used for wound dressing. METHODS: Mycological analysis by conventional culture, Mucorales qPCR, and Lichtheimia species-specific qPCR were performed on 8 crepe and 6 elasticized bandages that were sampled on two independent soccasions in March 2014 and July 2016...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Thuong T T Nguyen, Hee-Young Jung, Youn Su Lee, Kerstin Voigt, Hyang Burm Lee
During a survey of fungal diversity of the order Mucorales, three zygomycete isolates, CNUFC-YR113-1, CNUFC-KNU16-7, and CNUFC-BS1-1 were isolated from freshwater and soil samples in Korea. The strains were analyzed both morphologically and phylogenetically based on internal transcribed spacer and 28S rDNA gene sequences. Based on their morphology and phylogeny, the CNUFC-YR113-1 and CNUFC-KNU16-7 isolates were identified as Actinomucor elegans, and CNUFC-BS1-1 was identified as Mucor minutus. To the best of our knowledge, the species A...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Harlene Ghuman, Kerstin Voelz
Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection characterised by rapid filamentous growth, which leads to angioinvasion, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis. The high mortality rates (50-100%) associated with mucormycosis are reflective of not only the aggressive nature of the infection and the poor therapeutics currently employed, but also the failure of the human immune system to successfully clear the infection. Immune effector interaction with Mucorales is influenced by the developmental stage of the mucormycete spore...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Jesus A Chavez, Daniel J Brat, Steven B Hunter, Jose Velazquez Vega, Jeannette Guarner
Objectives: Early and accurate diagnosis remains crucial in the therapeutic management of invasive central nervous system fungal infections. Different molds have intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents; thus, morphologic differentiation is helpful to clinicians. Methods: Using three examples, we present a guide on how to approach neuropathology specimens where hyphae are identified on initial histologic examination. Results: Hyphae can be classified into three basic groups: hyaline pauciseptated, hyaline septated, and pigmented or dematiaceous...
January 20, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Yuyan Yan, Zuotao Zhao, Gehong Dong, Yiding Han, Dongmei Yang, Hongyan Yin, Yingshi Piao, Chunyan He, Cheng Tian, Hongfei Wan, Xue Li, Yulan Jin, Jugao Fang, Honggang Liu
Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) is commonly caused by various Aspergillus species (spp) and Mucorales fungi, and the treatment and prognosis of cases differ depending on the causative fungus. The present study describes a novel immunohistochemical method that has high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing between these two types of fungi in patients with FRS. Three groups were included in the study. Group A included formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded blocks of 51 nasal tissue specimens of patients with FRS (27 Aspergillus spp and 24 Mucorales) that were continuously obtained from the Department of Pathology of Tongren Hospital in Beijing as the experimental group and 34 cultures (26 Aspergillus spp and 8 Mucorales) of FRS that were randomly selected from the bacterial laboratory of Tongren Hospital in Beijing to verify the staining results of the paraffin‑embedded blocks...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Behzad Satari, Keikhosro Karimi
Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates...
December 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Maria Rosário Martins, Cledir Santos, Pablo Pereira, Júlio Cruz-Morais, Nelson Lima
In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shobini Sivagnanam, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel Hoogestraat, Rupali Jain, Zach Stednick, David N Fredricks, Paul Hendrie, Estella Whimbey, Sara T Podczervinski, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jeffrey S Duchin, Steven A Pergam
Background: Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods: Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs) between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger, Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford, Kataryne Árabe Rimá de Oliveira, Adjane de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Marcos Antonio Barbosa de Lima, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara, Luciana de Oliveira Franco, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite de Souza
This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41)...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gábor Nagy, Csilla Szebenyi, Árpád Csernetics, Amanda Grace Vaz, Eszter Judit Tóth, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
Mucor circinelloides and other members of Mucorales are filamentous fungi, widely used as model organisms in basic and applied studies. Although genetic manipulation methods have been described for some Mucoral fungi, construction of stable integrative transformants by homologous recombination has remained a great challenge in these organisms. In the present study, a plasmid free CRISPR-Cas9 system was firstly developed for the genetic modification of a Mucoral fungus. The described method offers a rapid but robust tool to obtain mitotically stable mutants of M...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sophie Point, Frédéric Gabriel, Hugues Bégueret, Jacques Jougon, Fanny Lanternier, Frédéric Grenouillet, Manal Abdel Fattah, Emilie Catherinot, Chantal Raherison, Elodie Blanchard
Mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening fungal infection of the Mucorales order occurring mainly in immunosuppressed patients. The most common forms are rhinocerebral but pulmonary or disseminated forms may occur. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient in whom pulmonary mucormycosis was diagnosed during his first-ever episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. While receiving liposomal amphotericin B, a sinusal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus occurred. Evolution was slowly favorable under antifungal tritherapy by liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole and caspofungin...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Jan Springer, P Lewis White, Johanna Kessel, Imke Wieters, Daniel Teschner, Daniel Korczynski, Tobias Liebregts, Oliver A Cornely, Stefan Schwartz, Thomas Elgeti, Lisa Meintker, Stefan W Krause, Raquel B Posso, Werner J Heinz, Sandra Fuhrmann, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Hermann Einsele, Volker Rickerts, Juergen Loeffler
In patients with hematological malignancies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens are commonly used for the diagnosis of mold infections. However, it is not clear whether the cell pellet (P) or the supernatant fraction (S) of the BALF specimen is optimal for molecular diagnostic testing. Thus, 99 BALF specimens were collected from 96 hematology patients with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The cell pellets and supernatants were processed alone and in combination (S/P) for testing by two fungus-specific real-time PCR assays compliant with international recommendations...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Lindsay Margoles, David DeNofrio, Ayan R Patel, Yoav Golan, Amanda R Vest, Knarik Arkun, Helen W Boucher, Michael S Kiernan, Jenica N Upshaw
Mucorales organisms are an uncommon cause of invasive fungal infections after solid organ transplantation but are associated with great morbidity and mortality. We report a fatal case of disseminated Cunninghamella infection early after heart transplantation. The patient developed graft dysfunction and elevated markers of myocyte injury and autopsy revealed fulminant fungal myocarditis. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion in immunocompromised patients who are not improving with standard antimicrobial therapy...
February 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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