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Mucorales

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162893/intrinsic-short-tailed-azole-resistance-in-mucormycetes-is-due-to-an-evolutionary-conserved-aminoacid-substitution-of-the-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase
#1
Rita Caramalho, Joel D A Tyndall, Brian C Monk, Thomas Larentis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Mucormycoses are emerging and potentially lethal infections. An increase of breakthrough infections has been found in cohorts receiving short-tailed azoles prophylaxis (e.g. voriconazole (VCZ)). Although VCZ is ineffective in vitro and in vivo, long-tailed triazoles such as posaconazole remain active against mucormycetes. Our goal was to validate the molecular mechanism of resistance to short-tailed triazoles in Mucorales. The paralogous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP51 F1 and CYP51 F5) of Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, and Mucor circinelloides were amplified and sequenced...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152230/rare-fungal-infectious-agents-a-lurking-enemy
#2
REVIEW
Anna Skiada, Ioannis Pavleas, Maria Drogari-Apiranthitou
In the expanding population of immunocompromised patients and those treated in intensive care units, rare fungal infectious agents have emerged as important pathogens, causing invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. These infections may present either as de novo or as breakthrough invasive infections in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies receiving prophylactic or empirical antifungal therapy or in patients with central venous catheters. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122529/rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-caused-by-rhizopus-arrhizus-var-tonkinensis
#3
Y Cheng, Y Gao, X Y Liu, G Y Wang, G Q Zhang, S Q Gao
Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening opportunistic infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. We report a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus var. tonkinensis, the first formally reported case in the literature. Early diagnosis, reversal of predisposing factors, surgical debridement and prompt administration of antifungal therapy are critical for good outcome.
November 6, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027030/diagnostic-accuracy-of-fungal-identification-in-histopathology-and-cytopathology-specimens
#4
V L Kung, R D Chernock, C-A D Burnham
Tools to diagnose fungal infection are microscopic examination, antigen or antibody-based detection tests, molecular diagnostics, and culture, with culture being the "gold standard" for species-level identification. Although these methods are commonly used in concert and yield concordant results, in some cases tissue is not available for culture, and/or different methodologies yield discrepant results. These discrepancies may be clinically significant, causing confusion and inappropriate or delayed initiation of antifungals...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026931/imaging-patterns-of-rhino-orbital-cerebral-mucormycosis-in-immunocompromised-patients-when-to-suspect-complicated-mucormycosis
#5
Peter Raab, Ludwig Sedlacek, Stefanie Buchholz, Stefan Stolle, H Lanfermann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiological imaging findings of a complicated sinusitis, which should raise the suspicion of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis as being the underlying cause. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we describe the cases and imaging findings of 8 patients with proven mucormycosis. These patients presented mostly with new facial or orbital swelling and were referred for imaging to our institution. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography images were classified as abnormal or normal with respect to orbital, paranasal and cerebral signal results...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992337/occurrence-and-species-distribution-of-pathogenic-mucorales-in-unselected-soil-samples-from-france
#6
B Mousavi, J M Costa, P Arné, J Guillot, R Chermette, F Botterel, E Dannaoui
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole...
July 28, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952247/-changes-of-diversity-and-composition-of-fungal-communities-in-rhizosphere-of-panax-ginseng
#7
Lin-Lin Dong, Wei-Hao Niu, Rui Wang, Jiang Xu, Lian-Juan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Shi-Lin Chen
Continuous cropping obstacles resulted in the yield losses of Panax ginseng, and affected the development of ginseng industry. Soil fungal communities participated in the key ecological process, and their changes of diversity and composition were related to the continuous cropping obstacles. We analyzed the changes of fungal diversity and composition in the rhizosphere of ginseng using the high-throughput sequencing method, stated the effects of ginseng cultivation on the micro-ecology, and provided effective strategies for overcoming continuous cropping obstacles...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923009/apophysomyces-variabilis-draft-genome-sequence-and-comparison-of-predictive-virulence-determinants-with-other-medically-important-mucorales
#8
Hariprasath Prakash, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Prasad S Gandham, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Milner M Kumar, Chandan Badapanda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Apophysomyces species are prevalent in tropical countries and A. variabilis is the second most frequent agent causing mucormycosis in India. Among Apophysomyces species, A. elegans, A. trapeziformis and A. variabilis are commonly incriminated in human infections. The genome sequences of A. elegans and A. trapeziformis are available in public database, but not A. variabilis. We, therefore, performed the whole genome sequence of A. variabilis to explore its genomic structure and possible genes determining the virulence of the organism...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919347/invasive-mold-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-hematologic-cancer-or-stem-cell-transplantation-2000-2016-uncommon-with-improved-survival-but-still-deadly-often
#9
Minas P Economides, Leomar Y Ballester, Vinodh A Kumar, Ying Jiang, Jeffrey Tarrand, Victor Prieto, Harrys A Torres, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Historically considered to have very poor outcome, there is paucity of recent data regarding invasive mold infections (IMIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with hematologic cancer (HC) or stem cell transplantation (SCT). METHODS: We reviewed the records of HC patients and/or SCT recipients who were diagnosed with CNS IMIs (EORTC/MSG criteria) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (1/1/2000-6/31/2016). Risk factors for survival at day (d) 42 post diagnosis were assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878325/the-influence-of-the-mating-type-on-virulence-of-mucor-irregularis
#10
Wenqi Xu, Guanzhao Liang, Jingwen Peng, Zhimin Long, Dongmei Li, Meihua Fu, Qiong Wang, Yongnian Shen, Guixia Lv, Huan Mei, Clement K M Tsui, Weida Liu
Mucor irregularis is an emerging fungal pathogen that cause cutaneous infection and could cause death. However, little is known about its mechanism of pathogenesis. There is evidence suggesting virulence vary with mating types in fungi, including the Mucorales. Here, we characterized the mating type locus of M. irregularis and the mating type ratio of 17 clinical isolates in China. Genomic data indicated M. irregularis is heterothallic having two mating types - bearing either SexP or SexM allele. Also, we employed a mice model to study the inflammation and pathological effects of different mating types...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855480/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mucormycosis-in-patients-withhematological-malignancies%C3%AF-translated-article%C3%AF
#11
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with invasive aspergillosis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841131/a-seven-year-retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinicopathological-and-mycological-manifestations-of-fungal-rhinosinusitis-in-a-single-centre-tropical-climate-hospital
#12
L C Goh, E D Shakri, H Y Ong, S Mustakim, M M Shaariyah, W S J Ng, A B Zulkiflee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathological and mycological manifestations of fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in the Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, in Klang, Malaysia, which has a tropical climate. METHODS: Records of patients treated from 2009 to 2016 were analysed retrospectively. Data from the records were indexed based on age, gender, clinical presentations, symptom duration, clinical signs and mycological growth. RESULTS: Of 80 samples, 27 (33...
September 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820315/immune-responses-to-mucorales-growth-forms-do-we-know-everything
#13
Emmanuel Roilides, Maria Simitsopoulou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802855/antifungal-resistance-in-mucorales
#14
E Dannaoui
The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797495/emergence-of-the-molds-other-than-aspergillus-in-immunocompromised-patients
#15
REVIEW
Sana Arif, John R Perfect
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792370/molecular-diagnosis-of-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-from-fresh-tissue-samples
#16
Kamran Zaman, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Ashim Das, Naresh Panda, Prasanna Honnavar, Harsimran Kaur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate a PCR-based technique for the diagnosis of mucormycosis and the identification of fungi from fresh tissue specimens in patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM). METHODOLOGY: Fifty cases of ROCM were included in the study. Conventional identification was performed using microscopy and culture. Molecular diagnosis was performed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA using pan-fungal ITS primers and semi-nested Mucorales-specific primers of the 18S region...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783439/mucorales-spores-induce-a-proinflammatory-cytokine-response-in-human-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-harbor-no-rodlet-hydrophobins
#17
Sebastian Wurster, Vanessa Thielen, Philipp Weis, Paul Walther, Johannes Elias, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Mariola Dragan, Thomas Dandekar, Hermann Einsele, Jürgen Löffler, Andrew J Ullmann
Mucormycoses are life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. This study characterizes the response of human mononuclear cells to different Mucorales and Ascomycota. PBMC, monocytes, and monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) from healthy donors were stimulated with resting and germinated stages of Mucorales and Ascomycota. Cytokine response and expression of activation markers were studied. Both inactivated germ tubes and resting spores of Rhizopus arrhizus and other human pathogenic Mucorales species significantly stimulated mRNA synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines...
August 7, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757006/-pulmonary-mucormycosis-in-a-patient-with-kidney-transplant-and-uncontrolled-haemoptysis
#18
Dulce Iliana Navarro Vergara, Gloria Barragán Pola, Alexandro Bonifaz, Carlos Núñez Pérez-Redondo, Omar Choreño García, Raúl Cicero Sabido
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection with high mortality that is caused by species of Mucorales. The most common species involved are Rhizopus, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Rhizomucor. CASE REPORT: A 56 year-old woman presented with a clinical history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic renal disease. She underwent a cadaveric kidney transplantation two years before her admission, for which immunomodulating therapy with thymoglobulin, tacrolimus, mofetil-microphenolate and prednisone was established...
July 27, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732779/characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-cunninghamella-bertholletiae-isolate-from-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#19
M Rosa Bragulat, Gemma Castellá, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Mariano Domingo, F Javier Cabañes
BACKGROUND: Cunninghamella is a genus of the order Mucorales which includes saprophytic species, rarely causing mycoses. The most frequently reported in human mycoses is the thermophilic species Cunninghamella bertholletiae. However, this species does not appear to cause mucormycosis in animals, so there is scarce information about C. bertholletiae isolates from animals. AIMS: In this paper we describe the phenotypic and genotypic characterization, and the phylogenetic analysis, of an isolate of C...
July 18, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705753/invasive-fungal-infections-secondary-to-traumatic-injury
#20
REVIEW
Ryan Kronen, Stephen Y Liang, Grant Bochicchio, Kelly Bochicchio, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations...
September 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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