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Calcium signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647871/cytoskeleton-as-a-target-of-quinolinic-acid-neurotoxicity-insight-from-animal-models
#1
REVIEW
Paula Pierozan, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Cytoskeletal proteins are increasingly recognized as having important roles as a target of the action of different neurotoxins. In the last years, several works of our group have shown that quinolinic acid (QUIN) was able to disrupt the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of neural cells and this was associated with cell dysfunction and neurodegeneration. QUIN is an excitotoxic metabolite of tryptophan metabolism and its accumulation is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive view of the actions of QUIN upstream of glutamate receptors, eliciting kinase/phosphatase signaling cascades that disrupt the homeostasis of the phosphorylation system associated with intermediate filament proteins of astrocytes and neurons...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647573/focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling-regulates-anti-inflammatory-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induced-by-biomechanical-force
#2
Hyun Jung Lee, Miguel F Diaz, Adesuwa Ewere, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have tremendous potential for use in regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and immune cell regulatory functions. Biomimetic physical forces have been shown to direct differentiation and maturation of MSCs in tissue engineering applications; however, the effect of force on immunomodulatory activity of MSCs has been largely overlooked. Here we show in human bone marrow-derived MSCs that wall shear stress (WSS) equivalent to the fluid frictional force present in the adult arterial vasculature significantly enhances expression of four genes that mediate MSC immune regulatory function, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL1RN, and TNFAIP6...
June 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647536/crhr1-exacerbates-the-glial-inflammatory-response-and-alters-bdnf-trkb-pcreb-signaling-in-a-rat-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-implications-for-neuroprotection-and-cognitive-recovery
#3
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Simon M Benoit, Sarah Schock, Hélène Plamondon
This study examined the impact of corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) blockade using Antalarmin (ANT) on the expression of markers of neuroplasticity and inflammation, as well as neuroprotection and behavioral recovery following global cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats (N=50) were treated with ANT (2μg/2μl; icv) or a vehicle solution prior to a sham or four vessel (4VO) occlusion. Seven days post ischemia, anxiety was assessed in the Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field tests, and fear and spatial learning in a Y-Maze Passive Avoidance Task and the Barnes Maze...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647358/mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams-an-emerging-platform-connecting-energy-and-immune-sensing-to-metabolic-flexibility
#4
Jennifer Rieusset
Living organisms have the capacity to sense both nutrients and immune signals in order to adapt their metabolism to the needs, and both metabolic inflexibility and exacerbated immune responses are associated with metabolic diseases. Over the past decade, mitochondria emerged as key nutrient and immune sensors regulating numerous signalling pathways, and mitochondria dysfunction has been extensively implicated in metabolic diseases. Interestingly, mitochondria interact physically and functionally with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, in contact sites named mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium and regulate cellular homeostasis...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646556/injury-induced-maladaption-and-dysregulation-of-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-subunit-proteins-and-its-contribution-to-neuropathic-pain-development
#5
REVIEW
Nian Gong, John Park, Z David Luo
Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play important roles in physiological functions including modulations of neurotransmitter release, neuronal network activities, intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. Some pathological conditions, including nerve injuries, can cause dysregulation of VGCCs and their subunits. This in turn can lead to functional maladaption of VGCCs and their subunits, which can contribute to development of disorders such as pain sensations. This review summarized recent findings related to maladaptive changes of dysregulated VGCC alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cav α2 δ1 ) with a focus on exploration of mechanisms underlying contribution of Cav α2 δ1 to pain signal transduction...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646116/tonic-b-cell-receptor-signaling-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#6
Ondrej Havranek, Jingda Xu, Stefan Köhrer, Zhiqiang Wang, Lisa Becker, Justin M Comer, Jared Henderson, Wencai Ma, John Man Chun Ma, Jason R Westin, Dipanjan Ghosh, Nicholas Shinners, Luhong Sun, Allen F Yi, Anusha R Karri, Jan A Burger, Tomasz Zal, R Eric Davis
We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic modification to investigate B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in cell lines of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Three manipulations that altered BCR genes without affecting surface BCR levels showed that BCR signaling differs between the germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, which is insensitive to BTK inhibition by ibrutinib, and the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype. Replacing antigen-binding BCR regions had no effect on BCR signaling in GCB-DLBCL lines, reflecting this subtype's exclusive use of tonic BCR signaling...
June 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645554/monocrotophos-an-organophosphorus-insecticide-disrupts-the-expression-of-hpnetrin-and-its-receptor-neogenin-during-early-development-in-the-sea-urchin-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#7
Xiaona Zhang, Lei Xu, Hua Tian, Cuicui Wang, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Netrins, chemotropic guidance cues, can guide the extension of serotonergic axons by binding to netrin receptors during neural development. However, little is known about whether disruption of netrin signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which organophosphorus pesticides affect serotonergic nervous system (SNS) development. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the pesticide monocrotophos (MCP) on the expression patterns of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin as well as on the intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (sea urchin) by exposing fertilized embryos to 0, 0...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645169/heterodimerization-of-arabidopsis-calcium-proton-exchangers-contributes-to-regulation-of-guard-cell-dynamics-and-plant-defense-responses
#8
Bradleigh Hocking, Simon J Conn, Murli Manohar, Bo Xu, Asmini Athman, Matthew A Stancombe, Alex R Webb, Kendal D Hirschi, Matthew Gilliham
Arabidopsis thaliana cation exchangers (CAX1 and CAX3) are closely related tonoplast-localized calcium/proton (Ca2+/H+) antiporters that contribute to cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. CAX1 and CAX3 were previously shown to interact in yeast; however, the function of this complex in plants has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that expression of CAX1 and CAX3 occurs in guard cells. Additionally, CAX1 and CAX3 are co-expressed in mesophyll tissue in response to wounding or flg22 treatment, due to the induction of CAX3 expression...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643218/empagliflozin-improves-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-genetic-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#9
Nadjib Hammoudi, Dongtak Jeong, Rajvir Singh, Ahmed Farhat, Michel Komajda, Eric Mayoux, Roger Hajjar, Djamel Lebeche
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represent an enormous burden with high mortality and morbidity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new antidiabetic class that improves glucose control, as well as body weight and blood pressure with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. The first CV outcome study terminated with empagliflozin, a specific SGLT2 inhibitor, has shown a reduction in CV mortality and in heart failure hospitalization, suggesting a beneficial impact on cardiac function which remains to be demonstrated...
June 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642704/quercetin-a-lead-compound-against-type-2-diabetes-ameliorates-glucose-uptake-via-ampk-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle-cell-line
#10
R Dhanya, A D Arya, P Nisha, P Jayamurthy
Herein we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of the citrus flavonoid, quercetin in skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes). Taking advantage of protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that the effect of quercetin on 2-NBDG uptake in L6 myotubes was not through insulin signaling pathway, but through adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) pathway and its downstream target p38 MAPK. An increase in the cellular AMP to ATP ratio on pretreatment may account for AMPK activation which was coupled with a transient change in mitochondrial membrane potential...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642614/ultrasound-mediated-piezoelectric-differentiation-of-neuron-like-pc12-cells-on-pvdf-membranes
#11
Marcus Hoop, Xiang-Zhong Chen, Aldo Ferrari, Fajer Mushtaq, Gagik Ghazaryan, Theo Tervoort, Dimos Poulikakos, Bradley Nelson, Salvador Pané
Electrical and/or electromechanical stimulation has been shown to play a significant role in regenerating various functionalities in soft tissues, such as tendons, muscles, and nerves. In this work, we investigate the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a potential substrate for wireless neuronal differentiation. Piezoelectric PVDF enables generation of electrical charges on its surface upon acoustic stimulation, inducing neuritogenesis of PC12 cells. We demonstrate that the effect of pure piezoelectric stimulation on neurite generation in PC12 cells is comparable to the ones induced by neuronal growth factor (NGF)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642476/prevention-of-long-term-memory-loss-after-retrieval-by-an-endogenous-camkii-inhibitor
#12
Fabio Antonio Vigil, Keiko Mizuno, Walter Lucchesi, Victoria Valls-Comamala, Karl Peter Giese
CaMK2N1 and CaMK2N2 are endogenous inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a key synaptic signaling molecule for learning and memory. Here, we investigated the learning and memory function of CaMK2N1 by knocking-down its expression in dorsal hippocampus of mice. We found that reduced CaMK2N1 expression does not affect contextual fear long-term memory (LTM) formation. However, we show that it impairs maintenance of established LTM, but only if retrieval occurs. CaMK2N1 knockdown prevents a decrease of threonine-286 (T286) autophosphorylation of αCaMKII and increases GluA1 levels in hippocampal synapses after retrieval of contextual fear LTM...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642329/experimental-and-computational-insight-into-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-paracrine-signaling-and-heterocellular-coupling-effects-on-cardiac-contractility-and-arrhythmogenicity
#13
Joshua Mayourian, Timothy J Cashman, Delaine K Ceholski, Bryce V Johnson, David Sachs, Deepak A Kaji, Susmita Sahoo, Joshua M Hare, Roger J Hajjar, Eric A Sobie, Kevin D Costa
Rationale: Myocardial delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is an emerging therapy for treating the failing heart. However, the relative effects of hMSC-mediated heterocellular coupling (HC) and paracrine signaling (PS) on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity remain unresolved. Objective: To better understand hMSC PS and HC effects on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity by integrating experimental and computational approaches. Methods and Results: : Extending our previous hMSC-cardiomyocyte HC computational model, we incorporated experimentally calibrated hMSC PS effects on cardiomyocyte L-type calcium channel/SERCA activity and cardiac tissue fibrosis...
June 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#14
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641554/future-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell-culture-application-of-nanofiber-scaffolds
#15
Azar Shams, Neda Eslahi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fariborz Izadyar, Hamidreza Asgari, Morteza Koruji
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are unique in mammals because they can transmit genetic information from generation to generation and it is of significant importance. In testes, Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cells, Leydig cells and other interstitial cells contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell "niche". So, creation of niche in in vitro condition that mimics in vivo environment is essential to maintain functional characteristic of SSCs. Nanofiber matrices mimic the architecture and size scale of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM)...
June 22, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641207/ros-and-calcium-signaling-mediated-pathways-involved-in-stress-responses-of-the-marine-microalgae-dunaliella-salina-to-enhanced-uv-b-radiation
#16
Xinxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Ming Wang, Wei Zhang, Bin Zhou, You Wang
UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m(-2) per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640887/epidermal-growth-factor-promotes-cyclin-g2-degradation-via-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-in-gynaecological-cancer-cells
#17
Stefanie Bernaudo, Shahin Khazai, Eilyad Honarparvar, Alina Kopteva, Chun Peng
Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) is an atypical cyclin that functions to inhibit cell cycle progression and is often dysregulated in human cancers. We have previously shown that cyclin G2 is highly unstable and can be degraded through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Furthermore, cyclin G2 contains a PEST domain, which has been suggested to act as a signal for degradation by multiple proteases. In this study, we determined if calpains, a family of calcium-dependent proteases, are also involved in cyclin G2 degradation. The addition of calpain inhibitors or silencing of calpain expression by siRNAs strongly enhanced cyclin G2 levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640449/polycystic-kidney-disease
#18
Joseph Ghata, Benjamin D Cowley
Renal cysts, which arise from renal tubules, can be seen in a variety of hereditary and nonhereditary entities. Common mechanisms associated with renal cyst formation include increased cell proliferation, epithelial fluid secretion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is seen as a component of numerous diseases. Autosomal dominant (AD) PKD is the most common potentially fatal hereditary disease in humans, causes renal failure in approximately 50% of affected individuals, and accounts for approximately 5% of end stage renal disease cases in the United States...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639721/trpv4-channels-contribute-to-calcium-transients-in-astrocytes-and-neurons-during-peri-infarct-depolarizations-in-a-stroke-model
#19
Cordula Rakers, Matthias Schmid, Gabor C Petzold
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability. In the penumbra, that is, the area surrounding the infarct core, peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are accompanied by strong intracellular calcium elevations in astrocytes and neurons, thereby negatively affecting infarct size and clinical outcome. The dynamics of PIDs and the cellular pathways that are involved during PID formation and progression remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that inositol triphosphate-gated calcium release from internal stores is a major component of PID-related astroglial calcium signals, but whether external calcium influx through membrane-localized channels also contributes to PIDs has remained unclear...
June 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639247/p2y1-receptors-properties-and-functional-activities
#20
Jolanta Barańska, Rafał Czajkowski, Paweł Pomorski
In this chapter we try to show a comprehensive image of current knowledge of structure, activity and physiological role of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. The structure, distribution and changes in the expression of this receptor are summarized, as well as the mechanism of its signaling activity by the intracellular calcium mobilization. We try to show the connection between the components of its G protein activation and cellular or physiological effects, starting from changes in protein phosphorylation patterns and ending with such remote effects as receptor-mediated apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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