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Calcium signaling

Bassem Refaat, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Fadi Fayez Kamfar, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Faizah Ahmed Malibary
This is a prospective observational study that measures the expression of vitamin D (VD) metabolising and signalling molecules and Ca(2+) sensing receptor (CaSR) in human Fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and ectopic pregnancy (EP). Fresh FTs were obtained during total abdominal hysterectomy at the follicular (n = 16) and midluteal (n = 16) phases. Specimens from remote and implantation sites as well as trophoblastic tissues were also freshly collected from each FT with EP (n = 10)...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Hongyu Sun, Jiajia Tang, Yongchao Mou, Jing Zhou, Linlin Qu, Kayla Duval, Zhu Huang, Ning Lin, Ruiwu Dai, Chengxiao Liang, Zi Chen, Lijun Tang, Fuzhou Tian
: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based hydrogels have been shown to support cardiomyocyte growth and function. However, their role in cellular integrity among cardiomyocytes has not been studied in detail and the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, single walled CNTs incorporated into gelatin with methacrylate anhydride (CNT/GelMA) hydrogels were utilized to construct cardiac tissues, which enhanced cardiomyocyte adhesion and maturation. Furthermore, through the use of immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy and intracellular calcium transient measurement, the incorporation of CNTs into the scaffolds was observed to markedly enhance the assembly and formation in the cardiac constructs...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Isabel P G Fernandes, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett
Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein present in all eukaryote cells, ranging from vertebrates to unicellular organisms. CaM is the most important Ca(2+) signalling protein, composed of two domains, N- and C-terminal domains, linked by a flexible central α-helix, and is responsible for the regulation of numerous calcium-mediated signalling pathways. Four calcium ions bind to CaM, changing its conformation and determining how it recognizes and regulates its cellular targets. The oxidation mechanism of native and denatured CaM, at a glassy carbon electrode, was investigated using differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
October 7, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Junting Huang, Gerald W Zamponi
Calcium entry via voltage gated calcium channels mediates a wide range of physiological functions, whereas calcium channel dysregulation has been associated with numerous pathophysiological conditions. There are myriad cell signaling pathways that act on voltage gated calcium channels to fine tune their activities and to regulate their cell surface expression. These regulatory mechanisms include the activation of G protein-coupled receptors and downstream phosphorylation events, and their control over calcium channel trafficking through direct physical interactions...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Katrin Feldbauer, Jan Schlegel, Juliane Weissbecker, Frank Sauer, Phillip G Wood, Ernst Bamberg, Ulrich Terpitz
An optochemokine tandem was developed to control the release of calcium from endosomes into the cytosol by light and to analyze the internalization kinetics of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by electrophysiology. A previously constructed rhodopsin tandem was re-engineered to combine the light-gated Ca2+-permeable cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2(L132C), CatCh, with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a functional tandem protein tCXCR4/CatCh. The GPCR was used as a shuttle protein to displace CatCh from the plasma membrane into intracellular areas...
2016: PloS One
Benoîte Bourdin, Emilie Segura, Marie-Philippe Tétreault, Sylvie Lesage, Lucie Parent
Inherited or de novo mutations in cation-selective channels may lead to sudden cardiac death. Alteration in the plasma membrane trafficking of these multi-spanning transmembrane proteins, with or without change in channel gating, is often postulated to contribute significantly in this process. It has thus become critical to develop a method to quantify the change of the relative cell surface expression of cardiac ion channels on a large scale. Herein, a detailed protocol is provided to determine the relative total and cell surface expression of cardiac L-type calcium channels CaV1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pierre Pétriacq, Guillaume Tcherkez, Bertrand Gakière
NAD is a pyridine nucleotide that is involved in cell metabolism and signaling of plant growth and stress. Recently, we reported on the multifaceted nature of NAD-inducible immunity in Arabidopsis. We identified NAD as an integral regulator of multiple defense layers such as production of ROS, deposition of callose, stimulation of cell death and modulation of defense metabolism including the defense hormones SA, JA and ABA, and other defense-associated metabolites. Altogether, NAD-induced immune effects confer resistance to diverse pathogenic microbes...
October 21, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
K K Dey, R Bharti, G Dey, I Pal, Y Rajesh, S Chavan, S Das, C K Das, B C Jena, P Halder, J G Ray, I Kulavi, M Mandal
Oral cancer consists of squamous cell carcinoma within the oral cavity or on the lip. The clinical prognosis of this cancer is mostly poor owing to delayed diagnosis and a lack of appropriate early detection biomarkers to identify the disease. In the current study, we investigated the role of the S100A7 calcium-binding protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma as an activator of the p38/MAPK and RAB2A signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to determine whether S100A7 and RAB2A have a role in tumor progression and to assess their potential as early detection biomarkers for oral cancer...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Anurag Mishra, Giorgio Pariani, Thomas Oerther, Markus Schwaiger, Gil Gregor Westmeyer
We introduce hyperpolarizable (13)C-labelled probes that identify multiple biologically important divalent metals via metal-specific chemical shifts. These features enable NMR measurements of calcium concentrations in human serum in the presence of magnesium. In addition, signal enhancement through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of metal detection to afford measuring micromolar concentrations of calcium as well as simultaneous multi-metal detection by chemical shift imaging. The hyperpolarizable (13)C-MRI sensors presented here enable sensitive NMR measurements and MR imaging of multiple divalent metals in opaque biological samples...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Stefano Fiorucci, Angela Zampella, Giuseppe Cirino, Mariarosaria Bucci, Eleonora Distrutti
Bile acids are end product of cholesterol metabolism generated in the liver and released in the intestine. In addition to their role in nutrient absorption, bile acids are increasingly recognized as regulatory signals which exert their function beyond the intestine by activating a network of membrane and nuclear receptors. The best characterized of these bile acid activated receptors, GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) and the Farnesosid-x-receptor (FXR) have also been detected in the vascular system and their activation mediate the vasodilatory effects of bile acids in the systemic and splanchnic circulation...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jay S Naik, Jessica M Osmond, Benjimen R Walker, Nancy L Kanagy
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently described gaseous vasodilator produced within the vasculature by the enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtansferase. Previous data demonstrate that endothelial cells (EC) are the source of endogenous H2S production and are required for H2S-induced dilation. However, the signal transduction pathway activated by H2S within EC has not been elucidated. TRPV4 and large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K channels (BK channels) are expressed in EC. H2S-induced dilation is inhibited by luminal administration of iberiotoxin and disruption of the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jing Zhang, You Wang, Kai-Ming Sun, Kuan Fang, Xuexi Tang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic mechanisms in marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain poorly understood. Two common congeners of PBDEs, tetrabrominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and decabrominated diphenyl ether-209 (BDE-209), were investigated. Their toxic mechanisms, with a focus on oxidative stress, were examined in rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by two PBDEs...
October 17, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Matías Hernández, Susana Wicz, Ricardo S Corral
BACKGROUND: Diverse cardiovascular signaling routes have been considered critical for Chagas cardiomyopathy caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Along this line, T. cruzi infection and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been shown to cooperatively activate the Ca(2+)/NFAT cascade in cardiomyocytes, leading to cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) induction and increased release of prostanoids and prohypertrophic peptides. PURPOSE: To determine whether the well-known cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin (Cur) could be helpful to interfere with this key machinery for pathogenesis of Chagas myocarditis...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Xiaoye Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Peijie Shi, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes foodborne infectious diseases and food poisoning. Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) is the major toxin found in almost all enteropathogenic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. However, little is known about the cellular response after Nhe triggered pore formation on cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that Nhe induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase and provoked apoptosis in Vero cells, most likely associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and death receptor pathways...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Mihály Óvári, Miklós Laczi, János Török, Victor G Mihucz, Gyula Záray
The bulk analysis of single feathers of 263 feathers belonging to 238 individuals of a migratory passerine (collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, originating from a breeding population in the Pilis-Visegrád Mountains in Hungary) by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS) for determination of elements after proper dissolution allowed the quantitative determination of 38 elements. Calcium, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found to have a quantitative determination frequency larger than 80 % and a concentration greater than 100 μg/g...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fabiana de Salvi Guimarães, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes, Luis Henrique Marchesi Bozi, Pâmela R Souza, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Patricia Chakur Brum, Alessandra Medeiros
Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days...
October 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
A Eraso-Pichot, R Larramona-Arcas, E Vicario-Orri, R Villalonga, L Pardo, E Galea, R Masgrau
Astrocytic excitability relies on cytosolic calcium increases as a key mechanism, whereby astrocytes contribute to synaptic transmission and hence learning and memory. While it is a cornerstone of neurosciences that experiences are remembered, because transmitters activate gene expression in neurons, long-term adaptive astrocyte plasticity has not been described. Here, we investigated whether the transcription factor CREB mediates adaptive plasticity-like phenomena in astrocytes. We found that activation of CREB-dependent transcription reduced the calcium responses induced by ATP, noradrenaline, or endothelin-1...
October 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hyun Jun Jung, Tae-Hwan Kwon
Kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for regulation of body water homeostasis and urine concentration. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct principal cells is controlled by vasopressin, a peptide hormone which induces the osmotic water transport across the collecting duct epithelia through regulation of water channel proteins aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In particular, vasopressin induces both intracellular translocation of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane and transcription of Aqp2 gene to increase AQP2 protein abundance...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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