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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935173/coxiella-burnetiias-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-bacteria-friendly-host-cell-compartments
#1
REVIEW
Julian Pechstein, Jan Schulze-Luehrmann, Anja Lührmann
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular and airborne pathogen which can cause the zoonotic disease Q fever. After inhalation of contaminated aerosols alveolar macrophages are taking up C. burnetii into a phagosome. This phagosome matures to a very large vacuole called the C. burnetii-containing vacuole (CCV). Host endogenous and bacterial driven processes lead to the biogenesis of this unusual compartment, which resembles partially a phagolysosome. However, there are several important differences to the classical phagolysosome, which are crucial for the ability of C...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927848/phagosome-proteomics-to-study-leishmania-s-intracellular-niche-in-macrophages
#2
REVIEW
Geo Semini, Toni Aebischer
Intracellular pathogens invade their host cells and replicate within specialized compartments. In turn, the host cell initiates a defensive response trying to kill the invasive agent. As a consequence, intracellular lifestyle implies morphological and physiological changes in both pathogen and host cell. Leishmania spp. are medically important intracellular protozoan parasites that are internalized by professional phagocytes such as macrophages, and reside within the parasitophorous vacuole inhibiting their microbicidal activity...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924031/cytoplasmic-copper-detoxification-in-salmonella-can-contribute-to-sodc-metalation-but-is-dispensable-during-systemic-infection
#3
Luke A Fenlon, James M Slauch
Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S. Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#4
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920054/controlling-extra-and-intramacrophagic-mycobacterium-abscessus-by-targeting-mycolic-acid-transport
#5
Albertus Viljoen, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Oluseye K Onajole, Jozef Stec, Alan P Kozikowski, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing serious infections especially among cystic fibrosis patients. Extremely limited therapeutic options against M. abscessus and a rise in infections with this mycobacterium require novel chemotherapies and a better understanding of how the bacterium causes infection. Different from most RGM, M. abscessus can survive inside macrophages and persist for long durations in infected tissues. We recently delineated differences in the infective programs followed by smooth (S) and rough (R) variants of M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#6
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916473/down-regulation-of-nox2-activity-in-phagocytes-mediated-by-atm-kinase-dependent-phosphorylation
#7
Sylvain Beaumel, Antoine Picciocchi, Franck Debeurme, Corinne Vivès, Anne-Marie Hesse, Myriam Ferro, Didier Grunwald, Heather Stieglitz, Pahk Thepchatri, Susan M E Smith, Franck Fieschi, Marie José Stasia
NADPH oxidases (NOX) have many biological roles, but their regulation to control production of potentially toxic ROS molecules remains unclear. A previously identified insertion sequence of 21 residues (called NIS) influences NOX activity, and its predicted flexibility makes it a good candidate for providing a dynamic switch controlling the NOX active site. We constructed NOX2 chimeras in which NIS had been deleted or exchanged with those from other NOXs (NIS1, 3 and 4). All contained functional heme and were expressed normally at the plasma membrane of differentiated PLB-985 cells...
September 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#8
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904858/maturation-of-phagosomes-containing-different-erythrophagocytic-particles-in-primary-macrophages
#9
Inês B Santarino, Otília V Vieira
Erythrophagocytosis is a physiological process that aims to remove damaged red blood cells from the circulation in order to avoid hemolysis and uncontrolled liberation of iron. Many efforts have been made to understand heme trafficking inside macrophages, but little is known about the maturation of phagosomes containing different types of erythrophagocytic particles with different signals at their surfaces. Therefore, we performed a comparative study on the maturation of phagosomes containing three different models of red blood cells (RBC): aged/senescent, complement-opsonized, and IgG-opsonized...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903728/increased-survival-and-proliferation-of-the-epidemic-strain-mycobacterium-abscessus-subsp-massiliense-crm0019-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#10
Giovanni Monteiro Ribeiro, Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto, Fernando Real, Daniela Teixeira, Rafael Silva Duarte, Renato Arruda Mortara, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria have been reported worldwide generally associated with medical procedures. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 was obtained during an epidemic of postsurgical infections and was characterized by increased persistence in vivo. To better understand the successful survival strategies of this microorganism, we evaluated its infectivity and proliferation in macrophages (RAW and BMDM) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903313/snx10-promotes-phagosome-maturation-in-macrophages-and-protects-mice-against-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#11
Jun Lou, Xiawei Li, Wei Huang, Jingjing Liang, Mingzhu Zheng, Ting Xu, Jun Lyu, Dan Li, Qin Xu, Xuexiao Jin, Guotong Fu, Di Wang, Linrong Lu
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), which is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes listeriosis, is widely used to study the mammalian immune response to infection. After phagocytosis by professional phagocytes, L. monocytogenes is initially contained within phagosomes, which mature into phagolysosomes, where the bacteria are degraded. Although phagocytosis and subsequent phagosome maturation is essential for the clearance of infectious microbial pathogens, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still unclear...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894449/type-i-interferon-induced-by-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-is-strain-dependent-and-may-be-beneficial-for-host-survival
#12
Jean-Philippe Auger, Agustina Santinón, David Roy, Karen Mossman, Jianguo Xu, Mariela Segura, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important porcine bacterial pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent mainly responsible for sudden death, septic shock, and meningitis, with exacerbated inflammation being a hallmark of the infection. However, serotype 2 strains are genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous, being composed of a multitude of sequence types (STs) whose virulence greatly varies: the virulent ST1 (Eurasia), highly virulent ST7 (responsible for the human outbreaks in China), and intermediate virulent ST25 (North America) are the most important worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890882/neutrophils-to-the-roscue-mechanisms-of-nadph-oxidase-activation-and-bacterial-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Giang T Nguyen, Erin R Green, Joan Mecsas
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887059/toll-like-receptor-2-and-its-roles-in-immune-responses-against-legionella-pneumophila
#14
REVIEW
Shiva Ahmadishoar, Ashraf Kariminik
Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is an intracellular bacterium which can be survived in the human macrophages phagosomes. The infectious agent is cleared in some cases and survived in others. The main mechanisms responsible for survival of L. pneumophila are yet to be clarified. It has been reported that innate immunity plays key roles in limitation and also eradication of bacterial infections. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is an important cell membrane receptor which recognizes a wide range of bacterial antigens entitled pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
September 5, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884011/adaptation-to-macrophage-killing-by-talaromyces-marneffei
#15
REVIEW
Monsicha Pongpom, Pramote Vanittanakom, Panjaphorn Nimmanee, Chester R Cooper, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen. It causes disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients especially in Southeast Asian countries. The pathogenicity of T. marneffei depends on the ability of the fungus to survive the killing process and replicate inside the macrophage. Major stresses inside the phagosome of macrophages are heat, oxidative substances and nutrient deprivation. The coping strategies of this pathogen with these stresses are under investigation...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881768/downregulated-long-noncoding-rna-aldbgalg0000005049-induces-inflammation-in-chicken-muscle-suffered-from-selenium-deficiency-by-regulating-stearoyl-coa-desaturase
#16
Ruifeng Fan, Changyu Cao, Xia Zhao, Qunxiang Shi, Jinxin Zhao, Shiwen Xu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in proliferation and differentiation of muscles. However, the study on the roles of lncRNAs in Selenium (Se) deficiency induced muscle injury is still unclear. In this study, deep sequencing was performed to profile lncRNAs and mRNAs of the muscles from the Se deficiency (-Se group) and control (C group) chickens. The results revealed that 38 lncRNAs (23 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated) and 687 mRNAs (285 up-regulated and 402 down-regulated) were significantly dysregulated expressed, and the significantly dysregulated pathway including Phagosome, Cardiac muscle contraction, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in -Se group...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878069/filling-gaps-about-mimivirus-entry-uncoating-and-morphogenesis
#17
Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Kétyllen Reis Andrade, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Bernard La Scola, Erna Geessien Kroon, Jônatas Santos Abrahão
Since the discovery of mimivirus, its unusual structural and genomic features have raised great interest in the study of its biology; however, many aspects concerning its replication cycle remain uncertain. In this study, extensive analyses of electron microscope images, as well as biological assays, shed light on unclear points concerning the mimivirus replication cycle. Here, we demonstrate that cytochalasin treatment, a phagocytosis inhibitor, impacts negatively on the incorporation of mimivirus particles by Acanthamoeba castellanii, causing a negative effect on viral growth in amoebae monolayers...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877954/suppression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-proinflammatory-responses-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-rv3529c
#18
Upasana Bandyopadhyay, Attinder Chadha, Priya Gupta, Brijendra Tiwari, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Sonam Popli, Rajagopal Raman, Vani Brahamachari, Yogendra Singh, Pawan Malhotra, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
Microorganisms are known to devise various strategies to thwart protective responses by the host. One such strategy is to incorporate sequences and domains in their genes/proteins that have similarity to various domains of the host proteins. In this study, we report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c exhibits significant similarity to the death domain of the TLR pathway adaptor protein MyD88. Incubation of macrophages with Rv3529c specifically inhibited TLR2-mediated proinflammatory responses. This included attenuated oxidative burst, reduced phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK, reduced activation of transcription factor NF-κB and reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A with a concomitant increased secretion of suppressor cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875176/lactoferricin-peptides-increase-macrophages-capacity-to-kill-mycobacterium-avium
#19
Tânia Silva, Ana C Moreira, Kamran Nazmi, Tânia Moniz, Nuno Vale, Maria Rangel, Paula Gomes, Jan G M Bolscher, Pedro N Rodrigues, Margarida Bastos, Maria Salomé Gomes
Mycobacterial infections cause a significant burden of disease and death worldwide. Their treatment is long, toxic, costly, and increasingly prone to failure due to bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics. New therapeutic options are thus clearly needed. Antimicrobial peptides represent an important source of new antimicrobial molecules, both for their direct activity and for their immunomodulatory potential. We have previously reported that a short version of the bovine antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin with amino acids 17 to 30 (LFcin17-30), along with its variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, killed Mycobacterium avium in broth culture...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874555/a-trans-acting-leader-rna-from-a-salmonella-virulence-gene
#20
Eunna Choi, Yoontak Han, Yong-Joon Cho, Daesil Nam, Eun-Jin Lee
Bacteria use flagella to move toward nutrients, find its host, or retract from toxic substances. Because bacterial flagellum is one of the ligands that activate the host innate immune system, its synthesis should be tightly regulated during host infection, which is largely unknown. Here, we report that a bacterial leader mRNA from the mgtCBR virulence operon in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium binds to the fljB coding region of mRNAs in the fljBA operon encoding the FljB phase 2 flagellin, a main component of bacterial flagella and the FljA repressor for the FliC phase 1 flagellin, and degrades fljBA mRNAs in an RNase E-dependent fashion during infection...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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