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Francisco Valdez-González, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Alfredo Hernández-Llamas, Manuel García-Ulloa, Luís Sánchez-Magaña, Breidy Cuevas-Rodríguez, Hervey Rodríguez-González
BACKGROUND: Bioprocessing of ingredients by solid-state fermentation is a low-cost technique for preparing diets. It is perfomed by adding microorganisms as Rhizopus oligosporus to the grains of bean, with minimal degradation of nutrients, and a significant improvement in digestibility. In particular, fermentation induces favorable changes in beans by reducing enzyme inhibitors, such as phytates and tannins. RESULTS: Fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the protein content and digestibility of dry matter and protein compared with whole bean grains, and decreased the content of lipids, ash, and phytic acid...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kanako Sato, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Mamiko Niki, Satoshi Yamagoe, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Kazuhisa Asai, Koichi Yamada, Kazuto Hirata, Yukihiro Kaneko, Hiroshi Kakeya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Kebo Xie, Xiaoxiang Dou, Ridao Chen, Dawei Chen, Cheng Fang, Zhiyan Xiao, Jungui Dai
: In the present study, two novel phenolic UDP-glycosyltransferases (P-UGTs), UGT58A1 and UGT59A1, which can transfer sugar moieties from active donors to phenolic acceptors to generate corresponding glycosides, were identified from the fungi kingdom. UGT58A1 (from Absidia coerulea) and UGT59A1 (from Rhizopus japonicas) share a low degree of homology with known UGTs from animals, plants, bacteria, and virus. These two P-UGTs are membrane-bound proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide and a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hao Sun, Xueqin Ni, Dong Zeng, Fuqin Zou, Mingyue Yang, Zhirong Peng, Yi Zhou, Yan Zeng, Hui Zhu, Hesong Wang, Zhongqiong Yin, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
Accumulating evidence has proven the immunomodulating activity of Yupingfeng. This study compared the immunomodulatory activity in vitro of the unfermented Yupingfeng dreg polysaccharides (UYDP) with that of the fermented Yupingfeng dreg polysaccharides (FYDP) obtained using Rhizopus oligosporus SH. Results consistently elucidated the duality of the immunomodulatory roles of UYDP and FYDP in regulating proliferation, and cytokines expressions in murine lymphocytes and macrophages. Compared with UYDP, FYDP effectively enhanced the proliferation of lymphocytes and promoted mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and TLR-4 in lymphocytes and macrophages...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
V Ghormade, E K Pathan, M V Deshpande
Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael Thomas Zumstein, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Kristopher McNeill, Michael Sander
Biodegradable polyesters have the potential to replace non-degradable, persistent polymers in numerous applications and thereby alleviate plastic accumulation in the environment. Herein we present an analytical approach to study enzymatic hydrolysis of polyesters, the key step in their overall biodegradation process. The approach is based on embedding fluorescein dilaurate (FDL), a fluorogenic ester substrate, into the polyester matrix and on monitoring the enzymatic co-hydrolysis of FDL to fluorescein during enzymatic hydrolysis of the polyester...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Abraham Figueiras Abdala, Alfonso Pérez Gallardo, Lorenzo Guevara Olvera, Eleazar Máximo Escamilla Silva
The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis of carotenoid esters from Tagetes erecta using lipases from the yeast of Yarrowia lipolytica, with the aim of obtaining free lutein. The optimal concentrations of seven nutrients, considering the production of lipases relative to biomass (Yp/x) as the response variable, were determined in flask fermentations. In addition, we studied the effect on hydrolysis of growing Y. lipolytica in the presence of the oleoresin of the marigold flower in flask and stirred tank...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
Xinxin Lu, Yanfei Huang, Mingxin Zhang, Min Zhu, Mei Wang, Yufeng Sun, Haitong Gu, Jingjing Cao, Xue Li, Shaoya Zhang, Jinglin Wang
BACKGROUND: filamentous fungi are the most important pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and expertise-dependent. Although matrix -assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been employed to identify various fungi, its performance for the identification of FRS fungi is less clear...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kholoud M Alananbeh, Nahla Boquellah, Nadia Al Kaff, Majid Al Ahmadi
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Khalid AbdelRahim, Sabry Younis Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Ali, Khalid Salmeen Almaary, Abd El-Zaher M A Mustafa, Sherif Moussa Husseiny
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV-visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) planes...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Onur Guneser, Asli Demirkol, Yonca Karagul Yuceer, Sine Ozmen Togay, Muge Isleten Hosoglu, Murat Elibol
The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Fahad Al-Asmari, Nilesh Nirmal, Mridusmita Chaliha, David Williams, Ram Mereddy, Kinnari Shelat, Yasmina Sultanbawa
Physico-chemical and microbial analyses of four commercial fresh date cultivars (Sukari, Barhi, Khalas and Rothana) grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Colorimetric assay indicated that Sukari had the highest total sugar content of 13.21g/100gFW while the lowest was in Rothana with 7.96g/100gFW. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 76.74 to 122.20mgGAE/100gFW in Barhi and Rothana respectively, whereas antioxidant activity was highest in Sukari (105.99μgGAE/gFW) and lowest in Khalas (90.81μgGAE/gFW)...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hongcai Zhang, Sanyue Yun, Lingling Song, Yiwen Zhang, Yanyun Zhao
The crustacean shells of crabs and shrimps produces quantities of by-products, leading to seriously environmental pollution and human health problems during industrial processing, yet they turned into high-value useful products, such as chitin and chitosan. To prepare them under large-scale submerged fermentation level, shrimp shell powders (SSPs) was fermented by successive three-step fermentation of Serratia marcescens B742, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Rhizopus japonicus M193 to extract chitin and chitosan based on previously optimal conditions...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Süheyla Pınar Kodal, Zümriye Aksu
The biosorption of an anionic dye Remazol Black B onto a filamentous, dried fungus, Rhizopus arrhizus, was studied in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which was used as a pH shifter. Without surfactant, the maximum dye uptake capacity was achieved at pH 2.0 and was 434.0 mg dye g(-1) dried fungal biomass. Again, without surfactant, the highest dye uptake capacity, 27.8 mg dye g(-1) dried biomass, occurred at pH 8.0 calculated from the Langmuir adsorption model...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Technology
Gerard Bryan Gonzales, Guy Smagghe, Jens Wittevrongel, Nguyen Thai Huynh, John Van Camp, Katleen Raes
Rhizopus azygosporus Yuan et Jong (ATCC 48108), a starter culture for fermented soybean tempeh, produces β-glucosidases that cleave flavonoid glycosides into aglycones during fermentation. However, recent data suggest that fermentation of a flavonoid glycoside-rich extract with this strain did not result in the production of aglycones. Thus, in this paper, flavonoid metabolism of this strain was investigated. Incubation of flavonoid aglycones, naringenin and quercetin, with R. azygosporus resulted in the production of flavonoid glucosyl-, hydroxyl-, and sulfo-conjugated derivatives...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Olga A Lastovetsky, Maria L Gaspar, Stephen J Mondo, Kurt M LaButti, Laura Sandor, Igor V Grigoriev, Susan A Henry, Teresa E Pawlowska
The recent accumulation of newly discovered fungal-bacterial mutualisms challenges the paradigm that fungi and bacteria are natural antagonists. To understand the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance over evolutionary time of mutualisms between fungi and bacteria, we studied a symbiosis of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus (Mucoromycotina) and its Burkholderia endobacteria. We found that nonhost R. microsporus, as well as other mucoralean fungi, interact antagonistically with endobacteria derived from the host and are not invaded by them...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Milind Bhagat, Alwyn Rapose
We present a case report of a 61-year-old patient with acute pulmonary and cerebral infections with Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The only risk factor for invasive fungal disease was high-dose corticosteroids used to treat her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. She had rapid progression and succumbed to her infections within 2 weeks of diagnosis in spite of aggressive antifungal therapy and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapidly fatal dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus Our case highlights the role of high-dose corticosteroids as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in patients without traditional risk factors like haematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation or uncontrolled diabetes...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Mahboobeh Nasseri, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Hossein Arouiee, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hossein Neamati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Hyeonheui Ham, Sosoo Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jae-Gee Ryu, Theresa Lee
To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Yingyiing Zhang, Bin Tang, Guocheng Du
Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation in microorganism, while its characteristic in Rhizopus is unclear now. We extracted a carbon regulation gene cre that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to the glucose in a certain range, wherein it could significantly regulate part of cellulases genes (eg, bg and cbh2) without cbh1. Compared with the responding of cre and four cellulases genes to the carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and the simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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