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Nicola L D Overton, Axel A Brakhage, Andreas Thywißen, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma is a severe, life-affecting disease that potentially affects over 4.8 million people globally. In the UK, ABPA is predominantly caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Phagocytosis is important in clearance of this fungus, and Early Endosome Antigen 1 (EEA1) has been demonstrated to be involved in phagocytosis of fungi. We sought to investigate the role of EEA1 mutations and phagocytosis in ABPA. We used exome sequencing to identify variants in EEA1 associated with ABPA...
2018: PloS One
Walid Korani, Ye Chu, C Corley Holbrook, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination is a challenging issue that affects peanut quality. Aflatoxin is produced by fungi belonging to the Aspergilli group, and is known as an acutely toxic, carcinogenic and immune-suppressing class of mycotoxins. Evidence for several host genetic factors that may impact aflatoxin contamination has been reported, e.g. , genes for lipoxygenase (PnLOX1 and PnLOX2/PnLOX3 that showed either positive or negative regulation with Aspergillus infection), ROS, and WRKY (highly associated with or differentially expressed upon infection of maize with A...
March 15, 2018: Genetics
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Pan Wang, Jin-Hai Yu, Kongkai Zhu, Yinyin Wang, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Jun-Gui Dai, Jun Wu, Hua Zhang
Seven new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, (7R,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (1), (7S,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (2), (7R,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (3), (7S,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (4), 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (5), (Z)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (6), and (E)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (7), along with five known analogues (8-12), were obtained from the culture of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. xy02 isolated from the leaves of a Thai mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis...
March 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska
This study investigates the biological activity of two cationic gemini surfactants, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) C6 and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecyla,.mmonium bromide) C5, and their two neutral analogs, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A5). Experiments were performed with Aspergillus brasiliensis , which is used in the standard tests for biocides. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for conidia and mycelium were determined using the dilution method...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Han Zhang, Hong-Tao Zhu, Dong Wang, Chong-Ren Yang, Ying-Jun Zhang
Twelve indolyl diketopiperazines 1-12 were isolated from the mycelia culture of Aspergillus penicilliodes Speg., a dominant microorganism from the post fermentation process of ripe Pu-er tea. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Among them, trypostatins C (1) and D (2) featuring with a rare methyl vinyl ketone side chain at C-2 are new compounds, while 3 and 4 were obtained for the first time from nature source. The isolates 3-12 did not show obvious cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines at a concentration of 40 μM...
March 14, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Homa Torabizadeh, Asieh Mahmoudi
Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Prem Prakash, Narayan S Punekar, Prasenjit Bhaumik
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme connecting carbon and nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. Despite extensive studies on GDHs from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the last 40 years, the structural basis of the catalytic features of this enzyme remains incomplete. This study reports the structural basis of the GDH catalytic mechanism and allosteric behavior. We determined the first high-resolution crystal structures of glutamate dehydrogenase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnGDH), a unique NADP+ -dependent allosteric enzyme that is forward inhibited by the formation of mixed disulfide...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Bei Mao, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Jin-Fu Xu
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) occupies an important niche in the pathogenic microbiome of bronchiectasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of P. aeruginosa in Chinese adult patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This retrospective and follow-up study enrolled 1188 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients' clinical data including anthropometry, clinical symptoms, serum biomarkers, radiographic manifestations and lung function indices were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Z Kamali Sarwestani, S J Hashemi, S Rezaie, M Gerami Shoar, S Mahmoudi, M Elahi, M Bahardoost, A Tajdini, S Abutalebian, R Daie Ghazvini
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus niger is the most commonly reported etiology of otomycosis based on morphological characteristics. This fungus is a member of Aspergillus section Nigri, a set of morphologically indistinguishable species that can harbor various antifungal susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was to accurately identify and determine the susceptibility pattern of a set of black aspergilli isolated from otomycosis patients. METHODS: Forty-three black Aspergillus isolates from otomycosis patients were identified by using the PCR-sequencing of the β-tubulin gene...
March 11, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Agustin Resendiz Sharpe, Katrien Lagrou, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Shawn R Lockhart, Paul E Verweij
Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Wilfried Posch, Michael Blatzer, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
The polyene antifungal amphotericin B (AmB) exerts a powerful and broad activity against a vast array of fungi and in general displays a remarkably low rate of antimicrobial resistance. Aspergillus terreus holds an exceptional position among the Aspergilli due to its intrinsic AmB resistance, in vivo and in vitro. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of polyene resistance were not well understood. This review will highlight the molecular basis of A. terreus and AmB resistance recently gained and will display novel data on the mode of action of AmB...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Junsei Taira, Rin Toyoshima, Nana Ameku, Akira Iguchi, Yasutomo Tamaki
Vanillin is valuable and popular flavor used in foods and cosmetics. Many bacteria species have the ability to decarboxylate substituted cinnamic acids in order to form vanillin. However, the phenolic biotransformation including vanillin production in a common fungus, the Aspergillus luchuensis, which is used in distilled beverages, has not yet been clarified. This study focused on elucidating the vanillin production due to phenolic biotransformation in A. luchuensis during fermentation. The phenolic metabolites were extracted by a solid phase column and they were determined using on LC/MS and LC/MS/MS in a selective ion mode...
March 13, 2018: AMB Express
Anja Kuenz, Susan Krull
Itaconic acid is one of the basic chemicals for the polymer industry, which can be produced on the basis of renewable raw materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century, itaconic acid has been produced industrially using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. But the demand for the organic acid is low due to the high production costs compared to alternative petrochemical manufactured raw materials. The high production costs are based on a low final titer, low productivities, and the usage of pure sugars, purified molasses, or starch hydrolysates, since the fungus reacts very sensitively to impurities in a culture medium...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Julia S Martin Del Campo, Meital Eckshtain-Levi, Nancy J Vogelaar, Pablo Sobrado
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Hui Xu, Yinghui Guo, Hongwei Sun, Fan Li, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu
Transgenic maize hybrids that express the Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene could significantly improve phosphorus bioavailability to poultry and livestock. However, little information has been reported about the effects of phytase transgenic maize on the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). This study provides valuable information about the physiological, biochemical and gut microflora functional diversity changes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize. The weights, survival rates, in vivo protein contents, activities of two detoxification enzymes and three antioxidant enzymes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize exhibited no significant differences to those fed non-transgenic maize...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
O S Savinova, P N Solyev, D V Vasina, T V Tyazhelova, T V Fedorova, T S Savinova
The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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