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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430142/initial-spore-density-has-an-influence-on-ochratoxin-a-content-in-aspergillus-ochraceus-cgmcc-3-4412-in-pdb-and-its-interaction-with-seeds
#1
Caiyan Li, Yanmin Song, Lu Xiong, Kunlun Huang, Zhihong Liang
The morphology and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus spp. are associated with initial spore density (ISD). Fatty acids (FA) are involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins (AF) through Aspergillus quorum sensing (QS). Here, we studied how ochratoxin A (OTA) was regulated by spore density in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412. The results contribute to understanding the role of spore density in morphogenesis, OTA biosynthesis, and host-pathogen interactions. When A. ochraceus was grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media at different spore densities (from 10¹ to 10⁶ spores/mL), more OTA was produced when ISD were increased, but a higher level of ISD inhibited OTA biosynthesis...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428822/in-muro-deacetylation-of-xylan-affects-lignin-properties-and-improves-saccharification-of-aspen-wood
#2
Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Sun-Li Chong, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Shamrat Shafiul Bashar, Tobias Sparrman, Patrik Ahvenainen, Mattias Hedenström, Merve Özparpucu, Markus Rüggeberg, Ritva Serimaa, Martin Lawoko, Maija Tenkanen, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose from fast growing hardwood species is a preferred source of polysaccharides for advanced biofuels and "green" chemicals. However, the extensive acetylation of hardwood xylan hinders lignocellulose saccharification by obstructing enzymatic xylan hydrolysis and causing inhibitory acetic acid concentrations during microbial sugar fermentation. To optimize lignocellulose for cost-effective saccharification and biofuel production, an acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 from Aspergillus niger was introduced into aspen and targeted to cell walls...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428796/expression-profiling-coupled-with-in-silico-mapping-identifies-candidate-genes-for-reducing-aflatoxin-accumulation-in-maize
#3
Ramesh Dhakal, Chenglin Chai, Ratna Karan, Gary L Windham, William P Williams, Prasanta K Subudhi
Aflatoxin, produced by Aspergillus flavus, is hazardous to health of humans and livestock. The lack of information about large effect QTL for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation is a major obstacle to employ marker-assisted selection for maize improvement. The understanding of resistance mechanisms of the host plant and the associated genes is necessary for improving resistance to A. flavus infection. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was made using the developing kernels of Mp715 (resistant inbred) and B73 (susceptible inbred) and 480 randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428686/aflatoxins-implications-on-health
#4
REVIEW
Usha P Sarma, Preetida J Bhetaria, Prameela Devi, Anupam Varma
Environmental occurrence of Aspergillus and other fungal spores are hazardous to humans and animals. They cause a broad spectrum of clinical complications. Contamination of aflatoxins in agri-food and feed due to A. flavus and A. parasiticus result in toxicity in humans and animals. Recent advances in aspergillus genomics and aflatoxin management practices are encouraging to tackle the challenges posed by important aspergillus species.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427940/characterization-of-the-rax1-gene-encoding-a-putative-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Olumuyiwa Ayokunle Igbalajobi, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the major cause of life threatening invasive aspergillosis, and its small hydrophobic asexual spores (conidia) are the major infection agent. To better understand biology of A. fumigatus, we have characterized the rax1 gene encoding a putative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS). The deletion (Δ) of rax1 results in restricted colony growth and highly reduced number of conidia in A. fumigatus. Transcript levels of the three central activators of asexual development abaA, brlA, and wetA are significantly reduced in the Δrax1 mutant...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427933/high-molecular-weight-genomic-dna-mini-prep-for-filamentous-fungi
#6
Mi-Kyung Lee, Hee-Soo Park, Kap-Hoon Han, Seung-Beom Hong, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Purification of high quality genomic DNA (gDNA) from filamentous fungi suitable for whole genome sequencing has previously involved many steps. Here, we report a simple and easy-to-follow mini-preparation protocol for high molecular weight (∼20 kb) gDNA from filamentous fungi including Aspergillus and Eurotium. This comprehensive protocol includes graphic step-by-step instructions for inoculation, homogenization, and purification of gDNA. The most critical step is a thorough 3 ∼ 5 min homogenization of the freeze-dried mycelium using a motorized hand-held homogenizer with a mini spatula inserted...
April 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425876/characterization-of-the-translation-elongation-factor-1-%C3%AE-gene-in-a-wide-range-of-pathogenic-aspergillus-species
#7
Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht, Bahram Ahmadi, Koichi Makimura, Sybren de Hoog, Yoshiko Umeda, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Hossein Mirhendi
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the resolving power of the translation elongation factor (TEF)-1α gene for phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species. METHODOLOGY: Sequences of 526 bp representing the coding region of the TEF-1α gene were used for the assessment of levels of intra- and inter-specific nucleotide polymorphism in 33 species of Aspergillus, including 57 reference, clinical and environmental strains. RESULTS: Analysis of TEF-1α sequences indicated a mean similarity of 92...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425045/soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cell-1-strem-1-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Changlin Cao, Jingxian Gu, Jingyao Zhang
Sensitive and useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of infectious diseases have been widely developed. An example of these biomarkers is triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1), which is a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. TREM-1 amplifies inflammation by activating the TREM-1/DAP12 pathway. This pathway is triggered by the interaction of TREM-1 with ligands or stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Consequently, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are secreted...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424666/napa-mediates-a-redox-regulation-of-the-antioxidant-response-carbon-utilization-and-development-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#9
Ariann E Mendoza-Martínez, Fernando Lara-Rojas, Olivia Sánchez, Jesús Aguirre
The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs) of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs) to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H2O2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424024/molecular-profiling-and-bioactive-potential-of-an-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-sulphureus-isolated-from-sida-acuta-a-medicinal-plant
#10
M Murali, C Mahendra, P Hema, N Rajashekar, A Nataraju, M S Sudarshana, K N Amruthesh
CONTEXT: Sida acuta Burm.f. (Malvaceae) extracts are reported to have applications against malaria, diuretic, antipyretic, nervous and urinary diseases. No fungal endophytes of S. acuta are reported. OBJECTIVE: Isolation, identification and evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and haemolytic potential of fungal endophytes from the ethnomedcinal plant S. acuta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sida acuta stem segments were placed on PDA medium to isolate endophytic fungi...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423094/complications-of-chronic-necrotizing-pulmonary-aspergillosis-review-of-published-case-reports
#11
Aleksandra Barac, Tatjana Adzic Vukicevic, Aleksandra Dudvarski Ilic, Salvatore Rubino, Vladimir Zugic, Goran Stevanovic
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), a form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), affects immunocompetent or mildly immunocompromised persons with underlying pulmonary disease. These conditions are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often require long-term antifungal treatment. The long-term prognosis for patients with CNPA and the potential complications of CNPA have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to review published papers that report cases of CNPA complications and to highlight risk factors for development of CNPA...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423062/filamentous-fungal-carbon-catabolite-repression-supports-metabolic-plasticity-and-stress-responses-essential-for-disease-progression
#12
Sarah R Beattie, Kenneth M K Mark, Arsa Thammahong, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sourabh Dhingra, Alayna K Caffrey-Carr, Chao Cheng, Candice C Black, Paul Bowyer, Michael J Bromley, Joshua J Obar, Gustavo H Goldman, Robert A Cramer
Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for a disproportionate number of invasive mycosis cases relative to other common filamentous fungi. While many fungal factors critical for infection establishment are known, genes essential for disease persistence and progression are ill defined. We propose that fungal factors that promote navigation of the rapidly changing nutrient and structural landscape characteristic of disease progression represent untapped clinically relevant therapeutic targets. To this end, we find that A...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423024/interrelationships-of-vel1-and-env1-in-light-response-and-development-in-trichoderma-reesei
#13
Hoda Bazafkan, Christoph Dattenböck, Eva Stappler, Sabrina Beier, Monika Schmoll
Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles), an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422413/essential-oils-as-biocides-for-the-control-of-fungal-infections-and-devastating-pest-tuta-absoluta-of-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-mill
#14
Samira Bouayad Alam, Mohammed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Boufeldja Tabti, Nassira Guaouar, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and A. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit...
April 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422292/high-theabrownins-instant-dark-tea-product-by-aspergillus-niger-via-submerged-fermentation-alpha-glucosidase-and-pancreatic-lipase-inhibition-and-antioxidant-activity
#15
Yuwan Wang, Mingyue Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Hengqian Lu, Xueling Gao, Pengxiang Yue
BACKGROUND: Theabrownins (TB) are bioactive components usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, where they are present in low concentrations. This study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content, namely inoculum size, liquid-solid ratio and rotation speed, were optimized using response surface methodology. RESULT: Optimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422127/differential-control-of-asexual-development-and-sterigmatocystin-biosynthesis-by-a-novel-regulator-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#16
Yong Jin Kim, Yu Yeong Man, Pil Jae Maeng
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia and produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxins. It has been known that asexual development and ST production are tightly co-regulated by various regulatory inputs. Here, we report that the novel regulator AslA with a C2H2 domain oppositely regulates development and ST biosynthesis. Nullifying aslA resulted in defective conidiation and reduced expression of brlA encoding a key activator of asexual development, which indicates that AslA functions as an upstream activator of brlA expression...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421637/a-new-approach-to-models-of-the-4-5-dihydroxycyclopentenone-core-of-the-kodaistatins-a-d-elucidation-of-the-diol-configuration-in-kodaistatin-a
#17
Reinhard Brückner, David Peter
The kodaistatins are natural products from Aspergillus terreus. Being strongly anti-diabetic they hold some promise of a novel diabetes cure. However, considerations of that kind face two drawbacks. (1) The kodaistatins contain a heavily substituted pulvinone/cyclopentenone combination. (2) The kodaistatins are 1,2-diols, whose 3D structure have not been assigned yet. However, we can exclude two of the four possible stereostructures. We conclude that kodaistatin A is a trans-, not a cis-diol, from NMR comparisons with a pair of cis,trans-isomeric kodaistatin models, which we synthesized in 11 and 12 steps, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421279/sporulation-how-to-survive-on-planet-earth-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull
Sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. The spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as Bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. In contrast, the spores of other microbes, such as fungi, are relatively poorly understood...
April 18, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420231/biological-control-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-us-crops-and-the-use-of-bioplastic-formulations-of-aspergillus-flavus-biocontrol-strains-to-optimize-application-strategies
#19
Hamed K Abbas, Cesare Accinelli, W Thomas Shier
Aflatoxin contamination has a major economic impact on crop production in southern USA. Reduction of aflatoxin contamination in harvested crops has been achieved by applying non-aflatoxigenic biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains that can out-compete wild aflatoxigenic A. flavus, reducing their numbers at the site of application. Currently, the standard method for applying biocontrol A. flavus strains to soil is using a nutrient-supplying carrier (e.g., pearled barley for Afla-Guard®). Granules of bioplastic (partially acetylated corn starch) have been investigated as an alternative nutritive carrier for biocontrol agents...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419821/expression-of-the-enzymatically-active-legumain-like-cysteine-proteinase-tvlegu-1-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-pichia-pastoris
#20
Gerardo Reséndiz-Cardiel, Rossana Arroyo, Jaime Ortega-López
The legumain-like cysteine proteinase TvLEGU-1 from Trichomonas vaginalis plays a major role in trichomonal cytoadherence. However, its structure-function characterization has been limited by the lack of a reliable recombinant expression platform to produce this protein in its native folded conformation. TvLEGU-1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies and all efforts to refold it have failed. Here, we describe the expression of the synthetic codon-optimized tvlegu-1 (tvlegu-1-opt) gene in Pichia pastoris strain X-33 (Mut+) under the inducible AOX1 promoter...
April 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
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