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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#1
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719051/the-binding-mechanism-between-azoles-and-fgcyp51b-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-of-fusarium-graminearum
#2
Hengwei Qian, Meilin Duan, Xiaomei Sun, Mengyu Chi, Ying Zhao, Wenxing Liang, Juan Du, Jinguang Huang, Baodu Li
BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a worldwide plant disease and one of the major wheat diseases in China. The control of the FHB is mainly dependent on the application of DMIs fungicides. Fungal sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes (CYP51) are the main target for DMIs fungicides. In order to investigate the binding mechanism between azoles and CYP51B in F.graminearum, the molecular modeling study and biological evaluation were performed. RESULTS: Firstly, the homology model based on the crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus was built...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717638/spatial-patterns-and-impacts-of-environmental-and-climatic-factors-on-canine-sinonasal-aspergillosis-in-northern-california
#3
Monise Magro, Jane Sykes, Polina Vishkautsan, Beatriz Martínez-López
Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed), environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716113/whole-metagenome-profiles-of-particulates-collected-from-the-international-space-station
#4
Nicholas A Be, Aram Avila-Herrera, Jonathan E Allen, Nitin Singh, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Crystal Jaing, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: The built environment of the International Space Station (ISS) is a highly specialized space in terms of both physical characteristics and habitation requirements. It is unique with respect to conditions of microgravity, exposure to space radiation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment. The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized...
July 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715485/characterization-of-the-maize-lipoxygenase-gene-family-in-relation-to-aflatoxin-accumulation-resistance
#5
Oluwaseun F Ogunola, Leigh K Hawkins, Erik Mylroie, Michael V Kolomiets, Eli Borrego, Juliet D Tang, W Paul Williams, Marilyn L Warburton
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin production by A. flavus. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of non-heme iron containing dioxygenase enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LOX derived oxylipins play critical roles in plant defense against pathogens including A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715279/crystal-structure-of-a-%C3%AE-fructofuranosidase-with-high-transfructosylation-activity-from-aspergillus-kawachii
#6
Mika Nagaya, Miyoko Kimura, Yoshifumi Gozu, Shona Sato, Katsuaki Hirano, Takumi Tochio, Atsushi Nishikawa, Takashi Tonozuka
β-Fructofuranosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 32 are enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose. Some GH32 enzymes also catalyze transfructosylation to produce fructooligosaccharides. We found that Aspergillus kawachii IFO 4308 β-fructofuranosidase (AkFFase) produces fructooligosaccharides, mainly 1-kestose, from sucrose. We determined the crystal structure of AkFFase. AkFFase is composed of an N-terminal small component, a β-propeller catalytic domain, an α-helical linker, and a C-terminal β-sandwich, similar to other GH32 enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713983/malformin%C3%A2-a1-treatment-alters-invasive-and-oncogenic-phenotypes-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-stimulation-of-the-p38-signaling-pathway
#7
Sun-Young Park, Hyung-Hoon Oh, Young-Lan Park, Hyung-Min Yu, Dae-Seong Myung, Sung-Bum Cho, Wan-Sik Lee, Daeho Park, Young-Eun Joo
Malformin A1 (MA1), a cyclic pentapeptide isolated from Aspergillus niger, has been found to possess a range of bioactive properties including antibacterial activity. However, it is unclear whether MA1 exerts an anticancer effect or not. In this study, we conducted in vitro experiments to investigate its anticancer properties in human colorectal cancer cells. The effect of MA1 on human colorectal cancer cells, SW480 and DKO1, was examined by the WST-1 cell viability assay, inverted microscopy, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, wound healing, Transwell assays, and western blotting...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712952/a-robust-high-throughput-fungal-biosensor-assay-for-the-detection-of-estrogen-activity
#8
Christoph Zutz, Karen Wagener, Desislava Yankova, Stefanie Eder, Erich Möstl, Marc Drillich, Kathrin Rychli, Martin Wagner, Joseph Strauss
Estrogenic active compounds are present in a variety of sources and may alter biological functions in vertebrates. Therefore, it is crucial to develop innovative analytical systems that allow us to screen a broad spectrum of matrices and deliver fast and reliable results. We present the adaptation and validation of a fungal biosensor for the detection of estrogen activity in cow derived samples and tested the clinical applicability for pregnancy diagnosis in 140 mares and 120 cows. As biosensor we used a previously engineered genetically modified strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which contains the human estrogen receptor alpha and a reporter construct, in which β-galactosidase gene expression is controlled by an estrogen-responsive-element...
July 13, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712819/clinical-characteristics-radiologic-findings-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-serum-galactomannan-negative-invasive-pulmonary%C3%A2-aspergillosis
#9
Jiwon Jung, Mi Young Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of galactomannan (GM) assay is suboptimal for detecting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in serum samples. However, the clinical characteristics, radiologic findings, and outcomes in patients with GM-negative IPA have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, adult patients with proven or probable IPA by the EORTC/MSG definition were retrospectively enrolled. Patients with negative GM results and positive Aspergillus spp...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711616/isolation-screening-and-characterization-of-a-novel-extracellular-xylanase-from-aspergillus-niger-kp874102-1-and-its-application-in-orange-peel-hydrolysis
#10
Uma Shankar Prasad Uday, Ria Majumdar, Onkar Nath Tiwari, Umesh Mishra, Abhijit Mondal, Tarun Kanti Bandyopadhyay, Biswanath Bhunia
In the present work, a potent xylanase producing fungal strain Aspergillus niger (KP874102.1) was isolated through cultural and morphological observations from soil sample of Baramura forest, Tripura west, India. 28S rDNA technique was applied for genomic identification of this fungal strain. The isolated strain was found to be phylogenetically closely related to Aspergillus niger. Kinetic constants such as Km and Vmax for extracellular xylanase were determined using various substrate such as beech wood xylan, oat spelt xylan and CM cellulose through Lineweaver-Burk plot...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711264/the-growth-and-aflatoxin-production-of-aspergillus-flavus-strains-on-a-cheese-model-system-are-influenced-by-physicochemical-factors
#11
Rocío Casquete, María José Benito, María de Guía Córdoba, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Alberto Martín
Traditional cheeses may be contaminated by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus during the ripening process, which has not been sufficiently taken into account. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of water activity (aw), pH, and temperature on the lag phases, growth, and aflatoxin production of 3 A. flavus strains (CQ7, CQ8, and CG103) on a cheese-based medium. The results showed that the behavior of A. flavus strains was influenced by pH, aw, and temperature conditions. The CQ7 strain showed the maximum growth at pH 5...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710960/bioremediation-potential-of-arsenic-by-non-enzymatically-biofabricated-silver-nanoparticles-adhered-to-the-mesoporous-carbonized-fungal-cell-surface-of-aspergillus-foetidus-mtcc8876
#12
Triparna Mukherjee, Shatarupa Chakraborty, Aksar Ali Biswas, Tapan Kumar Das
Our study aiming for the diminution of arsenic concentration in arsenic contaminated aqua environment by using novel adsorbents based on bio-fabricated silver nanoparticles on a fungal cell surface. Bioreduction of silver ion was done in a non-enzymatic manner in presence of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus foetidus MTCC8876. Aspergillus spp. cells were harvested following the bioreduction and made into carbon by carbonization that led to pore formation (pore width of 2.35 nm) on the cell surface. The average size of silver nanoparticles in the sample of SACF (silver nanoparticles adhered to mesoporous carbonized fungal cell) was 35 nm...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710860/coupling-the-pretreatment-and-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-by-the-expression-of-beta-xylosidases
#13
Lucía Martín Pérez, Laura Benítez Casanova, Antonio Javier Moreno Pérez, Dolores Pérez Gómez, Sandra Gavaldá Martín, Laura Ledesma-García, Noelia Valbuena, Bruno Díez García, Francisco Manuel Reyes-Sosa
Thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the areas contributing most to the operational costs of second generation ethanol in lignocellulosic biorefineries. The improvement of lignocellulosic enzyme cocktails has been significant in the recent years. Although the needs for the reduction of the energy intensity and chemical consumption in the pretreatment step are well known, the reduction of the severity of the process strongly affects the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. To explore the formulation requirements of the well known cellulolytic cocktail from Myceliophthora thermophila on mild pretreated raw materials, this cocktail was tested on steam exploded corn stover without acid impregnation...
July 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#14
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710635/steroid-11-alpha-hydroxylation-by-the-fungi-aspergillus-nidulans-and-aspergillus-ochraceus
#15
Lidia Ortega-de Los Ríos, José M Luengo, José M Fernández-Cañón
Steroids are a group of natural compounds derived from the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene nucleus that have a great interest for the pharmaceutical industries as a consequence of their physiological effects. Among their functions are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or contraceptive activities. Nowadays, microbial transformation of steroid precursors is winning relevance opposite to the chemical synthesis, since it allows for decreasing time, expenses, and environmental pollution. Pharmaceutical industry tends to use cholesterol and phytosterols as starting materials due to their low cost...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710634/obtaining-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-17-dione-from-natural-sterols
#16
Dmitry Dovbnya, Sergey Khomutov, Vyacheslav Kollerov, Marina V Donova
Two-step one-pot microbial transformation enables obtaining of valuable steroids that are difficult to produce chemically. Here we describe a method for obtaining 11α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (11α-HAD) from cheap and available natural sterols (phytosterols or cholesterol).11α-HAD is a primary adrenal steroid in mammals and also a key precursor in the syntheses of halogenated corticoids. Conventional routes for its obtaining are based on chemical synthesis, or microbial hydroxylation of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710560/pyrazinone-derivatives-from-the-coral-derived-aspergillus-ochraceus-lcj11-102-under-high-iodide-salt
#17
Xiaoping Peng, Yi Wang, Tonghan Zhu, Weiming Zhu
Five new pyrazin-2(1H)-one derivatives, ochramides A-D (1-4) and ochralate A (5), as well as three known analogues (6-8) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine coral-derived halotolerant Aspergillus ochraceus LCJ11-102 in a nutrient-limited medium containing 10% NaI. Their chemical structures were determined by analyzing NMR and X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed antimicrobial activities against Enterobacter aerogenes with the MIC values of 40.0, 18.9, and 20.1 μM, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708398/chrysogine-biosynthesis-is-mediated-by-a-two-module-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase
#18
Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Wagma Saei, Klaus Ringsborg Westphal, Carina Sloth Klitgaard, Kåre Lehmann Nielsen, Erik Lysøe, Donald Max Gardiner, Reinhard Wimmer, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Jens Laurids Sørensen
Production of chrysogine has been reported from several fungal genera including Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Anthranilic acid and pyruvic acid, which are expected precursors of chrysogine, enhance production of this compound. A possible route for the biosynthesis using these substrates is via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Through comparative analysis of the NRPSs from genome-sequenced producers of chrysogine we identified a candidate NRPS cluster comprising five additional genes named chry2-6...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708102/ability-of-soil-isolated-actinobacterial-strains-to-prevent-bind-and-biodegrade-ochratoxin-a
#19
Rachelle El Khoury, Florence Mathieu, Ali Atoui, Hiba Kawtharani, Anthony El Khoury, Charbel Afif, Richard G Maroun, André El Khoury
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins, and contaminates several agricultural products, particularly cereals, grapes, maize, barley, spices and coffee. The aim of this project was to reduce the levels of OTA by supplementing the artificially contaminated solutions with seven strains of actinobacteria (AT10, AT8, SN7, MS1, ML5, G10 and PT1) in order to evaluate their capacity for binding and metabolizing the OTA, as well as their ability to reduce the expression of the genes responsible for its production in A...
July 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706514/evaluation-of-the-bruker-biotyper-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-system-for-identification-of-aspergillus-species-directly-from-growth-on-solid-agar-media
#20
Ying Li, He Wang, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381) of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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