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Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

T Semple, A Calder, C M Owens, S Padley
"Large airways disease" is a catch-all phrase encompassing a wide variety of pathology affecting the trachea, main, lobar, segmental, and proximal sub-segmental bronchi. Relevant pathologies can be divided into focal or diffuse processes and many conditions have classic appearances on computed tomography (CT). We provide a review of the imaging specifics of a wide range of large airway pathologies in adult, childhood, and fetal life with examples of common and rare pathologies ranging from well-known entities such as cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to rarities such as Williams-Campbell, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS)...
May 2017: Clinical Radiology
Liisa Lilja-Maula, Anu K Lappalainen, Heli K Hyytiäinen, Erja Kuusela, Mirja Kaimio, Kirsti Schildt, Sari Mölsä, Mikael Morelius, Minna M Rajamäki
Canine brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a complex respiratory disease related to congenitally flattened facial and skull anatomy. BOAS causes respiratory distress, heat and exercise intolerance, and gastrointestinal signs. English bulldogs (EB) have a high prevalence of BOAS. Currently, the severity of BOAS signs in veterinary practice is assessed subjectively. To reduce BOAS in brachycephalic breeds, an objective and easy-to-use tool could help breeders select healthier animals. Exercise tests, such as the 6 min walk test (distance walked measured) or the 1000 m walk test (duration measured), could be used to assess the severity of BOAS, as exercise intolerance and impaired recovery are key features of BOAS...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
Yu Kakimoto, Yoshihisa Seto, Eriko Ochiai, Fumiko Satoh, Motoki Osawa
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. Premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome are risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection. Conversely, many previously healthy, full-term children are also admitted to the hospital because of RSV, and some of them experience severe sequelae or die due to the virus. Various complications of RSV infection have been reported, such as encephalopathy, encephalitis, and cardiomyopathy...
December 2016: Pediatrics
Manasi Gosavi, Lalit Kumar, Ashwini Ratnakar, Hema Bannur
INTRODUCTION: Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare anomaly where a partial or complete obstruction of upper airway is seen. As a consequence, the foetus develops enlarged lungs, inverted or flattened diaphragm and ascites. The pathological findings in a case of CHAOS is presented. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old primigravida presented with a history of 5 months of amenorrhoea. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged echogenic lungs, cardiac mid-position, inverted diaphragm, foetal ascites and talipes of left foot...
February 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Mehmet Emin Adin
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare and potentially fatal entity resulting from complete or near complete developmental airway obstruction. Although most reported cases of CHAOS are sporadic, the condition may also be associated with certain syndromes and a variety of cervical masses. Meningocele and myelomeningocele have not yet been reported in association with CHAOS. We describe the typical constellation of sonographic findings in a case of early diagnosis of CHAOS associated with cervical myelomeningocele...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Kanika Gupta, Bhuvaneswari Venkatesan, Kiruba Shankar Manoharan, Vaithianathan Rajalakshmi, Maya Menon
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare fetal anomaly with characteristic constellation of prenatal findings on ultrasound and MRI. The typical triad of imaging features are enlarged and echogenic lungs, flattening or inversion of diaphragm and fetal hydrops. Early prenatal recognition of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ultrasound and/or MRI is mandatory for the appropriate perinatal management. We report a case of a male fetus with typical imaging findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome on ultrasound and MRI at 19 weeks of gestation...
August 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
N A Altynnik, M Medvedev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
G Jansen, B Schmidt, F Mertzlufft, T Boesing, M Barthel
Tracheal agenesis (TA) is a very rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology. It is often associated with polymalformative syndromes; the neonates commonly present a critical condition during post-natal treatment. Pathology revolves around the triad of aphonia, respiratory distress syndrome and impossibility of endotracheal intubation. In contrast to the most important differential diagnosis, i. e., congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS), surgical airway management is also impossible due to the absence of tracheal structures...
October 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Cem Yasar Sanhal, Serap Toru, Murat Ozekıncı, Inanc Mendılcıoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Christelle Joffre, Fabrice Lesage, Olivier Bustarret, Philippe Hubert, Mehdi Oualha
AIM: To investigate clinical course and mortality-associated factors in children with Down syndrome (DS) managed in a medical paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: A single-centre, retrospective study conducted between 2001 and 2010 in DS children aged 1 month to 16 years. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with a median age of 24 months (1-192) and a male/female ratio of 1.5 were analysed. Patients presented with history of congenital heart disease (n = 52, 78...
June 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Aman Gupta, Chandrajeet Yadav, Sandeep Dhruw, Divyangi Mishra, Abhijeet Taori
INTRODUCTION: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare, usually lethal abnormality characterized by complete or near-complete intrinsic obstruction of the fetal airway. Laryngeal atresia is the most frequent cause, but other etiologies include laryngeal or tracheal webs, laryngeal cyst, subglottic stenosis or atresia, tracheal atresia and laryngeal or tracheal agenesis. When antenatal diagnosis of possible upper airway obstruction is made, specific type of obstruction is rarely determined making the term CHAOS introduced by Hedrick et al in 1994 more appropriate...
June 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Montida Veeravigrom, Tayard Desudchit
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Thai children who underwent polysomnography at a single institution. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of pediatric polysomnographic studies was performed from January 2011 through December 2014. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-six studies were conducted; 142, 7, and 17 were diagnostic, split-night, and positive airway pressure (PAP) titration studies, respectively. In total, 136 diagnostic/split-night studies were performed to diagnose sleep disorders with presentation of snoring (92...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Rajaram Sharma, Amit Kumar Dey, Shah Alam, Kartik Mittal, Hemangini Thakkar
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a very rare entity with very poor prognosis in which upper airway is intrinsically obstructed, the most common reason being laryngeal atresia. In summary prenatal early diagnosis of patients with CHAOS is necessary so that perinatal management can be undertaken successfully or elective termination of pregnancy can be undertaken. The fetoscopic approach may be a life saving modality in a subset of CHAOS patients. Involving a multidisciplinary team comprising of paediatricians, radiologists, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists increases the efficiency of management...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan, Sheela Nampoothiri
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) causes secondary morphological changes which can be detected on ultrasound. Here we report a case of congenital high airway obstruction with an occipital encephalocele detected at 23 weeks of gestation.
January 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Elizabeth G Mansfield, Vaughn K Greene, Debra T Auguste
UNLABELLED: Tracheal damage, abnormality or absence can result from the growth of tumors or from Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome. No optimal or routine treatment has been established for tracheal repair, despite numerous attempts with natural and artificial prostheses. The fetal trachea is comprised of cartilaginous rings connected by an elastomeric tissue. In an effort to design an engineered trachea replacement, we have synthesized 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydrogels with moduli of 67 ± 3...
March 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Nataliya Tkachenko, Kanwaljit Singh, Nicolas Abreu, Anne Marie Morse, Christy Day, Kathyrn Fitzgerald, Mikhail Kazachkov, Sanjeev Kothare
BACKGROUND: Children with medical complexity have a high prevalence of sleep disorders. However, outpatient polysomnography to evaluate for these conditions may be difficult to perform because of lack of skilled nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore polysomnography indications in hospitalized children and assess its impact on patient care. METHODS: Data from 85 inpatient polysomnographies of 70 children hospitalized between March and December 2014 were retrospectively collected...
April 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Anas Taqatqa, Karim A Diab, Christopher Stuart, Louis Fogg, Michel Ilbawi, Sawsan Awad, Massimo Caputo, Zahid Amin, Ra-Id Abdulla, Damien Kenny, Ziyad M Hijazi
The hybrid approach to management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) was developed as an alternative to neonatal Norwood surgery, providing a less invasive initial palliation for HLHS. We describe our experience in extending the concept of the hybrid procedure to palliate neonates with anatomically compromised systemic arterial blood flow in a variety of congenital cardiac anomalies and supporting its application as first-line palliation in centers developing their HLHS programs. Retrospective review of patients undergoing therapy for HLHS at a single institution from June 2008 to December 2014 was performed...
March 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
M M C Yaneza, A Cameron, W A Clement, R Fairgrieve, M A Ledingham, M S Morrissey, J Simpson, D M Wynne, H Kubba
BACKGROUND: Congenital airway obstruction is rare but potentially fatal. We developed a complex airways interventional delivery team to manage such cases. Antenatal imaging detects airway compromise at an early stage and facilitates the planning of delivery procedures ('ex utero intrapartum treatment' and 'operation on placental support') which maintain feto-placental circulation whilst an airway is secured. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed of cases in which ENT input was required at birth for airway obstruction...
August 2015: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
D García-Urabayen, Y M López-Fernández, J Pilar-Orive, M Nieto-Faza, J Gil-Antón, J López-Bayón, S Redondo-Blázquez
INTRODUCTION: Tracheotomy in pediatric patients is a rare procedure. In this pediatric series, perioperative complications, mortality related to surgical procedure and overall mortality are analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were retrieved from patients who were tracheotomized and admitted to our PICU in the postoperative period. RESULTS: Data were collected from 25 tracheotomized patients admitted during the study period...
January 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Charline Bertholdt, Estelle Perdriolle-Galet, Pascale Bach-Segura, Olivier Morel
Tracheal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. The prevalence is less than 1 : 50 000 with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. This anomaly may be isolated but, in 93% of cases, it is part of polymalformative syndrome. The most evocative diagnosis situation is the ultrasonographic congenital high airway obstruction syndrome. Dilated airways, enlarged lungs with flattened diaphragm, fetal ascites and severe nonimmune hydrops can be observed. In the absence of a congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, the antenatal diagnosis of tracheal agenesis is difficult...
2015: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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