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Childhood Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727523/from-lead-exposure-in-early-childhood-to-adolescent-health-a-chicago-birth-cohort
#1
Alix S Winter, Robert J Sampson
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. METHODS: We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#2
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726821/the-whole-genome-landscape-of-medulloblastoma-subtypes
#3
Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, A Sorana Morrissy, Volker Hovestadt, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Ehrenberger, Susanne Gröbner, Maia Segura-Wang, Thomas Zichner, Vasilisa A Rudneva, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Nikos Sidiropoulos, Aaron H Phillips, Steven Schumacher, Kortine Kleinheinz, Sebastian M Waszak, Serap Erkek, David T W Jones, Barbara C Worst, Marcel Kool, Marc Zapatka, Natalie Jäger, Lukas Chavez, Barbara Hutter, Matthias Bieg, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Michael Heinold, Zuguang Gu, Naveed Ishaque, Christina Jäger-Schmidt, Charles D Imbusch, Alke Jugold, Daniel Hübschmann, Thomas Risch, Vyacheslav Amstislavskiy, Francisco German Rodriguez Gonzalez, Ursula D Weber, Stephan Wolf, Giles W Robinson, Xin Zhou, Gang Wu, David Finkelstein, Yanling Liu, Florence M G Cavalli, Betty Luu, Vijay Ramaswamy, Xiaochong Wu, Jan Koster, Marina Ryzhova, Yoon-Jae Cho, Scott L Pomeroy, Christel Herold-Mende, Martin Schuhmann, Martin Ebinger, Linda M Liau, Jaume Mora, Roger E McLendon, Nada Jabado, Toshihiro Kumabe, Eric Chuah, Yussanne Ma, Richard A Moore, Andrew J Mungall, Karen L Mungall, Nina Thiessen, Kane Tse, Tina Wong, Steven J M Jones, Olaf Witt, Till Milde, Andreas Von Deimling, David Capper, Andrey Korshunov, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Richard Kriwacki, Amar Gajjar, Jinghui Zhang, Rameen Beroukhim, Ernest Fraenkel, Jan O Korbel, Benedikt Brors, Matthias Schlesner, Roland Eils, Marco A Marra, Stefan M Pfister, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter
Current therapies for medulloblastoma, a highly malignant childhood brain tumour, impose debilitating effects on the developing child, and highlight the need for molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicity. Previous studies have been unable to identify the full spectrum of driver genes and molecular processes that operate in medulloblastoma subgroups. Here we analyse the somatic landscape across 491 sequenced medulloblastoma samples and the molecular heterogeneity among 1,256 epigenetically analysed cases, and identify subgroup-specific driver alterations that include previously undiscovered actionable targets...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726805/prepl-deficiency-delineation-of-the-phenotype-and-development-of-a-functional-blood-assay
#4
Luc Régal, Emma Mårtensson, Isabelle Maystadt, Nicol Voermans, Damien Lederer, Alberto Burlina, María Jesús Juan Fita, A Jeannette M Hoogeboom, Mia Olsson Engman, Tess Hollemans, Meyke Schouten, Sandra Meulemans, Tord Jonson, Inge François, David Gil Ortega, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, John W M Creemers
PurposePREPL deficiency causes neonatal hypotonia, ptosis, neonatal feeding difficulties, childhood obesity, xerostomia, and growth hormone deficiency. Different recessive contiguous gene deletion syndromes involving PREPL and a variable combination of SLC3A1 (hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), CAMKMT (atypical hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), and PPM1B (2p21 deletion syndrome) have been described. In isolated PREPL deficiency, previously described only once, the absence of cystinuria complicates the diagnosis...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726470/child-sun-safety-application-of-an-integrated-behavior-change-model
#5
Kyra Hamilton, Aaron Kirkpatrick, Amanda Rebar, Martin S Hagger
OBJECTIVE: Childhood sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer in later life. Parents of young children play an important role in minimizing childhood sun exposure. The aim of the current study was to identify the motivational, volitional, and implicit antecedents of parents' sun-protective behaviors based on an Integrated Behavior Change model. METHOD: Parents (N = 373) of 2- to 5-year-old children self-reported their intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, autonomous and controlled motivation, action plans, habit, and past behaviors with respect to sun-protective behaviors for their children...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726455/a-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-parents-employment-and-children-s-obesity
#6
Robert Crosnoe, Rachel Dunifon
Despite public concerns about the negative implications of the increased labor force participation of mothers for child development, decades of research have revealed few risks and some benefits. One potential risk-a consistently observed association between maternal employment and childhood obesity-offers a window into how some dimensions of family health may be undermined by work in an economic and policy context that is not family friendly. The purpose of this article is to identify ways that a developmental perspective can enrich the literature on how children's weight may be related to the work experiences of both mothers and fathers across diverse populations, a literature that heretofore has been dominated by economic and demographic perspectives, focused almost solely on women, and largely ignored racial/ethnic variation...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726285/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-executive-function-in-down-syndrome-from-2-to-35%C3%A2-years
#7
S J Loveall, F A Conners, A S Tungate, L J Hahn, T D Osso
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated a unique profile of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). However, there is a paucity of research on EF in adults with DS. This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of strengths and weaknesses in EF in DS from 2 to 35 years. METHOD: Parents of 112 individuals with DS between 2 and 35 years participated in this study. Parents either completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - for individuals 6+ years - or the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version - for children 2-5 years...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726266/survival-among-children-with-lethal-congenital-contracture-syndrome-11-caused-by-novel-mutations-in-the-gliomedin-gene-gldn
#8
Jennifer A Wambach, Georg M Stettner, Tobias B Haack, Karin Writzl, Andreja Škofljanec, Aleš Maver, Francina Munell, Stephan Ossowski, Mattia Bosio, Daniel J Wegner, Marwan Shinawi, Dustin Baldridge, Bader Alhaddad, Tim M Strom, Dorothy K Grange, Ekkehard Wilichowski, Robin Troxell, James Collins, Barbara B Warner, Robert E Schmidt, Alan Pestronk, F Sessions Cole, Robert Steinfeld
Biallelic GLDN mutations have recently been identified among infants with lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11 (LCCS11). GLDN encodes gliomedin, a protein required for the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and development of the human peripheral nervous system. We report 6 infants and children from 4 unrelated families with biallelic GLDN mutations, 4 of whom survived beyond the neonatal period into infancy, childhood, and late adolescence with intensive care and chronic respiratory and nutritional support...
July 20, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725136/sex-specific-effect-of-recalled-parenting-on-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-in-adulthood
#9
Minna T Lyons, Gayle Brewer, Emily J Bethell
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980)...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724840/exposure-to-parental-smoking-in-childhood-is-associated-with-high-c-reactive-protein-in-adulthood-the-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-finns-study
#10
Di Wang, Markus Juonala, Jorma S A Viikari, Feitong Wu, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Costan G Magnussen
AIM: Children exposed to parental smoking are at increased long-term risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. However, it has not been quantified if exposure to parental smoking in childhood is associated with adult systemic inflammation. This study aimed to determine if childhood exposure to parental smoking was associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adulthood. METHODS: This longitudinal analysis of 2,511 participants used data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, a prospective cohort of Finnish children...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724747/interleukin-1-receptor-in-seizure-susceptibility-after-traumatic-injury-to-the-pediatric-brain
#11
Bridgette D Semple, Terence J O'Brien, Kayleen Gimlin, David K Wright, Shi Eun Kim, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kyria M Webster, Steven Petrou, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724697/facts-and-values-on-the-acceptability-of-risks-in-children-s-sport-using-the-example-of-rugby-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth Lincoln Quarrie, John H M Brooks, Nicholas Burger, Patria A Hume, Steve Jackson
A clash of values has been identified between those who assert that:1. all childhood injuries, regardless of origin, are inherently undesirable and should be prevented and;2. those who believe that some measure of injury to children is an acceptable compromise for the physical benefits associated with physical activity and the development of abilities to appraise and deal with risks.A debate regarding whether the tackles and collisions permitted in schools' rugby represent acceptable risks, and what steps should be taken if they do not, exemplifies the issue...
August 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724431/biological-embedding-of-childhood-adversity-from-physiological-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Anne E Berens, Sarah K G Jensen, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes "biologically embedded" in altered physiology across body systems...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724299/spirituality-in-adolescent-patients
#14
Meaghann S Weaver, Dale Wratchford
Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years...
July 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723818/somatotype-and-body-composition-in-young-soccer-players-according-to-the-playing-position-and-sport-success
#15
Víctor Cárdenas-Fernández, José Luis Chinchilla-Minguet, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
Soccer players undergo an evolution in their body composition throughout the growth and passage through the different base stages, that is, childhood, puberty and adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and body composition of U14, U16, and U19 soccer players, taking into account in addition, their sport success endorsed through the regularity participation and their relation with the different playing positions occupied during competition (goalkeeper, external defender, central defender, midfielder and forward/extreme)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#16
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722310/capitalizing-on-scientific-advances-to-improve-access-to-and-quality-of-children-s-mental-health-care
#17
Ann F Garland, Florencia Lebensohn-Chialvo, Kristopher G Hall, Erika R N Cameron
The majority of mental health problems begin in childhood or adolescence. The potential benefits of early identification and treatment of such problems are well established, and models of effective mental health interventions for children have proliferated in recent decades. However, barriers in access to care and challenges in assuring delivery of high-quality care significantly limit the public health impact of services for children and families. Specifically, the majority of children who need mental health care do not receive it, and when children are in care, many do not receive interventions that are most likely to have the greatest positive impact...
July 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722116/opioids-for-cancer-related-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Tess E Cooper, Anna-Karenia Anderson, Andrew L Gray, Marie-Claude Grégoire, Gustaf Ljungman, Boris Zernikow
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. Views on children's pain have changed over time and relief of pain is now seen as important. In the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, and it was assumed that children quickly forgot about painful experiences...
July 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722079/physicians-experience-with-follow-up-care-of-childhood-cancer-survivors-challenges-and-needs
#19
Gisela Michel, Micol Eva Gianinazzi, Janine Vetsch, Luzius Mader, Judith E Lupatsch, Nicolas X von der Weid, Corina Silvia Rueegg
BACKGROUND: Regular follow-up care is essential for childhood cancer survivors, but we know little about physicians' experience with it. We aimed to describe: (1) involvement of Swiss physicians in follow-up care; (2) content of follow-up care provided; (3) problems encountered; and (4) additional resources needed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within this cross-sectional survey we sent adapted questionnaires via professional associations to a sample of medical oncologists (MOs), paediatric oncologists (POs), general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians (P) in Switzerland...
July 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720782/dysregulated-mirnas-and-their-pathogenic-implications-for-the-neurometabolic-disease-propionic-acidemia
#20
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Alejandro Fulgencio-Covián, Celia Pérez-Cerdá, Ricardo Ramos, Michael A Barry, Magdalena Ugarte, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
miRNome expression profiling was performed in a mouse model of propionic acidemia (PA) and in patients' plasma samples to investigate the role of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of the disease and to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PA is a potentially lethal neurometabolic disease with patients developing neurological deficits and cardiomyopathy in the long-term, among other complications. In the PA mouse liver we identified 14 significantly dysregulated miRNAs. Three selected miRNAs, miR-34a-5p, miR-338-3p and miR-350, were found upregulated in brain and heart tissues...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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