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Childhood Development

Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L Loh, Silvia T Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E Broxmeyer, David T Scadden, Cheng-Kui Qu
Germline activating mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), a positive regulator of the RAS signalling pathway, are found in 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome. These patients have an increased risk of developing leukaemia, especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a childhood myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in Ptpn11 induce a JMML-like MPN through cell-autonomous mechanisms that are dependent on Shp2 catalytic activity...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
October 25, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Lisa Schuster, Krzysztof Kubacki, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms...
October 26, 2016: Health Marketing Quarterly
Giovanni A Salum, Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley, Argyris Stringaris, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Luis A Rohde, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Gisele G Manfro, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
BACKGROUND: Irritability, a frequent complaint in children with psychiatric disorders, reflects increased predisposition to anger. Preliminary work in pediatric clinical samples links irritability to attention bias to threat, and the current study examines this association in a large population-based sample. METHODS: We studied 1,872 children (ages 6-14) using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and dot-probe tasks...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
N L Weaver, T L Weaver, S E Nicks, K A Jupka, H Sallee, H Jacobsen, W Henley, M Jaques
BACKGROUND: Health care providers fill a central role in the prevention of both child abuse and neglect (CA/N) and unintentional childhood injury. Health communication interventions hold promise for promoting attitudes and behaviours among parents that increase positive parenting practices, which may be linked to decreased rates of intentional and unintentional childhood injuries. This manuscript describes the development of 'RISE Up', an ambulatory clinic-based childhood injury prevention programme that provides tailored, injury prevention print materials to parents of children ages 0-5...
October 25, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
William D Fraser, Gabriel D Shapiro, François Audibert, Lise Dubois, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Pierre Julien, Anick Bérard, Gina Muckle, Jacquetta Trasler, Richard E Tremblay, Haim Abenhaim, Michel Welt, Marie-Josée Bédard, François Bissonnette, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Jacques L Michaud, Isabelle Girard, Jean-Marie Moutquin, Isabelle Marc, Patricia Monnier, Jean R Séguin, Zhong-Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: The 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover) was established to help bridge knowledge gaps about the links between various adverse exposures during pregnancy with birth outcomes and later health outcomes in children. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were recruited during the first trimester from nine sites in Quebec and followed along with their children through to 2 years of age. Questionnaires were administered during pregnancy and post-delivery to collect information on demographics, mental health and life style, medical history, psychosocial measures, diet, infant growth, and neurodevelopment...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jennifer L Richards, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Jessica M Sales, William Dana Flanders, Michael R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Preterm children face higher risk of cognitive and academic deficits compared with their full-term peers. The objective of this study was to describe early childhood cognitive ability and kindergarten academic achievement across gestational age at birth in a population-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The study population included singletons born at 24-42 weeks gestation enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6150 for 2-year outcome, n = 4450 for kindergarten outcome)...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Yoko Miyoshi, Kie Yasuda, Makiko Tachibana, Hisao Yoshida, Emiko Miyashita, Takako Miyamura, Yoshiko Hashii, Kae Hashimoto, Tadashi Kimura, Keiichi Ozono
Gonadal dysfunction and infertility are major endocrinological late effects among childhood cancer survivors. Chemotherapy and radiation have gonadotoxic effects and diminish the ovarian reserve. The serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve in survivors. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the variations of AMH in evaluating the acute and chronic effects of cancer therapy on the ovary. Three young female patients with different hematological diseases were registered, and their medical records were reviewed...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Cristina Paules, Victoria Pueyo, Elena Martí, Susana Vilchez, Irina Burd, Pilar Calvo, Daniel Oros
BACKGROUND: Threatened preterm labor is a leading cause of hospital admission during pregnancy. Patients presenting with an episode of threatened preterm labor who deliver at term are considered to have false preterm labor. However, threatened preterm labor has been proposed as a pathological insult that is not always sufficient to induce irreversible spontaneous preterm birth but that could alter the normal course of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate threatened preterm labor during pregnancy as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental deficits of children at 2 years of age...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yoshimichi Hirayama, Yoshiaki Saito, Yoshihiro Maegaki
BACKGROUND: Development of infection-associated acute encephalopathy (AE) is precipitated by several factors, including viral agents, age, and genetic polymorphisms. In addition, children with prior underlying neurological disorders can also present with AE. METHOD: We reviewed 55 children with AE who were referred to hospitals participating in the Status Epilepticus Study Group from 1988 to 2013. AE was classified into eight subtypes: acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD); hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HH); acute necrotizing encephalopathy; hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES); clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion; acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures; Reye-like syndrome; and unclassified...
October 22, 2016: Brain & Development
Valentina Gallo, F Nicole Dijk, John W Holloway, Susan M Ring, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje S Postma, David P Strachan, Raquel Granell, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herman T den Dekker, Liesbeth Duijts, A John Henderson, Seif O Shaheen
BACKGROUND: Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. METHODS: We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Katharina Wimmer, Thorsten Rosenbaum, Ludwine Messiaen
Constitutional mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer susceptibility syndrome resulting from biallelic germline loss-of-function mutations in one of the MMR genes. Individuals with CMMRD have a high risk to develop a broad spectrum of malignancies and frequently display features reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Evaluation of the clinical findings of genetically proven CMMRD patients shows that not only multiple café-au-lait macules but any of the diagnostic features of NF1 may be present in a CMMRD patient...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Anne Julie Overgaard, Simranjeet Kaur, Flemming Pociot
Metabolomics is the snapshot of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological materials and has potential in reflecting genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The progression to seroconversion to development of type 1 diabetes has been studied using this technique, although in relatively small cohorts and at limited time points. Overall, three observations have been consistently reported; phospholipids at birth are lower in children developing type 1 diabetes early in childhood, methionine levels are lower in children at seroconversion, and triglycerides are increased at seroconversion and associated to microbiome diversity, indicating an association between the metabolome and microbiome in type 1 diabetes progression...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Andrew A M Morris, Viktor Kožich, Saikat Santra, Generoso Andria, Tawfeg I M Ben-Omran, Anupam B Chakrapani, Ellen Crushell, Mick J Henderson, Michel Hochuli, Martina Huemer, Miriam C H Janssen, Francois Maillot, Philip D Mayne, Jenny McNulty, Tara M Morrison, Helene Ogier, Siobhan O'Sullivan, Markéta Pavlíková, Isabel Tavares de Almeida, Allyson Terry, Sufin Yap, Henk J Blom, Kimberly A Chapman
Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder in the methionine catabolic pathway, in which the impaired synthesis of cystathionine leads to accumulation of homocysteine. Patients can present to many different specialists and diagnosis is often delayed. Severely affected patients usually present in childhood with ectopia lentis, learning difficulties and skeletal abnormalities. These patients generally require treatment with a low-methionine diet and/or betaine. In contrast, mildly affected patients are likely to present as adults with thromboembolism and to respond to treatment with pyridoxine...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Roger Figueroa, Angela Wiley
Childhood obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and physical inactivity is a major contributor. Factors related to physical activity promotion in the family child care context are understudied. A convenience sample of participants in a mid-sized city in the Midwestern U.S. was recruited through the local child care resource and referral agency and were invited through flyers and emails to take part in an online or paper survey. Survey results in a sample of 107 family child care providers indicate that many did not meet physical activity recommendations and are missing the opportunity to enable children's physical activity via important practices and resources...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jun Mori, Daisuke Kaneda, Atsushi Fujiki, Kenichi Isoda, Tomoya Kotani, Yo Ushijima
Swyer-James syndrome is a rare syndrome that occurs as a result of repeated bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in childhood. Most cases are asymptomatic, and subsequent diagnosis may not occur until adulthood. We present the case of a 7-year-old female with Swyer-James syndrome, which was initially diagnosed and treated as asthma. The patient developed respiratory distress and atelectasis which were treated with biphasic cuirass ventilation. This case suggests that Swyer-James syndrome should be a concern in patients with chronic cough and wheezing, and highlights the importance of taking a careful history and appropriate radiological investigations for diagnosis...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Reports
Ramin Heshmat, Gita Shafiee, Mostafa Qorbani, Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Zeinab Ahadi, Omid Safari, Saeid Safiri, Roya Kelishadi
Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
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