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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166407/executive-function-assessment-in-new-zealand-2-year-olds-born-at-risk-of-neonatal-hypoglycemia
#1
Judith M Ansell, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
A growing number of babies are born with perinatal risk factors that may impair later development. These children are often assessed at 2 years to help predict outcome and direct support services. Executive function is an important predictor of academic achievement and behavior, but there are limited assessments of executive function in 2-year-olds and few have been tested in at-risk populations. Therefore, we developed a battery of four age-appropriate tasks to assess executive function in 2-year-olds. At 24 months' corrected age 368 children completed tasks assessing attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165764/current-views-of-depressive-disorders-in-children-a-review
#2
D-L Zhang, X-M Liu, J-Q Zhao
Depression is one of the most debilitating worldwide mental illnesses, which is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The main risk factors for the development of depression are female gender, early life stress family history of mood disorders, former anxiety disorders, substance abuse and life events. The present review article is focused on the various causative factors like childhood early life stress, cortisol or cortisol awakening response. The review would update readers with regards to the current view of factors responsible for pediatric depression, which in turn helps to plan better therapeutic approaches in the near future...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165762/recent-perspectives-of-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#3
D-L Zhang, S-Z Chen, X-M Liu
The assorted circumstances characterized by malfunctioning in cognition, communication or motor skills lead to abnormal development of the central nervous system (CNS) in young infants. These conditions are collectively termed as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and are usually diagnosed during childhood or infancy. NDDs occur as frequent as 1-3% in the general population and their diagnostic yield is approximately 15-25% with existing available techniques. So, the majority of affected patients are still undiagnosed due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity despite the discovery of 450 genes associated with NDDs...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165754/current-views-of-pediatric-asthma
#4
C-X Qu, Z-K Zhang
Childhood asthma is influenced by multiple factors including genetic, socioeconomic, socio demographic and environmental factors. The symptoms of childhood asthma are observed to be variable. Some studies reported that asthma prevalence is disproportionately high among socially disadvantaged children. On the other hand, some reports found weak or no association between social disadvantage and childhood asthma. Recent literature showed that growth of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in the management of childhood asthma...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165710/risk-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-among-69-460-five-year-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-in-europe
#5
Chloe J Bright, Mike M Hawkins, David L Winter, Daniela Alessi, Rodrigue S Allodji, Francesca Bagnasco, Edit Bárdi, Andrea Bautz, Julianne Byrne, Elizabeth A M Feijen, Miranda M Fidler, Stanislaw Garwicz, Desiree Grabow, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Joyeeta Guha, Nadia Haddy, Momcilo Jankovic, Peter Kaatsch, Melanie Kaiser, Claudia E Kuehni, Helena Linge, Hilde Øfstaas, Cecile M Ronckers, Roderick Skinner, Jop C Teepen, Monica Terenziani, Giao Vu-Bezin, Finn Wesenberg, Thomas Wiebe, Carlotta Sacerdote, Zsuzsanna Jakab, Riccardo Haupt, Päivi Lähteenmäki, Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Rahel Kuonen, Jeanette F Winther, Florent de Vathaire, Leontien C Kremer, Lars Hjorth, Raoul C Reulen
Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent primary soft-tissue sarcomas (STS), but the risks of specific STS histological subtypes are unknown. We quantified the risk of STS histological subtypes after specific types of childhood cancer. Methods: We pooled data from 13 European cohorts, yielding a cohort of 69 460 five-year survivors of childhood cancer. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 301 STS developed compared with 19 expected (SIR = 15...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165614/long-term-health-in-recipients-of-transplanted-in-vitro-propagated-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#6
Callista L Mulder, Lisa A E Catsburg, Yi Zheng, Cindy M de Winter-Korver, Saskia K M van Daalen, Madelon van Wely, Steven Pals, Sjoerd Repping, Ans M M van Pelt
STUDY QUESTION: Is testicular transplantation of in vitro propagated spermatogonial stem cells associated with increased cancer incidence and decreased survival rates in recipient mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cancer incidence was not increased and long-term survival rate was not altered after transplantation of in vitro propagated murine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in busulfan-treated recipients as compared to non-transplanted busulfan-treated controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Spermatogonial stem cell autotransplantation (SSCT) is a promising experimental reproductive technique currently under development to restore fertility in male childhood cancer survivors...
November 18, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165082/easy-screening-for-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-elderly-speech
#7
Shohei Kato, Akira Homma, Takuto Sakuma
OBJECTIVE: This study presents a novel approach for early detection of cognitive impairment in the elderly. The approach incorporates the use of speech sound analysis, multivariate statistics, and data-mining techniques. We have developed a speech prosody-based cognitive impairment rating (SPCIR) that can distinguish between cognitively normal controls and elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using prosodic signals extracted from elderly speech while administering a questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164967/increased-serum-midkine-levels-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-patients
#8
Erman Esnafoglu, Selma Cırrık
BACKGROUND: Midkine (MK) is a heparin binding growth factor and is involved in neurogenesis, neural development and neuroprotection. Additionally MK may contribute to cancer development and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenia. Considering these effects of midkine, this study researched whether MK is involved in Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) pathogenesis. METHODS: We evaluated serum MK levels of 38 patients with ASD and 32 healthy control group...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164673/reviewing-and-addressing-the-link-between-mass-media-and-the-increase-in%C3%A2-obesity-among-european-children-the-european-academy-of-paediatrics-eap-and-the-european-childhood-obesity-group-ecog-consensus-statement
#9
Artur Mazur, Margherita Caroli, Igor Radziewicz-Winnicki, Paulina Nowicka, Daniel Weghuber, David Neubauer, Łukasz Dembiński, Francis P Crawley, Martin White, Adamos Hadjipanayis
This study reviewed the link between social media and the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in Europe. A task force from the European Academy of Paediatrics and the European Childhood Obesity Group searched published literature and developed a consensus statement. It found that there was evidence of a strong link between obesity levels across European countries and childhood media exposure and that parents and society needed a better understanding of the influence of social media on dietary habits. CONCLUSION: Health policies in Europe must take account of the range of social media influences that promote the development of childhood obesity...
November 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163999/childhood-lupus-nephritis-12-years-of-experience-from-a-developing-country-s-perspective
#10
Moumita Samanta, Madhumita Nandi, Rakesh Mondal, Avijit Hazra, Sumatra Sarkar, Tapas Sabui, Chanchal Kumar Kundu, Arnab Biswas
Objective: To assess the long-term outcome of lupus nephritis in children with systemic lupus erythematosus followed up over 12 years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of the clinicopathological presentation, management, and outcome in 46 children with lupus nephritis over a period of 12 years at a tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern India. Mortality was compared between different lupus classes and therapy groups with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163857/italian-translation-and-cross-cultural-comparison-with-the-childhood-attachment-and-relational-trauma-screen-carts
#11
A Simonelli, C Sacchi, L Cantoni, M Brown, P Frewen
Background: The Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) is a computer-administered survey designed to assess retrospectively the socio-ecological context in which instances of child abuse may have occurred. To date, studies supporting the validity of the CARTS have only been undertaken in English-speaking North American populations. Validation projects in other countries and cross-cultural comparisons are therefore warranted. Objective: Develop and preliminarily evaluate the psychometric properties of an Italian version of the CARTS on college students and compare such observations to data acquired from Canadian students...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163293/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-ados-2-polish-version
#12
Izabela Chojnicka, Ewa Pisula
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is one of the most popular instruments used world-widely in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Unfortunately, there are only a few studies of the psychometric properties of non-English language versions of this instrument and none of the adaptation of its second edition (ADOS-2). The objective of this study was to verify the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2-PL). The authors recruited 401 participants: 193 with ASDs (ASD group) and 78 with non-spectrum disorders, plus 130 typically developing participants (control group)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163099/a-computational-analysis-of-neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-maturation-of-multisensory-speech-integration-in-neurotypical-children-and-those-on-the-autism-spectrum
#13
Cristiano Cuppini, Mauro Ursino, Elisa Magosso, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI) of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162685/tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-neuroblastoma-systematic-review
#14
Eloise Müller-Schulte, Gerhard Kurlemann, Anja Harder
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prenatal and perinatal maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs is associated with risk of neuroblastoma. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase (both from inception to February 2017), and reference lists of included studies. STUDY SELECTION: To be eligible, a study had to be an original report including data on intake of alcohol, tobacco smoking and/or consumption of illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in the child...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162319/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-under-5-years-in-senegal-experience-of-sentinel-site-of-the-albert-royer-children-s-hospital-in-dakar
#15
Amadou Diop, Aliou Thiongane, Jason M Mwenda, Negar Aliabadi, Mouhamadou A Sonko, Aliou Diallo, Babacar Ndoye, Papa M Faye, Idrissa D Ba, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Ousmane Ndiaye, Moussa F Cissé, Mamadou Ba
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, with rotavirus being the most common infectious etiology. In November 2014, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Senegal. We determined the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalizations for all-cause and rotavirus related AGE in children <60 months of age. METHODS: We examined two data sources from the national referral hospital...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162300/reduced-subcortical-volumes-among-preschool-age-girls-and-boys-with-adhd
#16
Keri S Rosch, Deana Crocetti, Kathryn Hirabayashi, Martha B Denckla, Stewart H Mostofsky, E Mark Mahone
Anomalous brain structure and function are implicated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most neuroimaging research, however, has examined school-aged children, despite the typical onset of symptoms in early childhood. This study compared the volumes of subcortical structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus) among preschoolers with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. High resolution T1-weighted 3D MPRAGE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner and subcortical volumes were automatically extracted...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162292/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-iga-vasculitis-neuroimaging-of-a-14-year-old-child
#17
Harun Arslan, Alpaslan Yavuz, Ayşe Arslan, Abdurrahman Aycan
IgA vasculitis (IgAV) is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis and characterized by involvement of small vessels in skin, gastrointestinal system, joints, kidneys, and less frequently other organs. It is the commonest vasculitis in childhood and etiology is not completely known. Neurological manifestations of IgAV are very rare and usually seen in patients with severe hypertension or as an uncommon feature such as peripheral neuropathy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinic-radiologic entity characterized with temporary vasogenic edema developing typically in posterior circulation of the brain and has been reported as a rare manifestation of IgAV...
November 14, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162193/childhood-quality-influences-genetic-sensitivity-to-environmental-influences-across-adulthood-a-life-course-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-study
#18
Robert Keers, Michael Pluess
While environmental adversity has been shown to increase risk for psychopathology, individuals differ in their sensitivity to these effects. Both genes and childhood experiences are thought to influence sensitivity to the environment, and these factors may operate synergistically such that the effects of childhood experiences on later sensitivity are greater in individuals who are more genetically sensitive. In line with this hypothesis, several recent studies have reported a significant three-way interaction (Gene × Environment × Environment) between two candidate genes and childhood and adult environment on adult psychopathology...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162190/early-life-stress-fk506-binding-protein-5-gene-fkbp5-methylation-and-inhibition-related-prefrontal-function-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#19
Madeline B Harms, Rasmus Birn, Nadine Provencal, Tobias Wiechmann, Elisabeth B Binder, Sebastian W Giakas, Barbara J Roeber, Seth D Pollak
Individuals who have experienced high levels of childhood stress are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems that persist into adulthood, yet the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Many of the difficulties observed in stress-exposed children involve problems with learning and inhibitory control. This experiment was designed to test individuals' ability to learn to inhibit responding during a laboratory task. To do so, we measured stress exposure among a community sample of school-aged children, and then followed these children for a decade...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162185/external-environmental-and-internal-health-early-life-predictors-of-adolescent-development
#20
Sarah Hartman, Zhi Li, Daniel Nettle, Jay Belsky
A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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