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Childhood Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786674/choline-supplementation-prevents-a-hallmark-disturbance-of-kwashiorkor-in-weanling-mice-fed-a-maize-vegetable-diet-hepatic-steatosis-of-undernutrition
#2
Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785961/trajectories-of-childhood-blood-pressure-and-adult-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#3
Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul Whelton, Wei Chen
This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785799/the-development-of-consistency-and-flexibility-in-manual-pointing-during-middle-childhood
#4
Laura Golenia, Marina M Schoemaker, Egbert Otten, Inge Tuitert, Raoul M Bongers
Goal-directed actions become truly functional and skilled when they are consistent yet flexible. In manual pointing, end-effector consistency is characterized by the end position of the index fingertip, whereas flexibility in movement execution is captured by the use of abundant arm-joint configurations not affecting the index finger end position. Because adults have been shown to exploit their system's flexibility in challenging conditions, we wondered whether during middle childhood children are already able to exploit motor flexibility when demanded by the situation...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785749/cardiac-vagal-regulation-in-infancy-predicts-executive-function-and-social-competence-in-preschool-indirect-effects-through-language
#5
Margaret Whedon, Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha A Bell
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785533/stressful-life-events-adhd-symptoms-and-brain-structure-in-early-adolescence
#6
Kathryn L Humphreys, Emily L Watts, Emily L Dennis, Lucy S King, Paul M Thompson, Ian H Gotlib
Despite a growing understanding that early adversity in childhood broadly affects risk for psychopathology, the contribution of stressful life events to the development of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clear. In the present study, we examined the association between number of stressful life events experienced and ADHD symptoms, assessed using the Attention Problems subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist, in a sample of 214 children (43% male) ages 9.11-13.98 years (M = 11...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#7
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784673/formation-of-the-sacrum-requires-down-regulation-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-sacral-intervertebral-discs
#8
Raffaella Bonavita, Kathleen Vincent, Robert Pinelli, Chitra Lekha Dahia
In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling...
May 21, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784619/parental-touch-reduces-social-vigilance-in-children
#9
Eddie Brummelman, David Terburg, Miranda Smit, Susan M Bögels, Peter A Bos
The sense of touch develops in utero and enables parent-child communication from the earliest moments of life. Research shows that parental touch (e.g., licking and grooming in rats, skin-to-skin care in humans) has organizing effects on the offspring's stress system. Little is known, however, about the psychological effects of parental touch. Building on findings from ethology and psychology, we propose that parental touch-even as subtle as a touch on the shoulder-tells children that their environment is safe for exploration, thus reducing their social vigilance...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784155/parental-knowledge-of-pediatric-eye-health-in-an-ophthalmology-clinic-setting-validation-and-delivery-of-the-eyee-questionnaire
#10
Natalia Fong, Bethany Easterbrook, Forough Farrokhyar, Kourosh Sabri
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and assess the reliability of a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge on core topics in pediatric eye health. METHODS: In Phase I, the Evaluate Your Eye Education Questionnaire (EYEE-Q) was developed and distributed to ascertain face validity (n = 20). In Phase II, participants completed EYEE-Q twice to determine test-retest reliability (n = 40). In Phase III, EYEE-Q was administered to parents in a tertiary level pediatric ophthalmology clinic to assess knowledge (n = 193)...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783638/the-stability-and-continuity-of-maternally-reported-and-observed-child-eating-behaviours-and-feeding-practices-across-early-childhood
#11
Faye Powell, Claire Farrow, Caroline Meyer, Emma Haycraft
Given that many eating behaviours and food preferences develop early in childhood and track across childhood, adolescence and into adulthood, interest has grown in the developmental trajectory of these behaviours. The aims of this study were twofold. First, to explore whether maternal reports of child eating behaviour and feeding practices are validated by independent observations of these constructs. Second, to explore the continuity and stability of both maternally reported and independently observed child eating behaviours and maternal feeding practices during early childhood...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783222/-analysis-of-the-extension-of-childhood-expectations-and-evaluation-of-the-risks-of-the-development-of-diseases-associated-with-overweight
#12
Dmytro D Dyachuk, Iryna E Zabolotna, Yuri B Yaschenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Prevention of obesity in childhood is considered one of the main areas of primary prevention of non-infectious diseases. The aim: determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-age children, and analyze the risk of developing concomitant excess body weight and obesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 1103 schoolchildren aged 7-17 years, of which 552 girls (50.1%) and 551 boys (49...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783004/-the-thing-that-really-gets-me-is-the-future-symptomatology-in-older-homeless-adults-in-the-hope-home-study
#13
Adam Bazari, Maria Patanwala, Lauren M Kaplan, Colette L Auerswald, Margot B Kushel
CONTEXT: The homeless population is aging. Older homeless adults experience premature development of age-related conditions and an elevated symptom burden. Little is known about symptom experience among older homeless adults. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the experience, understanding, and management of physical, psychological, social (e.g. loneliness), and existential (e.g. regret, loss of dignity) symptoms among older homeless adults. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews from June 2016 through March 2017 with a purposive sample of participants from the HOPE HOME cohort, a longitudinal study of homeless adults ages 50 and older...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781990/fetal-mouse-cardiovascular-imaging-using-a-high-frequency-ultrasound-30-45mhz-system
#14
Marlin Touma
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. Prenatal detection of the underlying molecular mechanisms of CHDs is crucial for inventing new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Mutant mouse models are powerful tools to discover new mechanisms and environmental stress modifiers that drive cardiac development and their potential alteration in CHDs. However, efforts to establish the causality of these putative contributors have been limited to histological and molecular studies in non-survival animal experiments, in which monitoring the key physiological and hemodynamic parameters is often absent...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781915/childhood-asthma-disparities-in-chicago-developing-approaches-to-health-inequities
#15
Molly A Martin, Melissa Gutierrez Kapheim, Kim Erwin, Stacy Ignoffo, Kate McMahon, Amy OʼRourke, Lynn B Gerald, Meredith Barrett, Valerie G Press, Houshang Darabi, Jerry A Krishnan
We conducted a needs assessment to develop an evidence-based, locally tailored asthma care implementation plan for high-risk children with asthma in Chicago. Our team of health policy experts, clinicians, researchers, and designers included extensive stakeholder engagement (N = 162) in a mixed-methods community needs assessment. Results showed the lines of communication and collaboration across sectors were weak; caregivers were the only consistent force and could not always manage this burden. A series of recommendations for interventions and how to implement and measure them were generated...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781808/tensor-driven-extraction-of-developmental-features-from-varying-paediatric-eeg-datasets
#16
Eli Kinney-Lang, Loukianos Spyrou, Ahmed Ebied, Richard Fm Chin, Javier Escudero
Constant changes in developing children's brains can pose a challenge in EEG dependant technologies. Advancing signal processing methods to identify developmental differences in paediatric populations could help improve function and usability of such technologies. Taking advantage of the multi-dimensional structure of EEG data through tensor analysis may offer a framework for extracting relevant developmental features of paediatric datasets. A proof of concept is demonstrated through identifying latent developmental features in resting-state EEG...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781739/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-as-a-strategy-to-prevent-having-a-child-born-with-an-heritable-eye-disease
#17
Claudia Yahalom, Michal Macarov, Galit Lazer-Derbeko, Gheona Altarescu, Tal Imbar, Jordana H Hyman, Talia Eldar-Geva, Anat Blumenfeld
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, genetically inherited eye diseases are responsible for a high percentage of childhood visual impairment. We aim to report our experience using preimplantation genetic diagnostics (PGD) in order to avoid transmitting a genetic form of eye disease associated with childhood visual impairment and ocular cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and PGD due to a familial history of inherited eye disease and/or ocular cancer, in order to avoid having a child affected with the known familial disease...
May 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781631/critical-consciousness-and-intent-to-persist-through-college-in-daca-and-u-s-citizen-students-the-role-of-immigration-status-race-and-ethnicity
#18
Germán A Cadenas, Bianca L Bernstein, Terence J G Tracey
OBJECTIVES: We used the model of critical consciousness (CC; Freire, 1973) to examine college persistence in a sample of Hispanic Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) college students in contrast to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White U.S. citizens. To do this, we looked to social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to clarify the development of CC and its association with college persistence in students facing marginalization due to immigration status and racial/ethnic identity...
May 21, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780809/sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-adults-with-children-in-the-home
#19
Ashley H White, Shirley A James, Sjonna W Paulson, Laura A Beebe
Introduction: Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB)s has been linked with adult and childhood obesity, an increasing health burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the consumption of SSBs among Oklahoma adults with children in the home. Methods: A random sample of 1,118 Oklahoma adults with children in the home participated in a survey about their SSB consumption between August and October, 2015. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates and examined the relationship between types of SSBs consumed and covariates of interest using logistic regression techniques appropriate for survey data...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780758/congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#20
Wlamir Pestana Ursini, Cesar Cilento Ponce
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a developmental malformation of the lower respiratory tract. We report the case of a male newborn diagnosed with cystic lung disease during prenatal ultrasound. A cesarean section was performed at the 32nd gestational week because of premature rupture of the membranes, and soon after the delivery the newborn developed respiratory failure and died. The aim of this study is to report an autopsy case because of its rarity, and to briefly discuss the CPAM subtypes and differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases of childhood...
April 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
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