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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926527/meqtl-analysis-of-childhood-obesity-links-epigenetics-with-a-risk-snp-rs17782313-near-mc4r-from-meta-analysis
#1
Yuping Tang, Bo Jin, Lingling Zhou, Weifeng Lu
Earlier GWAS has identified that rs17782313 near MC4R was associated with obesity. However, subsequent studies showed conflicting results, especially among childhood. Besides, the mechanisms underlying the association between rs17782313 and childhood obesity remain largely unexplored, and genetic and epigenetic may interact and together affect the development of childhood obesity. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between rs17782313 and childhood obesity. MeQTL and eQTL analysis was applied to explore the effect of rs17782313 on DNA methylation and MC4R expression...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924109/care-of-newborn-in-the-community-and-at-home
#2
REVIEW
S B Neogi, J Sharma, M Chauhan, R Khanna, M Chokshi, R Srivastava, P K Prabhakar, A Khera, R Kumar, S Zodpey, V K Paul
India has contributed immensely toward generating evidence on two key domains of newborn care: Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC) and community mobilization. In a model developed in Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) in the 1990s, a package of Interventions delivered by community health workers during home visits led to a marked decline in neonatal deaths. On the basis of this experience, the national HBNC program centered around Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) was introduced in 2011, and is now the main community-level program in newborn health...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923443/child-care-chaos-and-teachers-responsiveness-the-indirect-associations-through-teachers-emotion-regulation-and-coping
#3
Lieny Jeon, Eunhye Hur, Cynthia K Buettner
Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies...
December 2016: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923355/oral-health-related-quality-of-life-and-early-childhood-caries-among-preschool-children-in-trinidad
#4
Rahul Naidu, June Nunn, Erica Donnelly-Swift
BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem in developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and ECC among preschool children in a Caribbean population. METHOD: Parents/primary caregivers of children attending nine, randomly selected preschools in central Trinidad were invited to complete an oral health questionnaire and have their child undertake an oral examination...
December 7, 2016: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923153/bilingual-toddlers-have-advanced-abilities-to-repair-communication-failure
#5
Stephanie Wermelinger, Anja Gampe, Moritz M Daum
Recent research has demonstrated enhanced communicative abilities in bilingual children compared with monolingual children throughout childhood and in a variety of domains. The processes underlying these advantages are, however, not well understood. It has been suggested that one aspect that particularly stimulates bilinguals' communication skills is their daily experience with challenging communication. In the current study, we investigated whether children's assumed experience with communication failures would increase their skills when it came to repairing communication failure...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#6
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922112/plasma-cathepsin-d-correlates-with-histological-classifications-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-and-responds-to-intervention
#7
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Sander S Rensen, Veerle Bieghs, Tim Hendrikx, Patrick J van Gorp, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike L J Jeurissen, Marion J J Gijbels, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Jan Willem M Greve, Jogchum Plat, Marten H Hofker, Satish Kalhan, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patrick Lindsey, Ger H Koek, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. The mechanisms that trigger hepatic inflammation are poorly understood and subsequently, no specific non-invasive markers exist. We previously demonstrated a reduction in the plasma lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D (CatD), in children with NASH compared to children without NASH. Recent studies have raised the concept that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults is distinct from children due to a different histological pattern in the liver...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921322/the-heterophoria-of-3-5-year-old-children-as-a-function-of-viewing-distance-and-target-type
#8
Mary E Troyer, Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan, T J Peper, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24)...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920429/nitric-oxide-no-mediates-the-inhibition-of-form-deprivation-myopia-by-atropine-in-chicks
#9
Brittany J Carr, William K Stell
Myopia is the most common childhood refractive disorder. Atropine inhibits myopia progression, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced in week-old chicks by diffusers over the right eye (OD); the left eye (OS) remained ungoggled. On post-goggling days 1, 3, and 5, OD received intravitreally 20 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle), or vehicle plus: NO source: L-arginine (L-Arg, 60-6,000 nmol) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-1,000 nmol); atropine (240 nmol); NO inhibitors: L-NIO or L-NMMA (6 nmol); negative controls: D-Arg (10 µmol) or D-NMMA (6 nmol); or atropine plus L-NIO, L-NMMA, or D-NMMA; OS received vehicle...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920408/asthma-and-other-allergic-diseases-among-saudi-schoolchildren-in-najran-the-need-for-a-comprehensive-intervention-program
#10
Jobran M Alqahtani
BACKGROUND: In the last three decades, an increasing incidence of allergic diseases has been associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in the southwestern Saudi region of Najran, and to determine the sensitization of patients to a set of allergens. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920351/effects-of-pediatric-anticipatory-guidance-on-mothers-of-young-children
#11
Hui-Chin Hsu, Shih-Yu Lee, Chin-Man Lai, Wan-Ling Tsai, Hsiao-Tung Chiu
Provision of anticipatory guidance to parents during well-child visits is a defining component of pediatric primary care. Using nationally representative data from the 2000 U.S. National Survey of Early Childhood Health, this study addressed the questions of whether, how, and what mothers of children below age 3 with different ethnic/racial background could benefit from anticipatory guidance. Structural equation modeling results showed that across ethnic/racial groups, guidance was directly associated with decreased maternal stress and directly and indirectly associated with effective parenting practices in child development, discipline, and safety...
December 5, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920313/previous-medicaid-expansion-may-have-had-lasting-positive-effects-on-oral-health-of-non-hispanic-black-children
#12
Brandy J Lipton, Laura R Wherry, Sarah Miller, Genevieve M Kenney, Sandra Decker
Healthy tooth development starts early in life, beginning even before birth. We present new evidence suggesting that a historic public health insurance expansion for pregnant women and children in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s may have had long-lasting effects on the oral health of the children gaining eligibility. We estimated the relationship between adult oral health and the extent of state public health insurance eligibility for pregnant women, infants, and children throughout childhood separately for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918926/childhood-adversity-impacts-on-brain-subcortical-structures-relevant-to-depression
#14
Thomas Frodl, Deborah Janowitz, Lianne Schmaal, Leonardo Tozzi, Henrik Dobrowolny, Dan J Stein, Dick J Veltman, Katharina Wittfeld, Theo G M van Erp, Neda Jahanshad, Andrea Block, Katrin Hegenscheid, Henry Völzke, Jim Lagopoulos, Sean N Hatton, Ian B Hickie, Eva Maria Frey, Angela Carballedo, Samantha J Brooks, Daniella Vuletic, Anne Uhlmann, Ilya M Veer, Henrik Walter, Knut Schnell, Dominik Grotegerd, Volker Arolt, Harald Kugel, Elisabeth Schramm, Carsten Konrad, Bartosz Zurowski, Bernhard T Baune, Nic J A van der Wee, Marie-Jose van Tol, Brenda W J H Penninx, Paul M Thompson, Derrek P Hibar, Udo Dannlowski, Hans J Grabe
Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex. Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, nine university partner sites, which assessed childhood adversity and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with MDD and controls, took part in the current joint mega-analysis...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918695/sedentary-time-physical-activity-and-executive-function-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-youth
#15
Erick E Wickel
BACKGROUND: This study examined associations between sedentary time, physical activity (PA), and executive function among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. METHODS: >: Sedentary time and PA (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) were objectively assessed at 9 and 15 yrs, while executive function (inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were assessed at 15 yrs. Regression models were used to examine associations...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918476/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-preterm-infants-is-associated-with-allergic-diseases-and-the-mental-development-index-in-children
#16
Wan-Ning Tseng, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Li-Tung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918444/mental-health-comorbidities-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-a-narrative-review-of-epidemiology-models-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Jillian Vinall, Maria Pavlova, Gordon J G Asmundson, Nivez Rasic, Melanie Noel
Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918350/a-case-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-hemosiderosis-presenting-with-signs-and-symptoms-mimicking-hemolytic-anemia
#18
Dilek Doğruel, Ayşe Erbay, Nalan Yazici, Alev Arslan, Bermal Hasbay Biçen
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is primarily a disorder of childhood, which is characterized by hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia, and diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest x-ray secondary to recurrent attacks of alveolar hemorrhage. It can be diagnosed by showing hemosiderin laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after other specific causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage are definitely excluded. A 5-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with sudden-onset pallor during iron therapy given for anemia...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918236/meniere-s-migraine-and-motion-sickness
#19
John F Golding, Mitesh Patel
CONCLUSION: Elevated Motion Sickness Susceptibility (MSS) in Meniere?s disease (MD) is likely to be a consequence of the onset of MD and not migraine per se. OBJECTIVES: Pathologies of the vestibular system influence MSS. Bilateral vestibular deficits lower MSS, vestibular neuritis or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo have little overall effect, whereas vestibular migraine elevates MSS. However, less is known about MSS in MD, a condition in which many patients experience vestibular loss and migraine symptoms...
December 5, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917595/societal-preferences-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-balancing-risk-of-death-and-quality-of-life
#20
Amir Khakban, Tima Mohammadi, Larry D Lynd, Don Mabbott, Eric Bouffet, Louise Gastonguay, Zafar Zafari, David Malkin, Michael Taylor, Carlo A Marra
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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