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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545247/how-does-psychosocial-behavior-contribute-to-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#1
Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett
With the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cognitively disabled persons is expected to substantially increase in coming decades, underscoring the urgent need for effective interventions. Here, we review the current evidence linking psychosocial factors to late-life cognitive loss and consider the study design needed to illuminate the biologic bases of the associations. We then examine an ongoing study that includes several of the key design elements, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. In this longitudinal clinical-pathological cohort study, indicators of personality, social connectedness, and psychological well-being were shown to predict late-life cognitive outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544871/signs-of-social-class-the-experience-of-economic-inequality-in-everyday-life
#2
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park, Jacinth J X Tan
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544860/behavioral-processes-in-long-lag-intervention-studies
#3
Dale T Miller, Jennifer E Dannals, Julian J Zlatev
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544780/spinal-metastatic-disease-a-review-of-the-role-of-the-multidisciplinary-team
#4
REVIEW
Mark Curtin, Robert P Piggott, Evelyn P Murphy, Sudarshan Munigangaiah, Joseph F Baker, John P McCabe, Aiden Devitt
Historically, a simple approach centered on palliation was applicable to the majority of patients with metastatic spinal disease. With advances in diagnosis and treatment, a more complicated algorithm has devolved requiring a multidisciplinary approach with institutional commitment and support. We performed a database review including pertinent articles exploring the multidisciplinary management of spinal metastatic disease. The wide variation in clinical presentation and tumor response to treatment necessitates a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the diagnosis and treatment of the cancer, symptom management, and rehabilitation for optimal care of patients with spinal metastases...
May 24, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544626/countering-evidence-denial-and-the-promotion-of-pseudoscience-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Isabel M Smith, Noni E MacDonald
This commentary introduces a framework within which clinical and research experts in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can address public instances of evidence denial and promotion of pseudoscience related to ASD. This is a generalized extension of work by a World Health Organization (WHO) group dedicated to reducing the influence of Vocal Vaccine Deniers through educating advocates in how to effectively defuse their arguments. The WHO guidelines were informed by conceptual work on the "denialism" phenomenon, and by studies in psychology, communication, vaccine science, and public health...
May 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544584/examining-differences-in-characteristics-between-patients-receiving-primary-care-from-nurse-practitioners-or-physicians-using-medicare-current-beneficiary-survey-data-and-medicare-claims-data
#6
Figaro L Loresto, Daniel Jupiter, Yong-Fang Kuo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined differences in functional, cognitive, and psychological factors between patients utilizing only nurse practitioners (NPs) and those utilizing only primary care medical doctors (PCMDs) for primary care. PURPOSE: Patients utilizing NP-only or PCMD-only models for primary care will be characterized and compared in terms of functional, cognitive, and psychological factors. METHODOLOGY: Cohorts were obtained from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey linked to Medicare claims data...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543884/psychological-factors-related-to-donation-behaviour-among-chinese-adults-results-from-a-longitudinal-investigation
#7
H Hu, T Wang, Q Fu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the psychological factors currently influencing blood donation in China. This study investigated the structure of psychological factors and their correlation with donation behaviour of adults in a transforming city in China over a 6-month period. METHODS: Participants were recruited in Nanjing from May 2013 to April 2014. Preliminary focus group interviews with 102 participants were conducted to generate new items for a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) questionnaire...
May 22, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543619/the-company-you-keep-is-socialising-with-higher-status-people-bad-for-mental-health
#8
Min-Ah Lee, Ichiro Kawachi
Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample...
May 24, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543046/prevalence-and-association-of-premenstrual-syndrome-and-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-with-academic-performance-among-female-university-students
#9
Jumana Hussein Shehadeh, Ayman M Hamdan-Mansour
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is particularly a female psychological disorder that has consequences on female students' behavior, cognitive abilities, mental health status, and academic performance. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and PMDD, and their relationship with academic performance among female university students in Jordan. METHOD: Prospective-correlational design was employed among 858 university students...
May 24, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542637/smoking-prevalence-in-medicaid-has-been-declining-at-a-negligible-rate
#10
Shu-Hong Zhu, Christopher M Anderson, Yue-Lin Zhuang, Anthony C Gamst, Neal D Kohatsu
BACKGROUND: In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043) were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542578/illness-experiences-of-diabetes-in-the-context-of-malaria-in-settings-experiencing-double-burden-of-disease-in-southeastern-tanzania
#11
Emmy Metta, Ajay Bailey, Flora Kessy, Eveline Geubbels, Hinke Haisma
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman's eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. METHODS: We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542529/associations-between-quality-of-life-physical-activity-worry-depression-and-insomnia-a-cross-sectional-designed-study-in-healthy-pregnant-women
#12
Danielle Mourady, Sami Richa, Rita Karam, Tatiana Papazian, Fabienne Hajj Moussa, Nada El Osta, Assaad Kesrouani, Joseph Azouri, Hicham Jabbour, Aline Hajj, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz
Health-related quality of life (QOL) is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA), insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index), PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541238/attitudes-of-psychology-students-to-depression-and-its-treatment-implications-for-clinical-practice
#13
M Economou, L E Peppou, K Geroulanou, K Kontoangelos, A Prokopi, A Pantazi, A Zervakaki, C N Stefanis
Stigma and mental health literacy affect access to and quality of treatment of major depression. Though mental health professionals seem better able to recognize major depression than the general public, they often hold similarly stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from the disorder. These attitudes are shaped jointly by the public stigma attached to mental illnesses as well as by the content and delivery of mental health professionals' undergraduate training. In line with this, the present study aimed to explore psychology students' ability to recognize major depression, their attitudes towards the disorder, and their views surrounding helpfulness of various interventions...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541100/patient-education-and-mind-diversion-in-supportive-care
#14
Salima Sadruddin, Rafat Jan, Adnan A Jabbar, Kashmira Nanji, Ambreen Tharani Name
Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic anti-cancer medications often result in an array of physical and psychological side effects. Supportive care assists patients with cancer in managing multidimensional symptoms that result from treatment or the illness itself. This review discusses supportive care and examines patient counselling and mind-diversion activities, which are safe and cost-effective strategies. Improving cancer patients' health and wellbeing should be encouraged in oncology nursing practice and by teaching students the knowledge and skills needed to provide supportive care...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541088/-when-risk-communication-backfires-randomized-controlled-trial-on-self-affirmation-and-reactance-to-personalized-risk-feedback-in-high-risk-individuals-correction-to-sch%C3%A3-z-sch%C3%A3-z-and-eid-2013
#15
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "When risk communication backfires: Randomized controlled trial on self-affirmation and reactance to personalized risk feedback in high-risk individuals" by Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz and Michael Eid (Health Psychology, 2013[May], Vol 32[5], 561-570). Several errors appear in the data in the Results section. The corrected information is provided. It is noted that, in all cases, the statistical conclusions remain the same. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-14977-010...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541080/state-special-education-criteria-for-identifying-intellectual-disability-a-review-following-revised-diagnostic-criteria-and-rosa-s-law
#16
Patrick J McNicholas, Randy G Floyd, Isaac L Woods, Leah J Singh, Meredith S Manguno, Kathrin E Maki
Across the last century, the condition known as intellectual disability (ID) has been labeled by assorted terms, its key features have varied, and recommendations for its identification have been divided. In light of recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for ID and to federal legislation, this study was designed to compile and summarize information about the state special education criteria for this condition and its associated assessment process, as they guide school-based and associated practices. Authors independently double-coded components of all ID regulations and guidelines from the 50 United States and the District of Columbia in pairs, which was then checked and corrected for inconsistencies...
May 25, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541074/purpose-in-life-in-als-patient-caregiver-dyads-a-multilevel-longitudinal-analysis
#17
Natasha E Garcia, Jennifer N Morey, Edward J Kasarskis, Suzanne C Segerstrom
OBJECTIVE: Eudaemonic positive psychological health (PPH), such as purpose in life (PIL), may be maintained more than hedonic PPH, such as quality of life (QOL), for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers across the disease course. Furthermore, patients' and caregivers' PPH may impact one another. The present study examined (a) PIL and QOL variance structures; (b) PIL and QOL trajectories from diagnosis, approaching death, with disease severity; and (c) between-dyad and within-dyad relationships for PIL and QOL in patients with ALS and their caregivers...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540538/impact-of-a-community-based-frailty-intervention-among-middle-aged-and-older-prefrail-and-frail-homeless-women-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Benissa E Salem, Jennifer Ma-Pham, Stephanie Chen, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Anna Liza Antonio, Masha Ames
Interventions are needed to address frailty and other behaviors (e.g., drug and alcohol use) among prefrail and frail homeless women (P/FHW). The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare the efficacy of a Frailty Intervention (FI) versus a Health Promotion (HP) program among P/FHW (N = 32). Structured instruments assessed sociodemographics, individual, situational, health-related, and behavioral factors. While program differences were not statistically significant with the main outcome variables, medium-to-large effect sizes were found in favor of the HP program as it relates to physical and overall frailty, as well as, any drug use, alcohol use, and drug dependency...
May 24, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539958/cognitive-impairment-and-psychological-distress-at-discharge-from-intensive-care-unit
#19
Chi Ryang Chung, Hye Jin Yoo, Jinkyeong Park, Seunghyong Ryu
This study aimed to investigate cognitive impairment and psychological distress of critically ill patients at discharge from intensive care unit (ICU). This study included 30 critically ill patients who had neither pre-existing dementia nor ongoing delirium. At ICU discharge, they performed a screening test for cognitive impairment (Mini-Cog test) and completed questionnaires for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2, PHQ-2) and for 4 stressful experiences during ICU stay including nightmares, severe anxiety or panic, severe pain, and trouble to breathe or feeling of suffocation (Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Question Inventory, PTSS-14 Part A)...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539379/the-effect-of-nutrition-training-for-health-care-staff-on-learner-and-patient-outcomes-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Owen Marples, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes
Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes.Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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