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Micro rna and cancer

Lauren S Sherman, Maran Shaker, Veronica Mariotti, Pranela Rameshwar
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a class of cells suitable for cellular delivery of nanoparticles, drugs and micro-RNA cargo for targeted treatments such as tumor and other protective mechanisms. The special properties of MSC underscore the current use for various clinical applications. Examples of applications include but are not limited to regenerative medicine, immune disorders and anti-cancer therapies. In recent years, there has been intense research in modifying MSC to achieve targeted and efficient clinical outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Cytotherapy
A Caporali, A Martello, V Miscianinov, D Maselli, R Vono, G Spinetti
During physiological development and after a stressor event, vascular cells communicate with each other to evoke new vessel formation - a process known as angiogenesis. This communication occurs via direct contact and via paracrine release of proteins and nucleic acids, both in a free form or encapsulated into micro-vesicles. In diseases with an altered angiogenic response, such as cancer and diabetic vascular complications, it becomes of paramount importance to tune the cell communication process. Endothelial cell growth and migration are essential processes for new vessel formation, and pericytes, together with some classes of circulating monocytes, are important endothelial regulators...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Igor Slivac, David Guay, Mathias Mangion, Juliette Champeil, Bruno Gaillet
Delivery of nucleic acid-based molecules in human cells is a highly studied approach for the treatment of several disorders including monogenic diseases and cancers. Non-viral vectors for DNA and RNA transfer, although in general less efficient than virus-based systems, are particularly well adapted mostly due to the absence of biosafety concerns. Non-viral methods could be classified in two main groups: physical and vector-assisted delivery systems. Both groups comprise several different methods, none of them universally applicable...
October 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Shreyas Shah, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah, Nidhi Gupta, Kapil Dagrus
: The vast majority of cancer epigenetic research is now focused on micro RNA (miRNA). Though thousands of miRNA have been identified, the validation of their role is a continuous process. AIM: the aim of this paper is to comprehensively review the role of miRNA 21 in Oral cancer as a marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic target. METHOD: The data was collected from major search engines like PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane library and Google Patents with the key words miRNA 21, miRNA and Oral Cancer, miRNA 21 prognostic role, miRNA therapeutic target etc...
September 19, 2016: MicroRNA
Atsushi Kiba, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Mari Asada, Yusuke Nakayama, Daisuke Aoki, Tatsuya Watanabe
AIM: Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play an important pathological role in endometriosis. Leuprolide acetate, an analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is widely used to treat endometriosis; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in endometriotic tissue regression remain unclear. We performed miRNA expression profiling of clinical ovarian endometrioma to obtain insight into the effects of leuprolide acetate treatment. METHODS: We obtained clinical samples from nine normal eutopic endometrium, eight ovarian endometriotic, and 12 leuprolide acetate-treated endometriotic tissues...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Jian-Jun Li, Jie Luo, Jing-Ning Lu, Xiao-Na Liang, Yi-Huan Luo, Yong-Ru Liu, Jie Yang, Hua Ding, Gui-Hui Qin, Li-Hua Yang, Yi-Wu Dang, Hong Yang, Gang Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and the clinicopathological features in HCC as well as its biological function. METHODS: Totally, 412 liver tissues were collected, including 171 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their corresponding non-tumor tissues, 37 cirrhosis and 33 normal liver tissues. The expression of TRAF6 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Then, analysis of the correlations between TRAF6 expression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC was conducted...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Huning Jia, Ying Bu, Bingjie Zou, Jianping Wang, Shalen Kumar, Janet L Pitman, Guohua Zhou, Qinxin Song
Micro ribose nucleic acids (miRNAs) play an important role in biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore, miRNAs are potentially a powerful marker for monitoring cancer and diagnosis. Here, we present sensitive signal amplification for miRNAs based on modified cycling probe technology with strand displacement amplification. miRNA was captured by the template coupled with beads, and then the first cycle based on SDA was repeatedly extended to the nicking end, which was produced by the extension reaction of miRNA...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still the third most common cancer in the world. Mechanism of CRC tumorigenesis has been widely studied at the molecular levels, and has been recently entered the area of microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small 19 to 22 nucleotides of RNA that engage in the regulation of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. MicroRNAs are similar to small interfering RNA (siRNA), that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and control various cellular mechanisms. They are important factors in the carcinogenesis of CRC, one of the most important factors includes microRNA...
October 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ferenc Sipos, Gábor Firneisz, Györgyi Műzes
Colonic inflammation is required to heal infections, wounds, and maintain tissue homeostasis. As the seventh hallmark of cancer, however, it may affect all phases of tumor development, including tumor initiation, promotion, invasion and metastatic dissemination, and also evasion immune surveillance. Inflammation acts as a cellular stressor and may trigger DNA damage or genetic instability, and, further, chronic inflammation can provoke genetic mutations and epigenetic mechanisms that promote malignant cell transformation...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Izabela Papiewska-Pająk, Maria A Kowalska, Joanna Boncela
Inhibition of E-cadherin gene expression by transcription factor SNAIL is known to be a crucial element of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; EMT. Epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin expression is regulated by SNAIL binding to E-box sequences in the CDH1 gene promoter and recruiting enzymes belonging to repressor complexes that are directly engaged in histone modifications and DNA methylation leading to the modification of chromatin structure. SNAIL involvement in cell acquisition of invasive phenotype is based on direct suppression of tight-junction and gap junction proteins...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Tao Zhu, Wen Gao, Xi Chen, Ying Zhang, Meijuan Wu, Ping Zhang, Shihua Wang
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer is critical for patient survival. The objective of this pilot study is to identify a circulating micro (mi)RNA as a potential biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: A total of 135 epithelial ovarian cancer patients and 54 benign ovarian tumor patients were recruited for this study. Using customized TaqMan low density miRNA arrays, we first screened expression levels of 48 miRNAs in sera from 18 epithelial ovarian cancer patients and 16 benign ovarian tumor patients...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Yun Li, Jian Rong, Jie Qin, Jin-Yuan He, Hui-Guo Chen, Shao-Hong Huang
Interleukin (IL)-10-producing B cells (B10 cells) plays an important role in the tumor tolerance. High frequency of peripheral B10 cell was reported in patients with lung cancer recently. Micro RNA (miR) regulates some gene expression. This study test a hypothesis that miR-98 suppresses the expression of IL-10 in B cells of subjects with lung cancer. The results showed that the levels of miR-98 were significantly less in peripheral B cells of patients with lung cancer than that in healthy subjects. IL-10 mRNA levels in peripheral B cells were significantly higher in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls...
2016: Scientific Reports
Janani Panneerselvam, Akhil Srivastava, Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Qi Wang, Wei Zheng, Lichao Zhao, Alshine Chen, Yan D Zhao, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Interleukin (IL)-24, a novel tumor suppressor/cytokine exhibits antitumor activity against a broad-spectrum of human cancer cells. In a recent study, we showed that IL-24 inhibited AKT in lung cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of AKT inhibition by IL-24 remains elusive.The high mobility group (HMG) A1 a member of the non-histone chromosomal proteins and commonly referred to as architectural transcription factor, regulates transcription of various genes involved in cell growth and survival. Overexpression of HMGA1 has been shown to be associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several cancers, including human lung cancer...
September 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Malachia Hoover, Yvess Adamian, Mark Brown, Ali Maawy, Alexander Chang, Jacqueline Lee, Armen Gharibi, Matthew H Katz, Jason Fleming, Robert M Hoffman, Michael Bouvet, Robert Doebler, Jonathan A Kelber
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values...
September 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Mary-Clare Cathcart, Zivile Useckaite, Clive Drakeford, Vikki Semik, Joanne Lysaght, Kathy Gately, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Graham P Pidgeon
BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine derived from Scutellaria baicalenesis, which has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. In this study we examined the anti-tumour pathways activated following baicalein treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both in-vitro and in-vivo. METHODS: The effect of baicalein treatment on H-460 cells in-vitro was assessed using both BrdU assay (cell proliferation) and High Content Screening (multi-parameter apoptosis assay)...
2016: BMC Cancer
Eoin Brennan, Roisin D Moriarty, Tia E Keyes, Robert J Forster
The ability of a molecular beacon to detect miR-132, a microRNA associated with the childhood cancer neuroblastoma is reported in solution and within live cells. The stem-loop structure comprises a sequence complementary to miR-132, modified with a 6-FAM dye and dabcyl quencher on either end. In the absence of the target, self-binding occurs bringing the luminophore and quencher into close proximity significantly decreasing the emission intensity. In the presence of miR-132, the signal is greatly enhanced, with a linear increase in intensity for mole ratios of beacon:target between 0...
September 1, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Sunil Mittal, Hardeep Kaur, Nandini Gautam, Anil K Mantha
Breast cancer is highly prevalent in females and accounts for second highest number of deaths, worldwide. Cumbersome, expensive and time consuming detection techniques presently available for detection of breast cancer potentiates the need for development of novel, specific and ultrasensitive devices. Biosensors are the promising and selective detection devices which hold immense potential as point of care (POC) tools. Present review comprehensively scrutinizes various breast cancer biosensors developed so far and their technical evaluation with respect to efficiency and potency of selected bioreceptors and biotransducers...
August 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Cherry Bansal, Mukta Pujani, Sanjeev Misra, A N Srivastava, U S Singh
OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumor cells are isolated tumor cells in the peripheral blood that serve as important prognostic indicators for many kind of tumors. The study was conducted to know the rate of detection of circulating tumor cells among breast cancer patients in comparison with benign breast diseases and control subjects and to know the association between CTC positivity and various clinicopathological parameters, hormonal profile and microRNA polymorphisms. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In the present case control study, we included 182 healthy controls, 108 cases of benign breast disease and 114 breast carcinoma cases...
2016: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
K Voglova, J Bezakova, Iveta Herichova
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules in the human body. miRNA is a short double stranded RNA sequence interfering with mRNA, causing in most cases, inhibition of translation. Synthesis of miRNAs shows an increasing developmental pattern and postnatally miRNAs are synthesized in all cells possessing transcriptional machinery. miRNAs usually target several mRNAs and therefore conclusive evidences proving their functions are not always ease to be acquired. In spite of this difficulty, functions of miRNAs were firmly established in the development, the cardiovascular and neural diseases, and cancer...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Hamid Reza Rahimi, Reza Nedaeinia, Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Shima Nikdoust, Reza Kazemi Oskuee
OBJECTIVE: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing...
July 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
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