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Micro rna and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156009/discovering-cancer-vulnerabilities-using-high-throughput-micro-rna-screening
#1
Iva Nikolic, Benjamin Elsworth, Eoin Dodson, Sunny Z Wu, Cathryn M Gould, Pieter Mestdagh, Glenn M Marshall, Lisa G Horvath, Kaylene J Simpson, Alexander Swarbrick
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression and cellular phenotype. Each miRNA has the potential to target hundreds of transcripts within the cell thus controlling fundamental cellular processes such as survival and proliferation. Here, we exploit this important feature of miRNA networks to discover vulnerabilities in cancer phenotype, and map miRNA-target relationships across different cancer types. More specifically, we report the results of a functional genomics screen of 1280 miRNA mimics and inhibitors in eight cancer cell lines, and its presentation in a sophisticated interactive data portal...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149041/the-hmga1-pseudogene-7-induces-mir-483-and-mir-675-upregulation-by-activating-egr1-through-a-cerna-mechanism
#2
Marco De Martino, Giuseppe Palma, Amalia Azzariti, Claudio Arra, Alfredo Fusco, Francesco Esposito
Several studies have established that pseudogene mRNAs can work as competing endogenous RNAs and, when deregulated, play a key role in the onset of human neoplasias. Recently, we have isolated two HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. These pseudogenes have a critical role in cancer progression, acting as micro RNA (miRNA) sponges for HMGA1 and other cancer-related genes. HMGA1 pseudogenes were found overexpressed in several human carcinomas, and their expression levels positively correlate with an advanced cancer stage and a poor prognosis...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143794/berberine-activates-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-but-suppresses-cyp1a1-induction-through-mir-21-3p-stimulation-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Sheng-Nan Lo, Chun-Wei Wang, Yueh-Shieh Chen, Chiung-Chiao Huang, Tian-Shung Wu, Lih-Ann Li, I-Jung Lee, Yune-Fang Ueng
Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 in the estrogen receptor (ER)α(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among protoberberines at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≤10 μM), berberine had the most potent and statistically significant effects on AhR activation and CYP1A1/1A2/1B1 mRNA induction...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115476/prognostic-micrornas-and-their-potential-molecular-mechanism-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-study-based-on-the-cancer-genome-atlas-and-bioinformatics-investigation
#4
Liang Liang, Dan-Ming Wei, Jian-Jun Li, Dian-Zhong Luo, Gang Chen, Yi-Wu Dang, Xiao-Yong Cai
Although certain biomarkers that are directly associated with the overall survival (OS) of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) have been identified, the efficacy of a single factor is limited to predicting the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to identify a combination micro (mi)RNA signature that enhanced the prognostic prediction for PAAD. Following analysis of the data available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), 175 PAAD samples were selected for the present study, and the associations between 494 miRNAs and OS were investigated...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110768/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-malignancies-located-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Cassandra Verheul, Anne Kleijn, Martine L M Lamfers
CNS malignancies include primary tumors that originate within the CNS as well as secondary tumors that develop as a result of metastatic cancer. The delicate nature of the nervous systems makes tumors located in the CNS notoriously difficult to reach, which poses several problems during diagnosis and treatment. CSF can be acquired relatively easy through lumbar puncture and offers an important compartment for analysis of cells and molecules that carry information about the malignant process. Such techniques have opened up a new field of research focused on the identification of specific biomarkers for several types of CNS malignancies, which may help in diagnosis and monitoring of tumor progression or treatment response...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109790/aptamer-based-therapeutic-approaches-to-target-cancer-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Gang Zhou, Olivier Latchoumanin, Mary Bagdesar, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be a principal cellular source for tumour progression and therapeutic drug resistance as they are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into cancer cells. Importantly, CSCs acquire the ability to evade the killing effects of cytotoxic agents through changes at the genetic, epigenetic and micro-environment levels. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs hold great potential as an avenue for cancer treatment. Aptamers or "chemical antibodies" are a group of single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) oligonucleotides with distinctive properties such as smaller size, lower toxicity and less immunogenicity compared to conventional antibodies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103027/inhibition-of-mir-155-a-therapeutic-target-for-breast-cancer-prevented-in-cancer-stem-cell-formation
#7
Jiangcheng Zuo, Yalan Yu, Man Zhu, Wei Jing, Mingxia Yu, Hongyan Chai, Chunzi Liang, Jiancheng Tu
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common cancer in women of worldwide. Cancer cells with stem-like properties played important roles in breast cancer, such as relapse, metastasis and treatment resistance. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) is a well-known oncogenic miRNA overexpressed in many human cancers. METHODS: The expression levels of miR-155 in 38 pairs of cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer patients were detected using quantitative real-time PCR...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096066/epigenetics-of-mucus-hypersecretion-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#8
Tara V Saco, Mason T Breitzig, Richard F Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) are three chronic pulmonary diseases that affect an estimated 420 million individuals across the globe. A key factor contributing to each of these conditions is mucus hypersecretion. While management of these diseases is vastly studied, researchers have only begun to scratch the surface of the mechanisms contributing to mucus hypersecretion. Epigenetic regulation of mucus hypersecretion, other than micro RNA (miRNA) post-translational modification, is even more scarcely researched...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081035/microrna-expression-in-laser-micro-dissected-breast-cancer-tissue-samples-a-pilot-study
#9
Edward Seclaman, Diana Narita, Andrei Anghel, Natalia Cireap, Razvan Ilina, Ioan Ovidiu Sirbu, Catalin Marian
Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides...
October 28, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077021/the-pattern-of-microrna-binding-site-distribution
#10
Fangyuan Zhang, Degeng Wang
Micro-RNA (miRNA or miR) regulates at least 60% of the genes in the human genome through their target sites at mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (UTR), and defects in miRNA expression regulation and target sites are frequently observed in cancers. We report here a systematic analysis of the distribution of miRNA target sites. Using the evolutionarily conserved miRNA binding sites in the TargetScan database (release 7.1), we constructed a miRNA co-regulation network by connecting genes sharing common miRNA target sites...
October 27, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051564/network-analysis-of-emt-and-met-micro-rna-regulation-in-breast-cancer
#11
Diana Drago-García, Jesús Espinal-Enríquez, Enrique Hernández-Lemus
Over the last years, microRNAs (miRs) have shown to be crucial for breast tumour establishment and progression. To understand the influence that miRs have over transcriptional regulation in breast cancer, we constructed mutual information networks from 86 TCGA matched breast invasive carcinoma and control tissue RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq sequencing data. We show that miRs are determinant for tumour and control data network structure. In tumour data network, miR-200, miR-199 and neighbour miRs seem to cooperate on the regulation of the acquisition of epithelial and mesenchymal traits by the biological processes: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024035/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-in-p16-positive-oral-cancers
#12
Simone Belobrov, Alyssa M Cornall, Richard J Young, Kendrick Koo, Christopher Angel, David Wiesenfeld, Danny Rischin, Suzanne M Garland, Michael McCullough
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16 positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), to assess if the virus were transcriptionally active, and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16 negative tumours...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990111/microrna%C3%A2-720-inhibits-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-directly-targeting-cyclin-d1
#13
Yu Zhang, Yueying Su, Yabing Zhao, Guoqiang Lv, Ying Luo
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer‑associated deaths in Western countries, and ranks sixth among cancer‑associated diseases, with the highest mortality rate in China. Deregulation of micro (miR) RNA may contribute to the occurrence and progression of numerous cancers, including pancreatic cancer. In particular, deregulation of microRNA‑720 (miR‑720) has been reported in various types of human cancer. However, the expression and biological role of miR‑720 in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987542/establishment-of-twist-1-and-tgfbr2-as-direct-targets-of-microrna-20a-in-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-of-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231
#14
Soumasree De, Sayantani Das, Srimoyee Mukherjee, Sainy Das, Sumita Sengupta Bandyopadhyay
Messenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) is a significant physiological phenomenon involved in embryogenesis and cancer. This study aims at investigating the mechanism of microRNA-20a (miR-20a) mediated regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition and identification of its direct target genes in breast cancer cell-line, MDA-MB-231. Reduced migratory and invasive property, altered cellular morphology along with reduced capability for attachment to basement membrane was acquired by over-expression of miR-20a in invasive MDA-MB-231 cell-line initially expressing low level of this micro-RNA, indicating direct correlation between abundance of miR-20a and metastatic property...
October 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983919/role-of-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-tumor-biology
#15
REVIEW
Aman Sharma
Exosomes are nano-scale messengers loaded with bio-molecular cargo of RNA, DNA, and Proteins. As a master regulator of cellular signalling, stem cell (both normal, and cancer stem cells) secreted exosome orchestrate various autocrine and paracrine functions which alter tumor micro-environment, growth and progression. Exosomes secreted by one of the two important stem cell phenotypes in cancers a) Mesenchymal stem cells, and b) Cancer stem cells not only promote cancerous growth but also impart therapy resistance in cancer cells...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977965/genetic-polymorphisms-of-non-coding-rnas-associated-with-increased-head-and-neck-cancer-susceptibility-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Weiyi Pan, Chenzhou Wu, Zhifei Su, Zexi Duan, Longjiang Li, Fanglin Mi, Chunjie Li
Genetic polymorphisms, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and nucleotide repeat expansions, can occur in regions that transcribe non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as, but not limited to, micro RNA and long non-coding RNA. An association between genetic polymorphisms of ncRNA and increasing head and neck cancer (HNC) risk has been identified by several studies. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to consolidate existing findings to clarify this association. Four electronic databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were utilised...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964256/a-novel-mechanism-of-lncrna-and-mirna-interaction-ccat2-regulates-mir-145-expression-by-suppressing-its-maturation-process-in-colon-cancer-cells
#17
Yingjie Yu, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Lulu Farhana, Adhip P N Majumdar
BACKGROUND: Although both long and micro RNAs are emerging as important functional components in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis, the mechanism of their interaction remains poorly understood. CCAT2 (Colon cancer-associated transcript-2), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be over-expressed in CRC and is found to promote tumor growth. miRNAs, a class of naturally occurring short RNAs negatively control the expression of target genes by cleaving mRNA or through translation repression...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950676/association-between-microrna-146a-and-microrna-196a2-genes-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-north-indian-women
#18
Vijay Kumar Bodal, Shruti Sangwan, Manjit Singh Bal, Mohanvir Kaur, Sidarth Sharma, Bhavleen Kaur
Background: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules. They can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) present in the pre-miRNA region could affect the processing of miRNA and thus alter mature miRNA expression. The studies done so far had shown conflicting results regarding association of two common polymorphisms i.e.hsa-miR-146 rs2910164 and hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: In the study, we examined the hsa-miR-146 rs2910164 and hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 SNP association with breast cancer patients in north Indian women...
September 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933365/milk-s-role-as-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
It is the intention of this review to characterize milk's role as an epigenetic regulator in health and disease. Based on translational research, we identify milk as a major epigenetic modulator of gene expression of the milk recipient. Milk is presented as an epigenetic "doping system" of mammalian development. Milk exosome-derived micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) that target DNA methyltransferases are implicated to play the key role in the upregulation of developmental genes such as FTO, INS, and IGF1. In contrast to miRNA-deficient infant formula, breastfeeding via physiological miRNA transfer provides the appropriate signals for adequate epigenetic programming of the newborn infant...
March 15, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932035/epigenetics-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
K N Hema, T Smitha, H S Sheethal, S Angeline Mirnalini
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral neoplasm, accounting for over 90% of all oral malignancies and 38% of head and neck tumors. Worldwide, OSCC is the eighth most common human cancer, with more than 500,000 new cases being diagnosed every year with a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Genetic and/or environmental risk factors associated with the development of oral cancer have been sufficiently understood (smoking, alcohol, betel, diet, living habits, etc...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
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