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Mechanical centilation

S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
September 1, 2017: Appetite
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, A E Heazell, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: The postmortem fetal brain:liver weight ratio is commonly used as a marker of nutrition for diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of intrauterine retention, fetal maceration and postmortem interval on organ weights and their ratios at autopsy. Our aims were to examine the relationships between gestational-age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fetal organ weights at autopsy, cause of intrauterine death and effects of intrauterine retention, and to determine whether the brain:liver weight ratio is a reliable marker of FGR in intrauterine death...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Tim J Cole, Atul Singhal, Mary S Fewtrell, Jonathan Ck Wells
BACKGROUND: Early rapid weight gain is associated with later overweight, which implies that weight centile crossing tracks over time. OBJECTIVE: Centile crossing is defined in terms of the change or deviation in weight z score during 1 mo, and the correlations between successive deviations are explored at different ages. DESIGN: Two Cambridge (United Kingdom) growth cohorts were used: Widdowson (1094 infants born during 1959-1965) and the Cambridge Infant Growth Study (CIGS; 255 infants born during 1984-1987), each with weights measured monthly in the first year...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Romi Nangalu, Puneet Aulakh Pooni, Siddharth Bhargav, Harmesh Singh Bains
OBJECTIVES: This study was done to determine the effect of malnutrition on mortality in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and on the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) scoring. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done over 1 year. There were total 400 patients (1 month 14 years), who were divided into cases with weight for age <3(rd) centile and controls with ≥3(rd) centile of WHO charts. Cases were subdivided into mild/moderate (61-80% of expected weight for age) and severe malnutrition (<60%)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Michael C Peters, Kelly Wong McGrath, Gregory A Hawkins, Annette T Hastie, Bruce D Levy, Elliot Israel, Brenda R Phillips, David T Mauger, Suzy A Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Mats W Johansson, Nizar N Jarjour, Andrea M Coverstone, Mario Castro, Fernando Holguin, Sally E Wenzel, Prescott G Woodruff, Eugene R Bleecker, John V Fahy
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease associated with older age and obesity. The presence of eosinophilic (type 2) inflammation in some but not all patients with severe asthma predicts responsiveness to current treatments, but new treatment approaches will require a better understanding of non-type 2 mechanisms of severe asthma. We considered the possibility that systemic inflammation, which arises in subgroups of obese and older patients, increases the severity of asthma...
July 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Xi Yuan, Sotirios H Saravelos, Qiong Wang, Yanwen Xu, Tin-Chiu Li, Canquan Zhou
This retrospective study assessed the predictive value of endometrial thickness (EMT) on HCG administration day for the clinical outcome of fresh IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 8690 consecutive women undergoing 10,787 cycles over a 5-year period were included. The 5th, 50th and 95th centiles for EMT were determined as 8, 11 and 15 mm, respectively. Group analysis according to these centiles (Group 1: < 8 mm; Group 2: ≥ 8 and ≤11 mm; Group 3: > 11 and ≤15 mm; Group 4: > 15 mm) demonstrated significant differences (P < 0...
August 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
S F Fustolo-Gunnink, R D Vlug, V E H J Smits-Wintjens, E J Heckman, A B Te Pas, K Fijnvandraat, E Lopriore
Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth...
2016: PloS One
Diana M Bond, Adrienne Gordon, Jon Hyett, Bradley de Vries, Angela E Carberry, Jonathan Morris
BACKGROUND: Fetal compromise in the term pregnancy is suspected when the following clinical indicators are present: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), decreased fetal movement (DFM), or when investigations such as cardiotocography (CTG) and ultrasound reveal results inconsistent with standard measurements. Pathological results would necessitate the need for immediate delivery, but the management for 'suspicious' results remains unclear and varies widely across clinical centres. There is clinical uncertainty as to how to best manage women presenting with a suspected term compromised baby in an otherwise healthy pregnancy...
November 24, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adele Fabiano, Antonio W D Gavilanes, Luc J I Zimmermann, Boris W Kramer, Piermichele Paolillo, Giovanni Livolti, Simonetta Picone, Katia Bressan, Diego Gazzolo
AIM: Despite advances in perinatal management, there is a flat trend in incidences of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The main feature of BPD development in preterm infants is an imbalance between increased exposure to free radicals and inadequate antioxidant defences. We investigated the associations between BPD and lipid hydro-peroxide (LOOH) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). METHODS: In this prospective study, BALF samples were collected from 44 preterm infants with RDS and oxidative stress markers were measured in 11 with BPD and 33 controls without BPD...
May 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Thomas J Harvey, Robyn M Murphy, Janna L Morrison, Giuseppe S Posterino
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight below the 10th centile, may be caused by maternal undernutrition, with evidence that IUGR offspring have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are an integral messenger for several steps associated with excitation-contraction coupling (ECC); the cascade of events from the initiation of an action potential at the surface membrane, to contraction of the cardiomyocyte. Any changes in Ca2+ storage and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ may underlie the mechanism linking IUGR to an increased risk of CVD...
2015: PloS One
Alexandros Sotiriadis, Makarios Eleftheriades, Fotios Chatzinikolaou, Kimon Chatzistamatiou, Efstratios Assimakopoulos, Demetrios Chasiakos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test if chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is associated with fetal growth impairment, after controlling for maternal and fetal factors. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of singleton fetuses whose mothers had undergone CVS (N = 442) and 2969 controls. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of birthweight < 10th centile and birthweight <3rd centile; the prevalence of preeclampsia was the secondary outcome. Tested predictors in logistic regression analysis included CVS, free beta-hCG MoMs, PAPP-A MoMs, first-trimester mean uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) z-scores, maternal height, BMI, age, and smoking...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kentaro Yoshida, Takashi Kaneshiro, Yoko Ito, Akira Kimata, Naoya Koda, Daigo Hiraya, Masako Baba, Masako Misaki, Noriyuki Takeyasu, Iwao Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Aonuma
OBJECTIVE: Plasma norepinephrine (NE) level can be a guide to mortality in patients with heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of plasma NE level compared with plasma natriuretic peptides (atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) levels in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Included in this study were 137 consecutive patients referred for catheter ablation of lone AF (paroxysmal in 90 and persistent in 47 patients)...
July 2015: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
L A Balykova, A A Shirokova, O M Soldatov, N V Shchekina, A N Urziaeva
The mechanisms of L-carnitine action and ergogenic pleiotropic effects of drugs, which play important role in sports medicine are described. Results of a comparative, parallel-group randomized clinical trial of L-carnitine (Elkar, PikFarma) in young athletes (football players, walkers) are reported. Elkar increases the body adaptation to physical stress and has a pronounced therapeutic effect in athletes with stress-induced cardiomyopathy by reducing the representation of potentially dangerous arrhythmia (sinus bradycardia less than 2 - 5 centile, 2nd degree atrioventricular block type II, T-wave inversion in more than 2 leads, and/or ST segment depression) and severity of benign ECG disturbances and hemodynamic changes, and decreasing the concentration of biochemical markers of myocardial damage (troponin, natriuretic peptide, creatine phosphokinase MB fraction) and cortisol...
2014: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Maria J Redondo, Jesse Muniz, Luisa M Rodriguez, Dinakar Iyer, Fariba Vaziri-Sani, Morey W Haymond, Christiane S Hampe, Michael L Metzker, Struan F A Grant, Ashok Balasubramanyam
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has the strongest genetic association with type 2 diabetes. TCF7L2 also associates with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, which often presents with a single islet autoantibody, but not with classical type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We aimed to test if TCF7L2 is associated with single islet autoantibody expression in pediatric type 1 diabetes. We studied 71 prospectively recruited children who had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and evidence of islet autoimmunity, that is, expressed ≥1 islet autoantibody to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, islet cell autoantigen 512, or zinc transporter 8...
2014: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Ai Milojevic, Paul Wilkinson, Ben Armstrong, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Liam Smeeth, Shakoor Hajat
OBJECTIVE: To inform potential pathophysiological mechanisms of air pollution effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD), we investigated short-term associations between ambient air pollution and a range of cardiovascular events from three national databases in England and Wales. METHODS: Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, over 400,000 myocardial infarction (MI) events from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) database, over 2 million CVD emergency hospital admissions and over 600,000 CVD deaths were linked with daily mean concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2...
July 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Fàtima Crispi, Bart Bijnens, Eduardo Sepulveda-Swatson, Monica Cruz-Lemini, Juan Rojas-Benavente, Anna Gonzalez-Tendero, Raul Garcia-Posada, Merida Rodriguez-Lopez, Elena Demicheva, Marta Sitges, Eduard Gratacós
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with global adverse cardiac remodeling in utero and increased cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. Prenatal myocardial deformation has not been evaluated in FGR to date. We aimed to evaluate prenatal cardiac remodeling comprehensively in FGR including myocardial deformation imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography was performed in 37 consecutive FGR (defined as birthweight <10th centile) and 37 normally grown fetuses...
September 2014: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Theodora Boutsikou, Maria Giotaki, Demetrios Gourgiotis, Maria Boutsikou, Despina D Briana, Antonios Marmarinos, Stavroula Baka, Demetrios Hassiakos, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: To determine levels of the possible angioregulatory molecules netrin-1 and -4, in intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR), large for gestational age (LGA) (both groups characterized by altered angiogenic mechanisms) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) pregnancies. METHODS: Cord blood (UC) netrin-1 and -4 concentrations were measured in 30 IUGR, 30 LGA and 20 AGA infants and their mothers (MS). RESULTS: Netrin-1 and -4 concentrations did not differ in all groups...
December 2014: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
N Masoller, J M Martínez, O Gómez, M Bennasar, F Crispi, M Sanz-Cortés, G Egaña-Ugrinovic, J Bartrons, B Puerto, E Gratacós
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between congenital heart disease (CHD) and head biometry and cerebrovascular blood flow dynamics at the time of diagnosis of CHD in the second trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: This was a study of 95 consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD. At the time of diagnosis, fetal biometry was performed and brain perfusion was assessed by middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and fractional moving blood volume (FMBV)...
August 2014: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Abhay Lodha, Reg Sauvé, Vineet Bhandari, Selphee Tang, Heather Christianson, Anita Bhandari, Harish Amin, Nalini Singhal
OBJECTIVES: To determine if chronic oxygen dependency (discharge home on supplemental oxygen) in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; defined as requirement for supplemental O2 at 36 weeks postmenstrual age) predicts neurodevelopmental disability rates and growth outcomes at 36 months corrected age (CA). STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Southern Alberta regional center located at high altitude. PARTICIPANTS: Preterm infants weighing ≤1250 grams with no BPD, BPD, and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency...
2014: PloS One
D Fone, J White, D Farewell, M Kelly, G John, K Lloyd, G Williams, F Dunstan
BACKGROUND: The common mental disorders (CMDs) of anxiety and depression are the most common form of poor mental health in the general population. Evidence from the small number of previous cohort studies on the role of neighbourhood factors in mental health is inconclusive. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of neighbourhood social cohesion modify an adverse association between change in individual mental health and neighbourhood deprivation. METHOD: We carried out a longitudinal multilevel analysis using data from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Cohort Study with a 7-year follow-up (n = 4426; age range 18-74 years at baseline)...
August 2014: Psychological Medicine
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