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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332245/reprogramming-the-metabolome-rescues-retinal-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Karen Sophia Park, Christine L Xu, Xuan Cui, Stephen H Tsang
Metabolomics studies in the context of ophthalmology have largely focused on identifying metabolite concentrations that characterize specific retinal diseases. Studies involving mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have shown that individuals suffering from retinal diseases exhibit metabolic profiles that markedly differ from those of control individuals, supporting the notion that metabolites may serve as easily identifiable biomarkers for specific conditions. An emerging branch of metabolomics resulting from biomarker studies, however, involves the study of retinal metabolic dysfunction as causes of degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332237/acute-acetaminophen-ingestion-improves-performance-and-muscle-activation-during-maximal-intermittent-knee-extensor-exercise
#2
Paul T Morgan, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones, Stephen J Bailey
AIM: Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. METHODS: Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors with each contraction separated by a 2 s passive recovery period...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331272/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-and-new-onset-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-67-063-patients-with-4-165-incident-heart-failure-events
#3
Jonathan D W Evans, Stephen J H Dobbin, Stephen J Pettit, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Peter Willeit
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically collate and appraise the available evidence regarding the association between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) and incident heart failure (HF) and the added value of hs-cTn in HF prediction. BACKGROUND: Identification of subjects at high risk for HF and early risk factor modification with medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may delay the onset of HF. Hs-cTn has been suggested as a prognostic marker for the incidence of first-ever HF in asymptomatic subjects...
January 3, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#4
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329922/a-multistate-investigation-of-health-care-associated-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-related-to-liquid-docusate-sodium-contamination-january-october-2016
#5
Janet Glowicz, Matthew Crist, Carolyn Gould, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Judith Noble-Wang, Tom J B de Man, K Allison Perry, Zachary Miller, William C Yang, Stephen Langille, Jessica Ross, Bobbiejean Garcia, Janice Kim, Erin Epson, Stephanie Black, Massimo Pacilli, John J LiPuma, Ryan Fagan
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329332/co-delivery-of-a-laminin-111-supplemented-hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-with-minced-muscle-graft-in-the-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#6
Stephen M Goldman, Beth E P Henderson, Thomas J Walters, Benjamin T Corona
Minced muscle autografting mediates de novo myofiber regeneration and promotes partial recovery of neuromuscular strength after volumetric muscle loss injury (VML). A major limitation of this approach is the availability of sufficient donor tissue for the treatment of relatively large VMLs without inducing donor site morbidity. This study evaluated a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HA+LMN) as a putative myoconductive scaffolding to be co-delivered with minced muscle grafts. In a rat tibialis anterior muscle VML model, delivery of a reduced dose of minced muscle graft (50% of VML defect) within HA+LMN resulted in a 42% improvement of peak tetanic torque production over unrepaired VML affected limbs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327442/transplantation-or-rurality-migration-and-hiv-risk-among-chinese-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-urban-areas
#7
Chuncheng Liu, Rong Fu, Weiming Tang, Bolin Cao, Stephen W Pan, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker, M Kumi Smith
INTRODUCTION: Migration of men who have sex with men (MSM) from rural to urban areas is common across low- and middle-income countries and is widely believed to contribute to elevated HIV risk among migrant MSM in urban areas. Little consensus exists on whether their risk is due to their transplantation or their being from resource-constrained rural areas. This study seeks to clarify the relationship between migration and HIV risks by comparing differences in HIV-related risky sexual behaviours and healthcare utilization across competing conceptualizations of migratory statuses...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327151/impact-of-admission-hypertension-on-rates-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-treated-with-intensive-blood-pressure-control
#8
Hannah Hewgley, Stephen C Turner, Joseph E Vandigo, Jacob Marler, Heather Snyder, Jason J Chang, G Morgan Jones
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that rapid systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering to 140 mmHg may be considered in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients regardless of initial SBP. However, limited safety data exist in patients presenting with varying degrees of severe hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) based upon degree of presentation hypertension in ICH patients whose blood pressure was reduced intensively...
January 11, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326192/evidence-for-sample-selection-effect-and-hawthorne-effect-in-behavioural-hiv-prevention-trial-among-young-women-in-a-rural-south-african-community
#9
Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Rhian Twine, James P Hughes, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Ryan G Wagner, Afolabi Sulaimon, Stephen Tollman, Amanda Selin, Catherine MacPhail, Kathleen Kahn
OBJECTIVES: We examined the potential influence of both sample selection effects and Hawthorne effects in the behavioural HIV Prevention Trial Network 068 study, designed to examine whether cash transfers conditional on school attendance reduce HIV acquisition in young South African women. We explored whether school enrolment among study participants differed from the underlying population, and whether differences existed at baseline (sample selection effect) or arose during study participation (Hawthorne effect)...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325726/quality-of-life-disparities-between-persons-with-schizophrenia-and-their-professional-caregivers-network-analysis-in-a-national-cohort
#11
Anat Rotstein, David Roe, Marc Gelkopf, Efrat Shadmi, Stephen Z Levine
BACKGROUND: Disparities between mental health patients and their professional caregivers in quality of life appraisals have been identified, however, the structure that such disparities assume is unknown. AIMS: To examine the network structure of quality of life appraisals and disparities using network analysis. METHODS: Participants were 1639 persons with schizophrenia using psychiatric rehabilitation services and their primary professional caregivers (N=582)...
January 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324977/maternal-metabolic-immune-and-microbial-systems-in-late-pregnancy-vary-with-malnutrition-in-mice
#12
Kristin L Connor, Christel Chehoud, Adam Altrichter, Luisa Chan, Todd Z DeSantis, Stephen J Lye
Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. However, the impact of malnutrition on maternal gut microbes, and their relationships with maternal metabolic and immune status, has been largely underexplored...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324747/association-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-cancer-analysis-from-two-large-population-based-case-control-studies
#13
Walid Saliba, Hedy S Rennert, Naomi Gronich, Stephen B Gruber, Gad Rennert
BACKGROUND: An association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk of cancer has been suggested in several studies, including prospective cohort studies. However, the magnitude and the temporal nature of this association remain unclear. METHODS: Data from two large prospective population-based case-control studies, the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC, n = 8,383) and the Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS, n = 11,608), were used to better understand the nature and temporality of a possible association between cancer diagnosis and AF events before and after cancer diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324399/primary-intracranial-leiomyosarcoma-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Shannon J Gallagher, Stephen A Rosenberg, David Francis, Shahriar Salamat, Steven P Howard, Randall J Kimple
Primary leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor in the CNS, with few reported cases. Here, we describe a case of a primary intracranial leiomyosarcoma of the tentorium cerebelli. A 43-year-old woman presented with headache, acute vision loss, and difficulty speaking. MRI revealed a large heterogeneous-enhancing occipital mass, which was subsequently resected and diagnosed as a primary intracranial leiomyosarcoma. The patient went onto adjuvant radiotherapy delivering 60 Gy in 30 fractions. These tumors are exceedingly rare in immunocompetent individuals...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324212/managing-patients-with-oligometastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Sarah Jo Stephens, Michael J Moravan, Joseph K Salama
Metastatic lung cancer has long been considered incurable, with the goal of treatment being palliation. However, a clinically meaningful number of these patients with limited metastases (approximately 25%) are living long term after definitive treatment to all sites of active disease. These patients with so-called oligometastatic disease likely represent a distinct clinical group who may possess a more indolent biology compared with their more widely metastatic counterparts. Hellman and Weichselbaum proposed the existence of the oligometastatic state, on the basis of the spectrum theory of cancer spread...
January 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324083/effects-of-napping-during-shift-work-on-sleepiness-and-performance-in-emergency-medical-services-personnel-and-similar-shift-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Christian Martin-Gill, Laura K Barger, Charity G Moore, J Stephen Higgins, Ellen M Teasley, Patricia M Weiss, Joseph P Condle, Katharyn L Flickinger, Patrick J Coppler, Denisse J Sequeira, Ayushi A Divecha, Margaret E Matthews, Eddy S Lang, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324071/effect-of-task-load-interventions-on-fatigue-in-emergency-medical-services-personnel-and-other-shift-workers-a-systematic-review
#17
Jonathan R Studnek, Allison E Infinger, Megan L Renn, Patricia M Weiss, Joseph P Condle, Katharyn L Flickinger, Andrew J Kroemer, Brett R Curtis, Xiaoshuang Xun, Ayushi A Divecha, Patrick J Coppler, Zhadyra Bizhanova, Denisse J Sequeira, Eddy Lang, J Stephen Higgins, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Modifying the task load of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel may mitigate fatigue, sleep quality and fatigue related risks. A review of the literature addressing task load interventions may benefit EMS administrators as they craft policies related to mitigating fatigue. We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to address the following question: "In EMS personnel, do task load interventions mitigate fatigue, mitigate fatigue-related risks, and/or improve sleep?" (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016040114)...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324070/does-implementation-of-biomathematical-models-mitigate-fatigue-and-fatigue-related-risks-in-emergency-medical-services-operations-a-systematic-review
#18
Francine O James, Lauren B Waggoner, Patricia M Weiss, P Daniel Patterson, J Stephen Higgins, Eddy S Lang, Hans P A Van Dongen
BACKGROUND: Work schedules like those of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel have been associated with increased risk of fatigue-related impairment. Biomathematical modeling is a means of objectively estimating the potential impacts of fatigue on performance, which may be used in the mitigation of fatigue-related safety risks. In the context of EMS operations, our objective was to assess the evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of using biomathematical models to help mitigate fatigue and fatigue-related risks...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324066/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-caffeine-in-fatigued-shift-workers-implications-for-emergency-medical-services-personnel
#19
Jennifer L Temple, David Hostler, Christian Martin-Gill, Charity G Moore, Patricia M Weiss, Denisse J Sequeira, Joseph P Condle, Eddy S Lang, J Stephen Higgins, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers may experience fatigue as a consequence of shift work. We reviewed the literature to determine the impact of caffeine as a countermeasure to fatigue in EMS personnel and related shift workers. METHODS: We employed the GRADE methodology to perform a systematic literature review and search multiple databases for research that examined the impact of caffeine on outcomes of interest, such as patient and EMS personnel safety...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324059/effect-of-fatigue-training-on-safety-fatigue-and-sleep-in-emergency-medical-services-personnel-and-other-shift-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Laura K Barger, Michael S Runyon, Megan L Renn, Charity G Moore, Patricia M Weiss, Joseph P Condle, Katharyn L Flickinger, Ayushi A Divecha, Patrick J Coppler, Denisse J Sequeira, Eddy S Lang, J Stephen Higgins, P Daniel Patterson
BACKGROUND: Fatigue training may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. We aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of fatigue training on fatigue-related outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and similar shift worker groups. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review for studies that tested the impact of fatigue training of EMS personnel or similar shift workers. Outcomes of interest included personnel safety, patient safety, personnel performance, acute fatigue, indicators of sleep duration and quality, indicators of long-term health (e...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
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