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Stephen May

Stephen Robert Puntis, Jorun Rugkåsa, Tom Burns
PURPOSE: Providing good continuity of care to patients is considered a vital component of community mental health services, but there is limited evidence that it is associated with good outcomes. We measured service use and a multidimensional concept of continuity of care in 323 patients who were to be discharged from hospital following compulsory treatment for psychosis to investigate the association between continuity and rehospitalisation. METHODS: We conducted a 36-month prospective cohort study of the patients recruited to the Oxford Community Treatment Order Trial (OCTET)...
October 25, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sara Lodi, Shweta Sharma, Jens D Lundgren, Andrew N Phillips, Stephen R Cole, Roger Logan, Brian K Agan, Abdel Babiker, Hartwig Klinker, Haitao Chu, Matthew Law, James D Neaton, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier than the protocol specified. To supplement the published intention-to-treat (ITT) effect estimates, here we estimate the per-protocol effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation in START...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
Stephen M McHugh, James W Ibinson, Vishnu P Murty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Laura McGowan, Gerda K Pot, Alison M Stephen, Fiona Lavelle, Michelle Spence, Monique Raats, Lynsey Hollywood, Dawn McDowell, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Martin Caraher, Moira Dean
BACKGROUND: Interventions to increase cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) as a route to improving overall diet are popular within public health. This study tested a comprehensive model of diet quality by assessing the influence of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. The correspondence of two measures of diet quality further validated the Eating Choices Index (ECI) for use in quantitative research. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a quota-controlled nationally representative sample of 1049 adults aged 20-60 years drawn from the Island of Ireland...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Virginia Schmied, Rachel Langdon, Stephen Matthey, Lynn Kemp, Marie-Paule Austin, Maree Johnson
BACKGROUND: Poor mental health in the perinatal period can impact negatively on women, their infants and families. Australian State and Territory governments are investing in routine psychosocial assessment and depression screening with referral to services and support, however, little is known about how well these services are used. The aim of this paper is to report on the health services used by women for their physical and mental health needs from pregnancy to 12 months after birth and to compare service use for women who have been identified in pregnancy as having moderate-high psychosocial risk with those with low psychosocial risk...
October 25, 2016: BMC Women's Health
Lynda C Ikejimba, Stephen J Glick, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Ehsan Samei, Joseph Y Lo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to quantify the differences in detectability between full field digital mammography (FFDM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and synthetic mammography (SM) for challenging, low contrast signals, in the context of both a uniform and an anthropomorphic, textured phantom. METHODS: Images of the phantoms were acquired using a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system. Images were taken at 50%, 100%, and 200% of the dose delivered under automatic exposure control (AEC)...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Ensheng Weng, Caroline E Farrior, Ray Dybzinski, Stephen W Pacala
Earth system models are incorporating plant trait diversity into their land components to better predict vegetation dynamics in a changing climate. However, extant plant trait distributions will not allow extrapolations to novel community assemblages in future climates; that will require a mechanistic understanding of the trade-offs that determine trait diversity. In this study, we show how physiological trade-offs involving leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf lifespan, leaf nitrogen, and leaf respiration may explain the distribution patterns of evergreen and deciduous trees in the temperate and boreal zones based on (1) an evolutionary analysis of a simple mathematical model and (2) simulation experiments of an individual-based dynamic vegetation model (i...
October 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
G M E E Geeske Peeters, Sophia Rainbird, Michelle Lorimer, Annette J Dobson, Gita D Mishra, Stephen E Graves
Background and purpose - There are concerns that mental health (MH) may influence outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examined effects of poor MH before surgery on long-term outcomes of osteoarthritis-related TKA or THA in women. Patients and methods - The data were from 9,737 middle-aged participants (47-52 years) and 9,292 older participants (73-78 years) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who completed surveys between 1998 and 2013. Dates of arthroplasties were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedics Association National Joint Replacement Registry...
October 26, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Abhishek Gupta, Wan Li Low, Iza Radecka, Stephen T Britland, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Claire Martin
Wounds that remain in the inflammatory phase for a prolonged period of time are likely to be colonised and infected by a range of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. Treatment associated with these types of wounds mainly focuses on controlling infection and providing an optimum environment capable of facilitating re-epithelialisation, thus promoting wound healing. Hydrogels have attracted vast interest as moist wound-responsive dressing materials. In the current study, biosynthetic bacterial cellulose hydrogels synthesised by Gluconacetobacter xylinus and subsequently loaded with silver were characterised and investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two representative wound infecting pathogens, namely S...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
Jonathan B Shurin, Michael D Burkart, Stephen P Mayfield, Val H Smith
Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae...
2016: F1000Research
Corey A Siegel, Cynthia B Whitman, Brennan M R Spiegel, Brian Feagan, Bruce Sands, Edward V Loftus, Remo Panaccione, Geert D'Haens, Charles N Bernstein, Richard Gearry, Siew C Ng, Gerassimos J Mantzaris, Balfour Sartor, Mark S Silverberg, Robert Riddell, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Colm O'Morain, Peter L Lakatos, Dermot P B McGovern, Jonas Halfvarson, Walter Reinisch, Gerhard Rogler, Wolfgang Kruis, Curt Tysk, Stefan Schreiber, Silvio Danese, William Sandborn, Anne Griffiths, Bjorn Moum, Christoph Gasche, Francesco Pallone, Simon Travis, Julian Panes, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Stephen Hanauer, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Disease activity for Crohn's disease (CD) and UC is typically defined based on symptoms at a moment in time, and ignores the long-term burden of disease. The aims of this study were to select the attributes determining overall disease severity, to rank the importance of and to score these individual attributes for both CD and UC. METHODS: Using a modified Delphi panel, 14 members of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) selected the most important attributes related to IBD...
October 25, 2016: Gut
Dominique Peppers, Stephen F Figoni, Breda W Carroll, Michael M Chen, Sungchan Song, Witaya Mathiyakom
BACKGROUND: Physicians have difficulty predicting patients' occupational limitations, abilities and success from clinical evaluation (CE) of pathology and impairments, especially in the presence of chronic pain. Additional information from functional capacity evaluation (FCE) may improve the accuracy of their physical capacity assessments. It is not known if FCE information will change these assessments. No such study has been published using Veterans or non-Veterans. OBJECTIVE: to determine the influence of FCE data on the physician's assessment of the U...
October 22, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Stella Liong, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Infection and inflammation stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which play a central role in myometrial contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. In human and mouse immune cells, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a negative regulator of inflammation. No studies have examined the role of ATF3 in human labour. METHODS: Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β and the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide (fsl-1) on ATF3 expression, and the effect of ATF3 siRNA on pro-labour mediators...
November 2016: Placenta
Joseph Chi-Ching Tsui, Carol Po-Ying Lau, Alex Chun Cheung, Kwok-Chuen Wong, Lin Huang, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Shekhar Madhukar Kumta
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is the most commonly reported non-malignant bone tumor in Hong Kong. This kind of tumor usually affects people aged 20-40 years. Also, it is well known for recurrence locally, especially when the tumor cannot be removed completely. Filamins are actin-binding proteins which contain three family members, filamin A, B and C. They are the products of three different genes, FLNA, FLNB and FLNC, which can generate various transcript variants in different cell types. In this study, we focused on the effects of FLNBv2 and FLNBv4 toward GCT cells...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Rajeev K Dubey, Nick Westerveld, Stephen J Eustace, Ernst J R Sudhölter, Ferdinand C Grozema, Wolter F Jager
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions on 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic monoimide dibutylester, using phenol and pyrrolidine reagents, have been exploited to synthesize perylenes with four different substituents at the perylene core. The first substitution is always regiospecific at the imide-activated 7-position. A second substitution reaction does not always replace the bromine at C-1, but may replace a phenol substituent at the highly activated 7-position. Exploiting this reactivity pattern, a "mixed" 1,7-diphenoxy, 1,7-dipyrrolidinyl, and two 1-phenoxy-7-pyrrolidinyl derivatives have been synthesized...
October 25, 2016: Organic Letters
Pauline N Serrano, Hongxin Wang, Jason C Crack, Christopher Prior, Matthew I Hutchings, Andrew J Thomson, Saeed Kamali, Yoshitaka Yoda, Jiyong Zhao, Michael Y Hu, Ercan E Alp, Vasily S Oganesyan, Nick E Le Brun, Stephen P Cramer
The reaction of protein-bound iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters with nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in NO-mediated toxicity and signaling. Elucidation of the mechanism of the reaction of NO with DNA regulatory proteins that contain Fe-S clusters has been hampered by a lack of information about the nature of the iron-nitrosyl products formed. Herein, we report nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that identify NO reaction products in WhiD and NsrR, regulatory proteins that use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to sense NO...
October 25, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Jonathan Yde, Stephen Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller
In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Matthew J Gazzellone, Mehdi Zarrei, Christie L Burton, Susan Walker, Mohammed Uddin, S M Shaheen, Julie Coste, Rageen Rajendram, Reva J Schachter, Marlena Colasanto, Gregory L Hanna, David R Rosenberg, Noam Soreni, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christian R Marshall, Janet A Buchanan, Daniele Merico, Paul D Arnold, Stephen W Scherer
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD. METHODS: We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Max Petzold, Mark Collinson, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Peter Byass
BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag-from death to VA interview-can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. This study investigates the impact of recall period on causes of death determined by VA. METHODS: A total of 10,882 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) with complete VAs, including recall period, were incorporated in this study...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
Anne M Fitzpatrick, Daniel J Jackson, David T Mauger, Susan J Boehmer, Wanda Phipatanakul, William J Sheehan, James N Moy, Ian M Paul, Leonard B Bacharier, Michael D Cabana, Ronina Covar, Fernando Holguin, Robert F Lemanske, Fernando D Martinez, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Avraham Beigelman, Sachin N Baxi, Mindy Benson, Kathryn Blake, James F Chmiel, Cori L Daines, Michael O Daines, Jonathan M Gaffin, Deborah Ann Gentile, W Adam Gower, Elliot Israel, Harsha Vardhan Kumar, Jason E Lang, Stephen C Lazarus, John J Lima, Ngoc Ly, Jyothi Marbin, Wayne Morgan, Ross E Myers, J Tod Olin, Stephen P Peters, Hengameh H Raissy, Rachel G Robison, Kristie Ross, Christine A Sorkness, Shannon M Thyne, Stanley J Szefler
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic presentations in young children with asthma are varied and may contribute to differential responses to asthma controller medications. METHODS: The Individualized Therapy for Asthma in Toddlers (INFANT) study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, clinical trial in children age 12-59 months (n=300) with asthma necessitating treatment with daily controller (Step 2) therapy. Participants completed a 2-8 week run-in period followed by three crossover periods with daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), daily leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA), and as-needed ICS treatment co-administered with albuterol...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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