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Stephen May

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168299/17%C3%AE-estradiol-acts-through-hypothalamic-pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing-neurons-to-reduce-feeding-behavior
#1
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo, Vicky Ping Chen, Lora C Bailey-Downs, Teresa Y Xie, Martin Ghadami, Stephen Brimijoin, Willard M Freeman, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Michael B Stout
Weight loss is an effective intervention for diminishing disease burden in obese older adults. Pharmacological interventions that reduce food intake and thereby promote weight loss may offer effective strategies to reduce age-related disease. We previously reported that 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) administration elicits beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation in old male mice. These observations were associated with reduced calorie intake. Here, we demonstrate that 17α-E2 acts through pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) to reduce food intake and body mass in mouse models of obesity...
November 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167324/the-impact-of-spatio-temporal-calcium-dynamics-within-presynaptic-active-zones-on-synaptic-delay-at-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#2
Anne E Homan, Rozita Laghaei, Markus Dittrich, Stephen D Meriney
The spatio-temporal calcium dynamics within presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites (active zones, AZs) at the time of synaptic vesicle fusion is critical for neurotransmitter release. Specifically, the relative arrangement and density of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) as well as the concentration of calcium buffering proteins can play a large role in the timing, magnitude and plasticity of release by shaping the AZ calcium profile. However, a high-resolution understanding of the role of AZ structure on the spatiotemporal calcium dynamics and how that may contribute to functional heterogeneity at an adult synapse is currently lacking...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167213/interaction-of-dietary-and-genetic-factors-influencing-body-iron-status-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-within-the-epic-interact-study
#3
Karina Meidtner, Clara Podmore, Janine Kröger, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Benedetta Bendinelli, Claudia Agnoli, Larraitz Arriola, Aurelio Barricarte, Heiner Boeing, Amanda J Cross, Courtney Dow, Kim Ekblom, Guy Fagherazzi, Paul W Franks, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Paula Jakszyn, Mazda Jenab, Verena A Katzke, Timothy J Key, Kay Tee Khaw, Tilman Kühn, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Olle Melander, Peter M Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J Ramón Quirós, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Carlotta Sacerdote, Ivonne Sluijs, Magdalena Stepien, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Nita G Forouhi, Stephen J Sharp, Claudia Langenberg, Matthias B Schulze, Elio Riboli, Nicholas J Wareham
OBJECTIVE: Meat intake has been consistently shown to be positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. We aimed to test for interactions of genetic and dietary factors influencing body iron status in relation to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The case-cohort comprised 9,347 case subjects and 12,301 subcohort participants from eight European countries...
November 22, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167197/rare-pfcsp-c-terminal-antibodies-induced-by-live-sporozoite-vaccination-are-ineffective-against-malaria-infection
#4
Stephen W Scally, Rajagopal Murugan, Alexandre Bosch, Gianna Triller, Giulia Costa, Benjamin Mordmüller, Peter G Kremsner, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Hedda Wardemann, Jean-Philippe Julien
Antibodies against the central repeat of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) inhibit parasite activity and correlate with protection from malaria. However, the humoral response to the PfCSP C terminus (C-PfCSP) is less well characterized. Here, we describe B cell responses to C-PfCSP from European donors who underwent immunization with live Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge) under chloroquine prophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac), and were protected against controlled human malaria infection. Out of 215 PfCSP-reactive monoclonal antibodies, only two unique antibodies were specific for C-PfCSP, highlighting the rare occurrence of C-PfCSP-reactive B cells in PfSPZ-CVac-induced protective immunity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167065/a-systematic-review-of-practice-guidelines-and-recommendations-for-discontinuation-of-cholinesterase-inhibitors-in-dementia
#5
REVIEW
Brenna N Renn, Ali Abbas Asghar-Ali, Stephen Thielke, Angela Catic, Sharyl R Martini, Brian G Mitchell, Mark E Kunik
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the primary pharmacological treatment for symptom management of Alzheimer disease (AD), but they carry known risks during long-term use, and do not guarantee clinical effects over time. The balance of risks and benefits may warrant discontinuation at different points during the disease course. Indeed, although there is limited scientific study of deprescribing ChEIs, clinicians routinely face practical decisions about whether to continue or stop medications. This review examined published practice recommendations for discontinuation of ChEIs in AD...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166701/when-is-protection-from-impact-needed-for-the-face-as-well-as-the-eyes-in-occupational-environments
#6
Stephen J Dain, Rose Huang, Aimee Tiao, B Ralph Chou
BACKGROUND: The most commonly identified reason for requiring or using occupational eye and face protection is for protection against flying objects. Standards vary on what risk may require protection of the eyes alone and what requires protection for the whole face. Information on the minimum energy transfer for face damage to occur is not well-established. METHODS: The heads of pigs were used as the common model for human skin. A 6 mm steel ball projected at velocities between 45 and 135 m/s was directed at the face area...
November 22, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165653/transgenerational-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-imprinted-genes-in-brain
#7
Zuzana Drobná, Anne D Henriksen, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Catalina Montiel, Philip S Lambeth, Stephen Shang, Erin P Harris, Changqing Zhou, Jodi A Flaws, Mazhar Adli, Emilie F Rissman
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous man-made endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). Developmental exposure to BPA changes behavioral and reproductive phenotypes and these effects can last for generations. We exposed embryos to BPA producing two lineages: controls and BPA-exposed. In the third generation (F3), brain tissues containing the preoptic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamus were collected. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and subsequent data analyses revealed 50 differentially regulated genes in the brains of F3 juveniles from BPA- versus control-lineages...
November 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165576/timing-of-first-respiratory-virus-detections-in-infants-a-community-based-birth-cohort-study
#8
Mohinder Sarna, Robert S Ware, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood
Background: Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort, and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164976/ibrutinib-and-idelalisib-block-immunophenotypic-changes-associated-with-the-adhesion-and-activation-of-cll-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#9
Yandong Shen, O Giles Best, Stephen P Mulligan, Richard I Christopherson
The lymph node and bone marrow microenvironments promote the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. Defining the immunophenotype of CLL cells from the tumor microenvironment may help to better understand the mechanisms of action of current therapies and identify novel drug targets. Significant changes in the levels of 25 CD antigens were identified using the DotScan™ antibody microarray following CLL-cell culture with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. Ibrutinib or idelalisib countered the change in expression of 11 of these antigens (CD23, CD27, CD53, CD58, CD71, CD80, CD84, CD97, CD126, CD150, and FMC7), which have known roles in cell activation and adhesion...
November 22, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164875/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-two-peptide-lantibiotic-lacticin-3147
#10
Alireza Bakhtiary, Stephen A Cochrane, Pascal Mercier, Ryan T McKay, Mark Miskolzie, Clarissa S Sit, John C Vederas
Lacticin 3147 is a two peptide lantibiotc (LtnA1 and LtnA2) that displays nanomolar activity against many Gram-positive bacteria. Lacticin 3147 may exert its antimicrobial effect by several mechanisms. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that only LtnA1 binds to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II, which could inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis. An experimentally supported model of the resulting complex suggests that the key binding partners are the C-terminus of LtnA1 and pyrophosphate of lipid II...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164809/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-anastomotic-dehiscence-after-colorectal-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Yeqian Huang, Stephen R Tang, Christopher J Young
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols supports the post-operative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to minimize the use of opioids. However, there is an increasing concern on the impaired wound healing of anastomosis associated with NSAID use, potentially causing a higher risk of anastomotic leakage. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of NSAIDs with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrial...
November 22, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164369/birth-date-promotes-a-tortoise-or-hare-tactic-for-body-mass-development-of-a-long-lived-male-ungulate
#12
Eric S Michel, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang
Maternal and early-life influences may affect life-long individual phenotype, potentially influencing reproductive success. However, some individuals may compensate for a poor start to life, which may improve longevity and reproductive success later in life. We developed four models to assess whether maternal characteristics (age, body mass and previous year cumulative lactation demand) and/or birth date influenced a long-lived mammal's phenotype to maturity. We used a directional separation analysis to assess the relative influence of each maternal characteristic and birth date on captive male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) body mass and antler size...
November 21, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164191/characterising-the-evaporation-kinetics-of-water-and-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-from-viscous-multicomponent-organic-aerosol-particles
#13
Stephen Ingram, Chen Cai, Young-Chul Song, David R Glowacki, David O Topping, Simon O'Meara, Jonathan P Reid
The physicochemical changes experienced by organic aerosol particles undergoing dehydration into the surrounding gas phase can be drastic, forcing rapid vitrification of the particle and suppressing internal diffusion. Until recently, experimental studies have concentrated on quantifying diffusional mixing of either water or non-volatile components, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of semivolatile organic component (SVOC) diffusion and volatilisation in maintaining the equilibrium between the gas and particle phases...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164092/the-nuisance-mosquito-anopheles-plumbeus-stephens-1828-in-germany-a-questionnaire-survey-may-help-support-surveillance-and-control
#14
Eva C Heym, Jette Schröder, Helge Kampen, Doreen Walther
The mosquito species Anopheles plumbeus is an aggressive biter and a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. It occurs naturally at low population densities, as its larval development is adapted to the specific water qualities found in tree holes. However, probably owing to environmental changes, it has recently been observed in several European countries to use increasingly often artificial breeding habitats that may lead to mass development and severe annoyance to humans living close by...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163270/facial-shape-analysis-identifies-valid-cues-to-aspects-of-physiological-health-in-caucasian-asian-and-african-populations
#15
Ian D Stephen, Vivian Hiew, Vinet Coetzee, Bernard P Tiddeman, David I Perrett
Facial cues contribute to attractiveness, including shape cues such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism. These cues may represent cues to objective aspects of physiological health, thereby conferring an evolutionary advantage to individuals who find them attractive. The link between facial cues and aspects of physiological health is therefore central to evolutionary explanations of attractiveness. Previously, studies linking facial cues to aspects of physiological health have been infrequent, have had mixed results, and have tended to focus on individual facial cues in isolation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163147/chronic-psychological-stress-was-not-ameliorated-by-omega-3-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa
#16
Joanne Bradbury, Stephen P Myers, Barbara Meyer, Lyndon Brooks, Jonathan Peake, Andrew J Sinclair, Con Stough
Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) from seafood have been observed. Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and chronic psychological stress. Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163064/turtle-flexion-reflex-motor-patterns-show-windup-mediated-partly-by-l-type-calcium-channels
#17
Keith P Johnson, Stephen M Tran, Emily A Siegrist, Krishna B Paidimarri, Matthew S Elson, Ari Berkowitz
Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca(2+) channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca(2+) channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex) in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163063/acetylcholine-neuromodulation-in-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-vigilance-control-in-waking-sleep-autism-amnesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Stephen Grossberg
Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh). In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163036/amino-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-antibody-blocks-%C3%AE-amyloid-mediated-inhibition-of-the-high-affinity-choline-transporter-cht
#19
Leah K Cuddy, Claudia Seah, Stephen H Pasternak, R Jane Rylett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The deficits in cognition and attentional processing that are observed clinically in AD are linked to impaired function of cholinergic neurons that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is present at the presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminal and is responsible for the reuptake of choline produced by hydrolysis of ACh following its release...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163018/brain-networks-implicated-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-a-neuroimaging-pet-study-of-the-serotonin-transporter
#20
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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