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Prefrontal cortex irish

Fiona Kumfor, Alice Zhen, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
OBJECTIVE: Apathy is the most prevalent and disabling non-cognitive symptom of dementia and affects 90% of patients across the disease course. Despite its pervasiveness, how apathy manifests across dementia syndromes and the neurobiological mechanisms driving these symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we applied the multidimensional ABC model of apathy, which recognizes Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive apathy, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
March 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al., 2018 in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Donna Cosgrove, Omar Mothersill, Kimberley Kendall, Bettina Konte, Denise Harold, Ina Giegling, Annette Hartmann, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael Gill, Dan Rujescu, James Walters, Aiden Corvin, Derek W Morris, Gary Donohoe
With >100 common variants associated with schizophrenia risk, establishing their biological significance is a priority. We sought to establish cognitive effects of risk variants at loci implicated in synaptic transmission by (1) identifying GWAS schizophrenia variants whose associated gene function is related to synaptic transmission, and (2) testing for association between these and measures of neurocognitive function. We selected variants, reported in the largest GWAS to date, associated with genes involved in synaptic transmission...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Siddharth Ramanan, Maxime Bertoux, Emma Flanagan, Muireann Irish, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
OBJECTIVES: With comparable baseline performance on executive functions (EF) and memory between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it is currently unclear if both diseases can be distinguished longitudinally on these measures reliably. METHODS: A total of 111 participants (33 AD, 31 bvFTD, and 47 controls) were followed-up annually over a 4-year period and tested on measures of EF, memory, and orientation. Linear mixed-effect models were constructed using disease severity as a nuisance variable to examine profiles of neuropsychological performance decline...
January 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Claire O'Callaghan, Maxime Bertoux, Muireann Irish, James M Shine, Stephanie Wong, Leonidas Spiliopoulos, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
Adherence to social norms is compromised in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies have investigated social norm compliance in healthy individuals, leading to the identification of a network of fronto-subcortical regions that underpins this ability. However, there is a lack of corroborative evidence from human lesion models investigating the structural anatomy of norm compliance across this fronto-subcortical network. To address this, we developed a neuroeconomic task to investigate social norm compliance in a neurodegenerative lesion model: behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, a condition characterized by gross social dysfunction...
January 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Claire O'Callaghan, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Muireann Irish
Self-generated cognition, or mind wandering, refers to the quintessentially human tendency to withdraw from the immediate external environment and engage in internally driven mentation. This thought activity is suggested to be underpinned by a distributed set of regions in the brain, referred to as the default network. To date, experimental assessment of mind wandering has typically taken place during performance of a concurrent attention-demanding task. The attentional demands of concurrent tasks can influence the emergence of mind wandering, and their application to clinical disorders with reduced cognitive resources is limited...
February 2015: Brain and Cognition
Muireann Irish, Emma Devenney, Stephanie Wong, Carol Dobson-Stone, John B Kwok, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
The recently discovered hexanucleotide repeat expansion, C9ORF72, has been shown to be among the most common cause of familial behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and to be present in a significant minority of apparently sporadic cases. While mounting evidence points to prominent episodic memory dysfunction in bvFTD cases, recent reports have also suggested an amnestic profile in C9ORF72 mutation carriers. No study to date, however, has formally characterised the extent to which episodic memory is impaired in C9ORF72 mutation versus sporadic cases, or the underlying neural substrates of such deficits...
2013: NeuroImage: Clinical
Muireann Irish, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Remembering the past and imagining the future are complex endeavours proposed to rely on a core neurobiological brain system. In the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), regional patterns of brain atrophy affect medial prefrontal and temporal cortices of this core network. While autobiographical memory impairments have been documented in bvFTD, it remains unknown whether the ability to imagine future events is also compromised. Here, we investigated episodic future thinking in 10 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and healthy matched Control (n = 10) participants...
October 2013: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Kazutaka Ohi, Ryota Hashimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Tetsuhiko Yoshida, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Naomi Iike, Masao Iwase, Kouzin Kamino, Ryouhei Ishii, Hiroaki Kazui, Motoyuki Fukumoto, Hironori Takamura, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiyo Azechi, Koji Ikezawa, Hitoshi Tanimukai, Shinji Tagami, Takashi Morihara, Masayasu Okochi, Kazuo Yamada, Shusuke Numata, Masashi Ikeda, Toshihisa Tanaka, Takashi Kudo, Shu-Ichi Ueno, Takeo Yoshikawa, Tetsuro Ohmori, Nakao Iwata, Norio Ozaki, Masatoshi Takeda
The chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) gene acts as a cellular survival factor in response to several environmental and psychosocial stresses. The expression level of CHI3L1 was increased in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions of patients with schizophrenia. Genetic variants of the CHI3L1 gene have been significantly associated with schizophrenia in two distinct ethnic groups, the Chinese and Irish populations. The aims of this study are to confirm the association between the CHI3L1 gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population using the largest sample size to date (1463 cases and 1795 controls) and perform a meta-analysis of the combined samples (3005 cases, 3825 controls and 601 trios)...
February 2010: Schizophrenia Research
Dawn L Thiselton, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Joseph McClay, Brandon Wormley, Ayman Fanous, Francis A O'Neill, Dermot Walsh, Edwin J C G Van den Oord, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signal transduction pathway is critical to cell growth and survival. In vitro functional studies indicate that the candidate schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 influences AKT signaling to promote neuronal viability. The AKT1 gene has also been implicated in schizophrenia by association studies and decreased protein expression in the brains of schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The association of DTNBP1 in the Irish Study of High Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) prompted our investigation of AKT1 for association with disease in this sample...
March 1, 2008: Biological Psychiatry
B P Riley, G Kalsi, P-H Kuo, V Vladimirov, D L Thiselton, J Vittum, B Wormley, M S Grotewiel, D G Patterson, P F Sullivan, E van den Oord, D Walsh, K S Kendler, C A Prescott
Because tolerance is an important aspect of alcohol dependence (AD) in humans, recent evidence showing that the Drosophila gene hang is critically involved in the development of alcohol tolerance in the fly suggests that variation in related human loci might be important in the etiology of alcohol-related disorders. The orthology of hang in mammals is complex, but a number of human gene products (including ZNF699) with similar levels of amino-acid identity (18-26%) and similarity (30-41%), are consistently identified as the best matches with the translated hang sequence...
November 2006: Molecular Psychiatry
Mark A Bellgrove, Katharina Domschke, Ziarih Hawi, Aiveen Kirley, Celine Mullins, Ian H Robertson, Michael Gill
ADHD is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder of childhood. A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has attracted interest as a candidate gene for ADHD. The high-activity valine variant of this polymorphism degrades prefrontal dopamine three to four times more quickly than the low-activity methionine variant and could therefore contribute to the proposed hypodopaminergic state in ADHD. Here we tested for association of this polymorphism with ADHD and examined its influence on prefrontal cognition in ADHD...
June 2005: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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