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Hikaru Sawano, Takuma Matsuzaki, Tomoyuki Usui, Midori Tabara, Akihito Fukudome, Akihiro Kanaya, Daichi Tanoue, Akihiro Hiraguri, Gorou Horiguchi, Misato Ohtani, Taku Demura, Toshinori Kozaki, Kazuo Ishii, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has five double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (DRB1-DRB5), two of which, DRB1 and DRB4, are well characterized. In contrast, the functions of DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we tried to uncover their functions using drb mutants and DRB-over-expressed lines. In over-expressed lines of all five DRB genes, the over-expression of DRB2 or DRB3 (DRB2ox or DRB3ox) conferred a downward-curled leaf phenotype, but the expression profiles of ten small RNAs were similar to that of the wild-type (WT) plant...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Priya Raja, Jamie N Jackel, Sizhun Li, Isaac M Heard, David M Bisaro
UNLABELLED: Arabidopsis encodes five double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins. DRB1 and DRB2 are involved in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, while DRB4 functions in cytoplasmic posttranscriptional small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathways. DRB3 and DRB5 are not involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) processing but assist in silencing transcripts targeted by DRB2-associated miRNAs. The goal of this study was to determine which, if any, of the DRB proteins might also participate in a nuclear siRNA pathway that leads to geminivirus genome methylation...
March 2014: Journal of Virology
Andrew L Eamens, Ki Wook Kim, Peter M Waterhouse
DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA BINDING (DRB) proteins have been functionally characterized in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are involved in all aspects of RNA biology. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) encodes five closely related DRB proteins, DRB1 to DRB5. DRB1 and DRB4 are required by DICER-LIKE (DCL) proteins DCL1 and DCL4 to accurately and efficiently process structurally distinct double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursor substrates in the microRNA (miRNA) and trans-acting small-interfering RNA (tasiRNA) biogenesis pathways respectively...
October 1, 2012: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Andrew L Eamens, Ki Wook Kim, Shaun J Curtin, Peter M Waterhouse
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA BINDING (DRB) protein family consists of five members, DRB1 to DRB5. The biogenesis of two developmentally important small RNA (sRNA) species, the microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) by DICER-LIKE (DCL) endonucleases requires the assistance of DRB1 and DRB4 respectively. The importance of miRNA-directed target gene expression in plant development is exemplified by the phenotypic consequence of loss of DRB1 activity (drb1 plants)...
2012: PloS One
Shaun J Curtin, John M Watson, Neil A Smith, Andrew L Eamens, Chris L Blanchard, Peter M Waterhouse
Dicers are associated with double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (dsRBPs) in animals. In the plant, Arabidopsis, there are four dicer-like (DCL) proteins and five potential dsRBPs. These DCLs act redundantly and hierarchically. However, we show there is little or no redundancy or hierarchy amongst the DRBs in their DCL interactions. DCL1 operates exclusively with DRB1 to produce micro (mi)RNAs, DCL4 operates exclusively with DRB4 to produce trans-acting (ta) siRNAs and 21nt siRNAs from viral RNA. DCL2 and DCL3 produce viral siRNAs without requiring assistance from any dsRBP...
August 6, 2008: FEBS Letters
Y Satta, W E Mayer, J Klein
Human DRB genes encode beta chains of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Although nine DRB loci have been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6, an individual chromosome contains only one to five loci and is classified into one of five major haplotypes. To elucidate the origin of human DRB loci and haplotypes, intron 1 sequences approximately 5000 bp in length were determined for three DRB1 alleles (DRB1*03, DRB1*04, and DRB1*15) and five DRB genes (DRB2, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DRB7)...
November 1996: Human Immunology
Y Satta, W E Mayer, J Klein
The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) consists of class I and class II genes. In the human Mhc (HLA) class II genes, nine DRB loci have been identified. To elucidate the origin of these duplicated loci and allelic divergences at the most polymorphic DRB1 locus, introns 4 and 5 as well as the 3' untranslated region (altogether approximately 1,000 base pairs) of seven HLA-DRB loci, three HLA-DRB1 alleles, and nine nonhuman primate DRB genes were examined. It is shown that there were two major diversification events in HLA-DRB genes, each involving gene duplications and allelic divergences...
June 1996: Journal of Molecular Evolution
M Kenter, N Otting, M de Weers, J Anholts, C Reiter, M Jonker, R E Bontrop
Mhc-DRB and -DQA1 second-exon and -DRB 3'-untranslated-region nucleotide sequences of three lowland gorillas with no known family relationship with each other and of two HLA homozygous typing cell lines were determined and compared with published primate Mhc-DRB and -DQA1 sequences. Eleven distinct MhcGogo-DRB second-exon sequences were found, which represent the gorilla counterparts of the HLA-DRB1*03, -DRB1*10, -DRB3, -DRB5, and -DRB6 allelic lineages. One Gogo-DRB second-exon sequence does not have an obvious human counterpart and is tentatively designated Gogo-DRBY*01...
April 1993: Human Immunology
U Gyllensten, M Sundvall, I Ezcurra, H A Erlich
The evolution of polymorphism at loci encoding the beta-chains of the MHC class II DR Ag was studied in primates by DNA amplification (polymerase chain reaction). Phylogenetic analysis of 63 DRB sequences from the polymorphic second exon (first domain) of nonhuman primates and 53 human sequences indicates the presence of five DRB loci in primates, derived from a DRB1-like ancestral locus over 20 million yr ago. Many of the allelic types at the DRB1 locus predate the divergence of hominoids (5 million yr ago) and some (DR4, DR3, 5, 6) predate the divergence of Old world monkeys and hominoids (20 million yr ago)...
June 15, 1991: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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