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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780917/advanced-pigment-dispersion-glaucoma-secondary-to-phakic-intraocular-collamer-lens-implant
#1
Clara Ye, Cajal K Patel, Anna C Momont, Yao Liu
Purpose: We report a case of pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to uncomplicated phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) (Visian ICL™, Staar Inc., Monrovia, CA) implant that resulted in advanced visual field loss. Observations: A 50-year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) placement 8 years earlier. He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the left eye...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774626/analysis-of-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-plexiform-neurofibromas-and-neurofibromas-with-atypical-features-correlating-histological-and-genomic-findings
#2
Meritxell Carrió, Bernat Gel, Ernest Terribas, Adriana Carolina Zucchiatti, Teresa Moliné, Inma Rosas, Álex Teulé, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Juan Carlos López-Gutiérrez, Ignacio Blanco, Elisabeth Castellanos, Conxi Lázaro, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Cleofé Romagosa, Eduard Serra
Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors involving large nerves present in 30-50% Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. Atypical neurofibromas (ANF) are distinct nodular lesions with atypical features on histology that arise from PNFs. The risk and timeline of malignant transformation in ANF is difficult to assess. A recent NIH workshop has stratified ANFs and separated a subgroup with multiple atypical features and higher risk of malignant transformation termed atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms with uncertain biological potential (ANNUBP)...
May 17, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770794/ursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-interstitial-cajal-like-cells-in-the-gallbladder-from-undergoing-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-tnf-%C3%AE-expression
#3
Jiang-Fan Wan, Shi-Feng Chu, Xin Zhou, Yue-Ting Li, Wen-Bin He, Feng Tan, Piao Luo, Qi-di Ai, Qi Wang, Nai-Hong Chen
Hypomotility is a common symptom of gallstone disease, which is accompanied by a loss of interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs) in the gallbladder. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is widely used in treating gallstone disease, and has shown anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects apart from its ability to dissolve gallstones. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of UDCA on ICLCs in guinea pigs with gallstones. Guinea pigs were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks to induce the formation of gallstones...
May 17, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769721/spatiotemporal-regulation-of-liquid-like-condensates-in-epigenetic-inheritance
#4
Gang Wan, Brandon D Fields, George Spracklin, Aditi Shukla, Carolyn M Phillips, Scott Kennedy
Non-membrane-bound organelles such as nucleoli, processing bodies, Cajal bodies and germ granules form by the spontaneous self-assembly of specific proteins and RNAs. How these biomolecular condensates form and interact is poorly understood. Here we identify two proteins, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4, that localize to Caenorhabditis elegans germ granules (P granules) in early germline blastomeres. Later in germline development, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4 separate from P granules to define an independent liquid-like condensate that we term the Z granule...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768216/the-rna-exosome-adaptor-zfc3h1-functionally-competes-with-nuclear-export-activity-to-retain-target-transcripts
#5
Toomas Silla, Evdoxia Karadoulama, Dawid Mąkosa, Michal Lubas, Torben Heick Jensen
Mammalian genomes are promiscuously transcribed, yielding protein-coding and non-coding products. Many transcripts are short lived due to their nuclear degradation by the ribonucleolytic RNA exosome. Here, we show that abolished nuclear exosome function causes the formation of distinct nuclear foci, containing polyadenylated (pA+ ) RNA secluded from nucleocytoplasmic export. We asked whether exosome co-factors could serve such nuclear retention. Co-localization studies revealed the enrichment of pA+ RNA foci with "pA-tail exosome targeting (PAXT) connection" components MTR4, ZFC3H1, and PABPN1 but no overlap with known nuclear structures such as Cajal bodies, speckles, paraspeckles, or nucleoli...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755676/genetic-heterogeneity-and-actionable-mutations-in-her2-positive-primary-breast-cancers-and-their-brain-metastases
#6
Leticia De Mattos-Arruda, Charlotte K Y Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Raymond S Lim, Maria R De Filippo, Nicola Fusco, Anne M Schultheis, Carolina Ortiz, Santiago Viteri, Alexandra Arias, Gabriel S Macedo, Mafalda Oliveira, Patricia Gomez, Cristina Teixidó, Paolo Nuciforo, Vicente Peg, Cristina Saura, Santiago Ramon Y Cajal, Francesc Tresserra Casas, Britta Weigelt, Javier Cortes, Joan Seoane, Jorge S Reis-Filho
Brain metastases constitute a challenge in the management of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with anti-HER2 systemic therapies. Here we sought to define the repertoire of mutations private to or enriched for in HER2-positive brain metastases. Massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 254 genes frequently mutated in breast cancers and/or related to DNA repair was used to characterize the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of HER2-positive breast cancers and their brain metastases in six patients...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748128/the-effects-of-mitochondrial-inhibitors-on-ca-2-signalling-and-electrical-conductances-required-for-pacemaking-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#7
Bernard T Drumm, Tae S Sung, Haifeng Zheng, Salah A Baker, Sang D Koh, Kenton M Sanders
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) are pacemakers that generate and propagate electrical slow waves in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. Slow waves appear to be generated by the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activation of Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels (Ano1). Conduction of slow waves to smooth muscle cells coordinates rhythmic contractions. Mitochondrial Ca2+ handling is currently thought to be critical for ICC pacemaking. Protonophores, inhibitors of the electron transport chain (FCCP, CCCP or antimycin) or mitochondrial Na+ /Ca2+ exchange blockers inhibited slow waves in several GI muscles...
February 1, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744613/moving-into-shape-cell-migration-during-the-development-and-histogenesis-of-the-cerebellum
#8
REVIEW
Karl Schilling
The enormous expansion the vertebrate nervous system goes through from its first anlage to its adult shape and organization goes along with extensive rearrangements of its constituent cells and typical cellular migrations, often over long distances, and by convoluted pathways. Here, I try to summarize how the cells that form the cerebellum move and migrate during normal cerebellar histogenesis. The cerebellum is made up of a limited set of clearly distinguishable classes of cells, some of which are also readily accessible by genetic tools...
May 9, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738469/the-role-of-scarnas-in-adjusting-alternative-mrna-splicing-in-heart-development
#9
REVIEW
Chloe Nagasawa, Allison Ogren, Nataliya Kibiryeva, Jennifer Marshall, James E O'Brien, Naoya Kenmochi, Douglas C Bittel
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death in children <1 year of age. Despite intense effort in the last 10 years, most CHDs (~70%) still have an unknown etiology. Conotruncal based defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a common complex of devastating heart defects, typically requires surgical intervention in the first year of life. We reported that the noncoding transcriptome in myocardial tissue from children with TOF is characterized by significant variation in levels of expression of noncoding RNAs, and more specifically, a significant reduction in 12 small cajal body-associated RNAs (scaRNAs) in the right ventricle...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736196/identification-of-functional-domain-s-of-fibrillarin-interacted-with-p2-of-rice-stripe-virus
#10
Luping Zheng, Jie He, Zuomei Ding, Chenlong Zhang, Ruoxue Meng
p2 of Rice stripe virus may promote virus systemic infection by interacting with the full length of fibrillarin from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbFib2) in the nucleolus and cajal body (CB). NbFib2 contains three functional domains. We used yeast two-hybrid, colocalization, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays to study the interactions between p2 and the three domains of NbFib2, namely, the N-terminal fragment containing a glycine and arginine-rich (GAR) domain, the central RNA-binding domain, and the C-terminal fragment containing an α -helical domain...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735991/increased-piezo1-channel-activity-in-interstitial-cajal-like-cells-induces-bladder-hyperactivity-by-functionally-interacting-with-ncx1-in-rats-with-cyclophosphamide-induced-cystitis
#11
Qian Liu, Bishao Sun, Jiang Zhao, Qingqing Wang, Fan An, Xiaoyan Hu, Zhenxing Yang, Jie Xu, Mingjia Tan, Longkun Li
The Piezo1 channel is a mechanotransduction mediator, and Piezo1 abnormalities have been linked to several clinical disorders. However, the role of the Piezo1 channel in cystitis-associated bladder dysfunction has not been documented. The current study aimed to discover the functional role of this channel in regulating bladder activity during cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. One hundred four female rats were randomly assigned to the control, CYP-4h, CYP-48h and CYP-8d groups. CYP successfully induced acute or chronic cystitis in these rats...
May 7, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724792/bigscale-an-analytical-framework-for-big-scale-single-cell-data
#12
Giovanni Iacono, Elisabetta Mereu, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Roser Corominas, Ivon Cuscó, Gustavo Rodríguez-Esteban, Marta Gut, Luis Alberto Pérez-Jurado, Ivo Gut, Holger Heyn
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly deepened our insights into complex tissues, with the latest techniques capable of processing tens of thousands of cells simultaneously. Analyzing increasing numbers of cells, however, generates extremely large data sets, extending processing time and challenging computing resources. Current scRNA-seq analysis tools are not designed to interrogate large data sets and often lack sensitivity to identify marker genes. With bigSCale, we provide a scalable analytical framework to analyze millions of cells, which addresses the challenges associated with large data sets...
May 3, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723849/the-mechanism-of-action-of-zingerone-in-the-pacemaker-potentials-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-isolated-from-murine-small-intestine
#13
Jung Nam Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Iksung Kim, Yun Tai Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zingerone, a major component found in ginger root, is clinically effective for the treatment of various diseases. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells responsible for slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We investigated the effects of zingerone on the pacemaker potentials of ICCs to assess its mechanisms of action and its potential as a treatment for GI tract motility disorder. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718926/bioengineered-intestinal-muscularis-complexes-with-long-term-spontaneous-and-periodic-contractions
#14
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703373/the-paper-that-restarted-modern-central-nervous-system-axon-regeneration-research
#15
James W Fawcett
Spinal cord repair research appeared to have run out of new ideas in the 1970s. In a 1981 paper, the Aguayo Laboratory revisited an experiment by Tello and Cajal that suggested that central nervous system (CNS) axons could regenerate into peripheral nerve grafts. Using modern axon tracing methods, David and Aguayo showed that axons from neurons in the spinal cord could regenerate for long distances within peripheral nervous system (PNS) grafts, but not back into the CNS. This proved that damaged CNS tissue is inhibitory to axon regeneration while PNS tissue is permissive...
May 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700981/telocytes-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-biliary-system
#16
REVIEW
Lei Chen, Baoping Yu
A novel type of interstitial tissue cells in the biliary tree termed telocytes (TCs), formerly known as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs), exhibits very particular features which unequivocally distinguish these cells from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and other interstitial cell types. Current research substantiates the existence of TCs and ICCs in the biliary system (gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and sphincter of Oddi). Here, we review the distribution, morphology and ultrastructure of TCs and ICCs in the biliary tree, with emphasis on their presumptive roles in physiological and pathophysiological processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695869/cryo-em-structure-of-substrate-bound-human-telomerase-holoenzyme
#17
Thi Hoang Duong Nguyen, Jane Tam, Robert A Wu, Basil J Greber, Daniel Toso, Eva Nogales, Kathleen Collins
The enzyme telomerase adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends to balance the loss of telomeres during genome replication. Telomerase regulation has been implicated in cancer, other human diseases, and ageing, but progress towards clinical manipulation of telomerase has been hampered by the lack of structural data. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the substrate-bound human telomerase holoenzyme at subnanometre resolution, showing two flexibly RNA-tethered lobes: the catalytic core with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and conserved motifs of telomerase RNA (hTR), and an H/ACA ribonucleoprotein (RNP)...
April 25, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694505/tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-scf-ghrelin-and-substance-p-expressions-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#18
Keyu Ren, Chunming Yong, Hao Yuan, Bin Cao, Kun Zhao, Jin Wang
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691292/phenformin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-sensitizes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-for-dual-inhibition-of-mtor
#19
Sonia Rosa Veiga, Xuemei Ge, Carol A Mercer, María Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Hala Elnakat Thomas, Javier Hernández-Losa, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Antonio Zorzano, George Thomas, Sara C Kozma
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in cancer mortality and has limited therapeutic options. We recently described the synergistic effect of allosteric and ATP-site competitive inhibitors against the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for the treatment of HCC. However, such inhibitors induce glycemia and increase mitochondrial efficiency. Here we determined whether the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor Phenformin could reverse both side effects, impose an energetic-stress on cancer cells and suppress the growth of HCC...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686622/inhibitory-neural-regulation-of-the-ca-2-transients-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-small-intestine
#20
Salah A Baker, Bernard T Drumm, Caroline A Cobine, Kathleen D Keef, Kenton M Sanders
Gastrointestinal motility is coordinated by enteric neurons. Both inhibitory and excitatory motor neurons innervate the syncytium consisting of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP syncytium). Confocal imaging of mouse small intestines from animals expressing GCaMP3 in ICC were used to investigate inhibitory neural regulation of ICC in the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP). We hypothesized that Ca2+ signaling in ICC-DMP can be modulated by inhibitory enteric neural input...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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