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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095296/diverse-role-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#1
REVIEW
Ravindra N Singh, Matthew D Howell, Eric W Ottesen, Natalia N Singh
The multifunctional Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is required for the survival of all organisms of the animal kingdom. SMN impacts various aspects of RNA metabolism through the formation and/or interaction with ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. SMN regulates biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs, small nucleolar RNPs, small Cajal body-associated RNPs, signal recognition particles and telomerase. SMN also plays an important role in DNA repair, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, histone mRNA processing, translation, selenoprotein synthesis, macromolecular trafficking, stress granule formation, cell signaling and cytoskeleton maintenance...
January 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#2
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066953/diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-loss-of-cd206-positive-macrophages-in-the-gastric-antrum
#3
M Grover, C E Bernard, P J Pasricha, H P Parkman, S J Gibbons, J Tonascia, K L Koch, R W McCallum, I Sarosiek, W L Hasler, L A B Nguyen, T L Abell, W J Snape, M L Kendrick, T A Kellogg, T J McKenzie, F A Hamilton, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have increasingly highlighted the role of macrophages in the development of delayed gastric emptying. However, their role in the pathophysiology of human gastroparesis is unclear. Our aim was to determine changes in macrophages and other cell types in the gastric antrum muscularis propria of patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. METHODS: Full thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (11 diabetic, 6 idiopathic) and 5 controls...
January 9, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
January 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058093/santiago-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-s-advice-for-a-young-investigator
#5
Michael Anderson
Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a mythic figure in science and recognized as the father of modern anatomy and neurobiology, was largely responsible for the modern conception of the brain. The first to publish on the nervous system, he sought to educate the novice scientist about how he thought science should be done. We asked an accomplished young investigator to take a fresh look at this recently rediscovered classic, first published in 1897.
September 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054347/ano1-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-plays-a-key-role-in-the-generation-of-slow-waves-and-tone-in-the-internal-anal-sphincter
#6
C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045993/change-in-the-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-nnos-positive-neuronal-cells-with-aging-in-the-stomach-of-f344-rats
#7
Yong Hwan Kwon, Nayoung Kim, Ryoung Hee Nam, Ji Hyun Park, Sun Min Lee, Sung Kook Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Yong Sung Kim, Dong Ho Lee
The gastric accommodation reflex is an important mechanism in gastric physiology. However, the aging-associated structural and functional changes in gastric relaxation have not yet been established. Thus, we evaluated the molecular changes of interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the function changes in the corpus of F344 rats at different ages (6-, 31-, 74-wk and 2-yr). The proportion of the c-Kit-positive area in the submucosal border (SMB) and myenteric plexus (MP) layer was significantly lower in the older rats, as indicated by immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039900/evidence-of-early-defects-in-cajal-retzius-cell-localisation-during-brain-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-dystroglycanopathy
#8
H S Booler, V Pagalday-Vergara, J L Williams, M Hopkinson, S C Brown
AIMS: The secondary dystroglycanopathies represent a heterogeneous group of congenital muscular dystrophies characterised by the defective glycosylation of alpha dystroglycan. These disorders are associated with mutations in at least 17 genes, including Fukutin-related protein (FKRP). At the severe end of the clinical spectrum there is substantial brain involvement, and cobblestone lissencephaly is highly suggestive of these disorders. The precise pathogenesis of this phenotype has however, remained unclear with most attention focused on the disruption to the radial glial scaffold...
December 31, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036151/network-properties-of-icc-affect-intestinal-pacemaker-activity-and-motor-patterns-according-to-a-mathematical-model-of-weakly-coupled-oscillators
#9
Ruihan Wei, Sean P Parsons, Jan D Huizinga
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gut motility and are associated with motility disorders. ICC form a network, but the contributions of its network properties to gut physiology and dysfunction are poorly understood. We modeled an ICC network as a two-dimensional network of weakly coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and showed changes over time in video and graphical formats. Model parameters were obtained from slow wave driven contraction patterns in the mouse intestine and pacemaker slow wave activities from the cat intestine...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029372/cajal-s-unbearable-cephalalgias-the-consequences-of-a-misdiagnosis
#10
REVIEW
S Giménez-Roldán
Around the age of 66 Cajal consulted neurologist Nicolas Achúcarro complaining of "unbearable cephalalgias". He had not ever suffered from headaches. The diagnosis of early arteriosclerosis that was considered at the time a physiological, irreversible ailment of ageing had a strong emotional impact on Cajal. Comorbid depression, insomnia and self-treatment with escalating doses of Veronal(®) (barbital), a short-acting barbiturate, presumably aggravated the situation. Exposure to warm environments and being involved in tense discussions were identified as triggering factors of the headaches...
October 28, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028361/characterization-of-smooth-muscle-enteric-nerve-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-fibroblast-like-cells-in-the-gastric-musculature-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Kyung Sik Park, Kwang Bum Cho, Il Seon Hwang, Jae Hyung Park, Byung Ik Jang, Kyeong Ok Kim, Sung Woo Jeon, Eun Soo Kim, Chang Sik Park, Joong Goo Kwon
AIM: To investigate histologic abnormalities in the gastric smooth muscle of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Full-thickness gastric specimens were obtained from patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. H&E stain and Masson's Trichrome stain were performed to assess the degree of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining using various antibodies was also performed [antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor, c-Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, (PDGFRα)]...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009284/targeted-inactivation-of-bax-reveals-a-subtype-specific-mechanism-of-cajal-retzius-neuron-death-in-the-postnatal-cerebral-cortex
#12
Fanny Ledonne, David Orduz, Judith Mercier, Lisa Vigier, Elisabeth A Grove, Fadel Tissir, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Alessandra Pierani, Eva Coppola
Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), the first-born neurons in the developing cerebral cortex, coordinate crucial steps in the construction of functional circuits. CRs are thought to be transient, as they disappear during early postnatal life in both mice and humans, where their abnormal persistence is associated with pathological conditions. Embryonic CRs comprise at least three molecularly and functionally distinct subtypes: septum, ventral pallium/pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB), and hem. However, whether subtype-specific features exist postnatally and through which mechanisms they disappear remain unknown...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004965/restoration-of-density-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-jejunum-of-diabetic-rats-after-quercetin-supplementation
#13
Flávia Cristina Vieira Frez, Juliana Vanessa Martins Colombo Perles, David Robert Linden, Simon John Gibbons, Heber Amilcar Martins, Débora Almeida Brito Romualdo, Sara Raquel de Souza, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required for normal motility in the gastrointestinal tract. Depletion of ICC has been associated with diabetic gastroenteropathy. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of quercertin supplementation on anoctamin-1 (Ano1) immunoreactive ICC in the myenteric region (ICC-MY) and deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP) in the jejunum of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty-two 90-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: normoglycemic (C), normoglycemic supplemented with quercetin (CQ; 40 mg daily), diabetic (D), and diabetic supplemented with quercetin (DQ; 40 mg daily)...
December 22, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000192/-experimental-study-of-bisacodyl-in-the-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation-model-rats
#14
Jie Ling, Wenzhong Zhang, Bin Xu, Wei Qiu, Yongbing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and the mechanism of Bisacodyl in treating slow transit constipation model rats. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy rats were enrolled. Twenty rats received intragastric diphenoxylate to develop slow transit constipation (STC) model, and 10 untreated rats were set as blank control. STC rats were subdivided into two groups: STC Bisacodyl group (fed with Bisacodyl) and STC control group (common feed). Body weight, number and dry weight of faeces, and intestinal transit time were compared among 3 groups...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997763/the-stem-cell-growth-factor-receptor-kit-is-not-expressed-on-interstitial-cells-in-bladder
#15
Thomas Gevaert, Dirk De Ridder, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Wouter Everaerts, Frank Van Der Aa, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Tania Roskams, Clara Steiner, Jochen Neuhaus
The mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT has long been assumed to be a specific marker for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the bladder, with possible druggable perspectives. However, several authors have challenged the presence of KIT(+) ICC in recent years. The aim of this study was therefore to attempt to clarify the conflicting reports on KIT expression in the bladder of human beings, rat, mouse and guinea pig and to elucidate the possible role of antibody-related issues and interspecies differences in this matter...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991928/stem-cell-like-transcriptional-reprogramming-mediates-metastatic-resistance-to-mtor-inhibition
#16
F Mateo, E J Arenas, H Aguilar, J Serra-Musach, G Ruiz de Garibay, J Boni, M Maicas, S Du, F Iorio, C Herranz-Ors, A Islam, X Prado, A Llorente, A Petit, A Vidal, I Català, T Soler, G Venturas, A Rojo-Sebastian, H Serra, D Cuadras, I Blanco, J Lozano, F Canals, A M Sieuwerts, V de Weerd, M P Look, S Puertas, N García, A S Perkins, N Bonifaci, M Skowron, L Gómez-Baldó, V Hernández, A Martínez-Aranda, M Martínez-Iniesta, X Serrat, J Cerón, J Brunet, M P Barretina, M Gil, C Falo, A Fernández, I Morilla, S Pernas, M J Plà, X Andreu, M A Seguí, R Ballester, E Castellà, M Nellist, S Morales, J Valls, A Velasco, X Matias-Guiu, A Figueras, J V Sánchez-Mut, M Sánchez-Céspedes, A Cordero, J Gómez-Miragaya, L Palomero, A Gómez, T F Gajewski, E E W Cohen, M Jesiotr, L Bodnar, M Quintela-Fandino, N López-Bigas, R Valdés-Mas, X S Puente, F Viñals, O Casanovas, M Graupera, J Hernández-Losa, S Ramón Y Cajal, L García-Alonso, J Saez-Rodriguez, M Esteller, A Sierra, N Martín-Martín, A Matheu, A Carracedo, E González-Suárez, M Nanjundan, J Cortés, C Lázaro, M D Odero, J W M Martens, G Moreno-Bueno, M H Barcellos-Hoff, A Villanueva, R R Gomis, M A Pujana
Inhibitors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) are currently used to treat advanced metastatic breast cancer. However, whether an aggressive phenotype is sustained through adaptation or resistance to mTOR inhibition remains unknown. Here, complementary studies in human tumors, cancer models and cell lines reveal transcriptional reprogramming that supports metastasis in response to mTOR inhibition. This cancer feature is driven by EVI1 and SOX9. EVI1 functionally cooperates with and positively regulates SOX9, and promotes the transcriptional upregulation of key mTOR pathway components (REHB and RAPTOR) and of lung metastasis mediators (FSCN1 and SPARC)...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979828/conditional-genetic-deletion-of-ano1-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-impairs-ca2-transients-and-slow-waves-in-adult-mouse-small-intestine
#17
John Malysz, Simon J Gibbons, Siva A Saravanaperumal, Peng Du, Seth T Eisenman, Chike Cao, Uhtaek Oh, Dieter Saur, Sabine Klein, Tamas Ordog, Gianrico Farrugia
Myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) in the small intestine are Kit(+) electrical pacemakers that express the Ano1/TMEM16A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, whose functions in the GI tract remain incompletely understood. In this study, an inducible Cre-LoxP-based approach was used to advance the understanding of Ano1 in ICC-MY of adult mouse small intestine. Kit(CreERT2/+);Ano1(Fl/Fl) mice were treated with tamoxifen or vehicle, and small intestines (mucosa-free) examined. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated ~50% reduction in Ano1 mRNA in intestines of conditional knock-outs (cKOs) compared to vehicle-treated controls...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964865/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-gists-a-descriptive-study-on-29-cases
#18
Lamine Hamzaoui, Mouna Medhioub, Mahdi Bouassida, Moufida Mahmoudi, Souhaiel El Bouchtili, Heykal Ezzine, Emna Chelbi, Hassen Touinsi, Mohamed Mousadek Azouz
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, originating from Cajal cells in different sites of the digestive tract. The aim of the study is to report on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and therapeutic characteristics of GISTs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of 29 cases of GIST in gastroenterology and general surgery departments of Mohamed Tahar Maamouri Hospital (Nabeul, Tunisia) was conducted from January 2005 to March 2012...
December 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930657/the-effects-of-auricular-electro-acupuncture-on-ameliorating-the-dysfunction-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-networks-and-nnosmrna-expression-in-antrum-of-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#19
Huan Chen, Weijian Zhu, Jing Lu, Jinqing Fan, Luning Sun, Xiaoke Feng, Hao Liu, Zhaohui Zhang, Yongqing Wang
BACKGROUD: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and nNOS play a crucial role in diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility(DGD). Our previous study found that electro-acupuncture(EA) on ear point 'stomach' could repair the gastric dysrhythmias in rats induced by rectal distention(RD) after meal. However, little were known about the possible effect of auricular electro-acupuncture (AEA) on diabetic rats. Thus, we designed this study to investigate the effect of AEA on streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916369/expression-of-connexin-26-and-connexin-43-is-reduced-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#20
David Coyle, Brian Doyle, Justin M Murphy, Anne Marie O'Donnell, John Gillick, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Despite having an optimal pull-through operation, some children with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) continue to experience persistent bowel symptoms. Coordinated colonic electrical activity depends on intercellular communication between the enteric nerves, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast-like (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha-positive) cells. Gap junctions are low-resistance channels composed of connexin (Cx) proteins which couple cells electrically and chemically...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
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