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Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
ICC generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant as there is high current density during slow wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes a Na(+)K(+)Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Andrew J Love, Chulang Yu, Natalia V Petukhova, Natalia O Kalinina, Jianping Chen, Michael E Taliansky
Cajal bodies (CBs) are distinct sub-nuclear structures that are present in eukaryotic living cells and are often associated with the nucleolus. CBs play important roles in RNA metabolism and formation of RNPs involved in transcription, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, and telomere maintenance. Besides these primary roles, CBs appear to be involved in additional functions that may not be directly related to RNA metabolism and RNP biogenesis. In this review, we assess possible roles of plant CBs in RNA regulatory pathways such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing...
October 11, 2016: RNA Biology
Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Annarita Patrizi
Since the groundbreaking work of Ramon y Cajal, the cerebellar Purkinje cell has always represented an ideal model for studying the organization, development and function of synaptic circuits. Purkinje cells receive distinct types of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, each characterized by exquisite sub-cellular and molecular specificity. The formation and refinement of these connections results from a temporally-regulated sequence of events that involves molecular interactions between distinct sets of secreted and surface proteins, as well as activity-dependent competition between converging inputs...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Christos Coucoravas, Soniya Dhanjal, Sofia Henriksson, Stefanie Böhm, Marianne Farnebo
The cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks is orchestrated by the protein kinase ATM, which phosphorylates key actors in the DNA repair network. WRAP53β is a multifunctional protein that controls trafficking of factors to Cajal bodies, telomeres and DNA double-strand breaks but what regulates the involvement of WRAP53β in these separate processes remains unclear. Here, we show that in response to various types of DNA damage, including IR and UV, WRAP53β is phosphorylated on serine residue 64 by ATM with a time-course that parallels its accumulation at DNA lesions...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Michael D Hebert, Aaron R Poole
The biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs), small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) and the telomerase RNP involves Cajal bodies (CBs). Although many components enriched in the CB contain post-translational modifications (PTMs), little is known about how these modifications impact individual protein function within the CB and, in concert with other modified factors, collectively regulate CB activity. Since all components of the CB also reside in other cellular locations, it is also important that we understand how PTMs affect the subcellular localization of CB components...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies ribosomal RNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Iain A Sawyer, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Aleksandra Velickov, Olivera Mitrovic, Branka Djordjevic, Dusan Sokolovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Asen Velickov, Vukica Pantovic, Natasa Poklar Urlih, Goran Radenkovic
Diabetic gastroenteropathy involves not only the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves, but also enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). ICC are the cells of mesenchymal origin that occur within and around the muscle layers in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present study was to investigate the alterations of ICC in the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) of streptozotocin-nicotinamide non-insulin-dependent diabetes rats. Moreover, we investigated possible ICC in rats with the same type of diabetes, treated with bilberry fruit extract, bearing in mind that its hypoglycemic effect had been already proven...
October 5, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
J Capdevila, J C Galofré, E Grande, C Zafón Llopis, T Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, E Navarro González, P Jiménez-Fonseca, J Santamaría Sandi, J M Gómez Sáez, G Riesco Eizaguirre
Thyroid cancer is the single most prevalent endocrine malignancy; differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for more than 90 % of all malignancies and its incidence has been rising steadily. For more patients, surgical treatment, radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy achieve an overall survival (OS) rate of 97.7 % at 5 years. Nevertheless, locoregional recurrence occurs in up to 20 % and distant metastases in approximately 10 % at 10 years. Two-thirds of these patients will never be cured with radioactive iodine therapy and will become RAI-refractory, with a 3-year OS rate of less than 50 %...
October 4, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
N Nakajima, H Sato, K Takahashi, G Hasegawa, K Mizuno, S Hashimoto, Y Sato, S Terai
BACKGROUND: Histopathology of muscularis externa in primary esophageal motility disorders has been characterized previously. We aimed to correlate the results of high-resolution manometry with those of histopathology. METHODS: During peroral endoscopic myotomy, peroral esophageal muscle biopsy was performed in patients with primary esophageal motility disorders. Immunohistochemical staining for c-kit was performed to assess the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs)...
October 3, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Chris T Höfer, Fabian Jolmes, Ivan Haralampiev, Michael Veit, Andreas Herrmann
The Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is the major protein component of the genomic viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes, which are the replication- and transcription-competent units of Influenza viruses. Early during infection, NP mediates import of vRNPs into the host cell nucleus where viral replication and transcription take place; also newly synthesized NP molecules are targeted into the nucleus, enabling coreplicational assembly of progeny vRNPs. NP reportedly acts as regulatory factor during infection, and it is known to be involved in numerous interactions with host cell proteins...
October 3, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Cristina A de Frutos, Guy Bouvier, Yoko Arai, Morgane S Thion, Ludmilla Lokmane, Maryama Keita, Mario Garcia-Dominguez, Patrick Charnay, Tatsumi Hirata, Dieter Riethmacher, Elizabeth A Grove, Fadel Tissir, Mariano Casado, Alessandra Pierani, Sonia Garel
The neocortex undergoes extensive developmental growth, but how its architecture adapts to expansion remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated how early born Cajal-Retzius (CR) neurons, which regulate the assembly of cortical circuits, maintain a dense superficial distribution in the growing neocortex. We found that CR cell density is sustained by an activity-dependent importation of olfactory CR cells, which migrate into the neocortex after they have acted as axonal guidepost cells in the olfactory system...
September 28, 2016: Neuron
Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Judith E Sleeman
From their initial identification as 'nucleolar accessory bodies' more than a century ago, the relationship between Cajal bodies and nucleoli has been a subject of interest and controversy. In this review, we seek to place recent developments in the understanding of the physical and functional relationships between the two structures in the context of historical observations. Biophysical models of nuclear body formation, the molecular nature of CB/nucleolus interactions and the increasing list of joint roles for CBs and nucleoli, predominantly in assembling ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, are discussed...
September 23, 2016: RNA Biology
Amanda C Raimer, Kelsey M Gray, A Gregory Matera
Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic SMN is diffusely localized in large oligomeric complexes with core member proteins, called Gemins. Biochemical and cell biological studies have demonstrated that the SMN complex is required for the cytoplasmic assembly and nuclear transport of Sm-class ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Nuclear SMN accumulates with spliceosomal small nuclear (sn)RNPs in Cajal bodies, sub-domains involved in multiple facets of snRNP maturation...
September 20, 2016: RNA Biology
Hua Feng, Fang Wang, Changmiao Wang
OBJECTIVES: To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Amanda Sierra, Fernando de Castro, Juan Del Río-Hortega, José Rafael Iglesias-Rozas, Manuel Garrosa, Helmut Kettenmann
The word "glia" was coined in the mid-19th century and defined as "the nerve glue". For decades, it was assumed to be a uniform matrix, until cell theorists raised the "neuron doctrine" which stipulated that nervous tissue was composed of individual cells. The term "astrocytes" was introduced in the late 19th century as a synonym for glial cells, but it was Santiago Ramón y Cajal who defined a "third element" distinct from glial cells (astrocytes) and neurons. It was not until 1919 when Pío del Río-Hortega, an alumnus of the Cajal School, introduced the modern terms we use today, and thoroughly described both "oligodendrocytes" and "microglia" to clearly distinguish them from astrocytes...
November 2016: Glia
Jean M Underwood, Klaus Becker, Gary S Stein, Jeffrey A Nickerson
The epigenetics and molecular biology of human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have received much more attention than their architecture. We present a more complete look at hES cells by electron microscopy, with a special emphasis on the architecture of the nucleus. We propose that there is an ultrastructural signature of pluripotent human cells. hES cell nuclei lack heterochromatin, including the peripheral heterochromatin, that is common in most somatic cell types. The absence of peripheral heterochromatin may be related to the absence of lamins A and C, proteins important for linking chromatin to the nuclear lamina and envelope...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Miguel Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Ana M Romero, Maria T Berciano
Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)...
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
David Staněk
Spliceosomal snRNPs are complex particles that proceed through a fascinating maturation pathway. Several steps of this pathway are closely linked to nuclear non-membrane structures called Cajal bodies. In this review, I summarize the last 20 y of research in this field. I primarily focus on snRNP biogenesis, specifically on the steps that involve Cajal bodies. I also evaluate the contribution of the Cajal body in snRNP quality control and discuss the role of snRNPs in Cajal body formation.
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
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