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Gillian A Ryan, Sarah M Nicholson, John J Morrison
Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) delivery remains a controversial topic, and one for which there is a lack of robust data to guide clinicians and parturients regarding their best option for mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy. In many developed countries the trend observed in recent years is that of progressively reduced VBAC rates, and hence increased use of elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). This factor has contributed, more than any other, to the disproportionately high caesarean section (CS) rates in many countries...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Helen O' Brien, Neil O' Leary, Siobhan Scarlett, Celia O' Hare, Rose Anne Kenny
Background: the dramatic shift in the global population demographic has led to increasing numbers of older people undergoing hospitalisation and surgical procedures. Objectives: to determine whether hospitalisation or hospitalisation with surgery under general anaesthesia is associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults over the age of 50. Methods: cognitive function in the domains of global cognition, memory and executive function was assessed in 8,023 individuals at waves 1 and 2 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), 2 years apart...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Sarah Donnelly, Emer Begley, Marita O'Brien
In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence however on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Jean Mooney, Mark R Lynch, Colin V Prescott, Tracy Clegg, Michael Loughlin, Bernard Hannon, Colm Moore, Richard Faulkner
While resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides is known to occur in many European populations of Norway rat and house mouse, to-date no data is available on the occurrence in Ireland of such resistance. No genetic evidence for the occurrence of resistance was found in 65 Norway rat samples analysed, indicative of an absence, or low prevalence, of resistance in rats in at least the Eastern region of the island of Ireland. The presence of two of the most commonly found amino acid substitutions Leu128Ser and Tyr139Cys associated with house mouse resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline Daly, Eve Griffin, Darren M Ashcroft, Roger T Webb, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
Background: Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Hein Heuvelman, James Nazroo, Dheeraj Rai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. METHODS: Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248)...
March 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Katherine Woolf, Rowena Viney, Antonia Rich, Hirosha Jayaweera, Ann Griffin
OBJECTIVES: To explore how representatives from organisations with responsibility for doctors in training perceive risks to the educational progression of UK medical graduates from black and minority ethnic groups (BME UKGs), and graduates of non-UK medical schools (international medical graduates (IMGs)). To identify the barriers to and facilitators of change. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured individual and group interview study. SETTING: Postgraduate medical education in the UK...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Roisin M Heaney, Michael Murray, Aine M Heaney, Eva M Doherty
BACKGROUND: Obtaining patient consent is a fundamental process in surgical practice and is integral in respecting and safeguarding patient autonomy. It has been reported that the task of consenting patients frequently lies with junior doctors, who have the least experience of the procedure. AIM: To examine the role of interns in the consent process in the Irish context as well as to identify their concerns. METHODS: A 12-point questionnaire, assessing interns' experience with surgical consent, was circulated to interns in three Irish university teaching hospitals based in different geographical locations...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Katherine Lavelle, James Murphy, Brian Fitzgerald, Gabriele A Lugli, Aldert Zomer, Horst Neve, Marco Ventura, Charles M Franz, Christian Cambillau, Douwe van Sinderen, Jennifer Mahony
Phages of Streptococcus thermophilus present a major threat to the production of many fermented dairy products. To date, only a handful of studies have assessed the biodiversity of S. thermophilus phages in dairy fermentations. In order to develop strategies to limit phage predation in this important industrial environment, it is imperative that such studies are undertaken and that phage-host interactions of this species are better defined. The present study investigated the biodiversity and evolution of phages within an Irish dairy fermentation facility over an eleven year period...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Silvia Bel-Serrat, Mirjam M Heinen, John Mehegan, Sarah O'Brien, Nazih Eldin, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
A R Fernandes, D Mortimer, M Holmes, M Rose, L Zhihua, X Huang, F Smith, S Panton, L Marshall
The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated...
March 6, 2018: Environment International
Sam Browett, Gillian McHugo, Ian W Richardson, David A Magee, Stephen D E Park, Alan G Fahey, John F Kearney, Carolina N Correia, Imtiaz A S Randhawa, David E MacHugh
Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Maria Dempsey, Rob King, Andrea Nagy
OBJECTIVE: New technologies present new ethical dilemmas. Our ethical intuitions may mislead us in relation to new technologies such as nuclear power, vaccines, GMOs and assistive reproductive technologies (ART). Between 1999 and 2008 the number of ART treatment cycles increased by 265% in Ireland. The implications and potentials of such technologies are profound - challenging existing understanding of humans' relationships to reproduction. Because such technologies are comparatively unregulated, and their use has only been occurring for a single generation, detailed investigation of how awareness of ART influences understanding of personal fertility is needed...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Mary Tobin, Sharon Lambert, John McCarthy
Recent data on the inequities in mortality, health, and access to health services experienced by the Traveller community in Ireland show higher rates of death by suicide and other sudden causes among members of this marginalized minority group than in the general population. Psychological literature on bereavement suggests that traumatic deaths and multiple deaths within a close network may be more likely to lead to complicated grief reactions. The aim of this study is to add to our understanding of the effects of the differential mortality rate by exploring how grief is experienced within the Traveller community in the context of bereavement from multiple deaths or sudden deaths (including suicide)...
January 1, 2018: Omega
M Brabrand, J Kellett, M Opio, T Cooksley, C H Nickel
INTRODUCTION: Vital signs are routinely used to assess acutely ill patients, but they do not detect all patients at risk of death. This retrospective multicenter cohort study compares the prediction of death by impaired mobility with age, co-morbidities, and vital sign changes. METHODS: On first assessment, patients from a combined cohort of 9684 Danish and Irish patients and a separate cohort of 1010 Ugandan patients were stratified by impaired mobility on presentation (IMOP), vital sign changes assessed by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), the Charlson Co-morbidity Index, and age...
March 6, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Cathal O'Leary, Megan Greally, John McCaffrey, Peter Hughes, Leo L P Lawler, Martin O'Connell, Tony Geoghegan, Cormac Farrelly
BACKGROUND: Liver metastases are the commonest cause of death for patients with colorectal cancer. Growing evidence supports the use of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in combination with conventional chemotherapy regimens for liver-only or liver-dominant unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. AIMS: To measure and evaluate outcomes of the first 20 consecutive patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis selected for SIRT in addition to their chemotherapy at a single Irish institution...
March 6, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Tomas Barry, Mary Headon, Ronan Glynn, Niall Conroy, Helen Tobin, Mairead Egan, Gerard Bury
AIM: The aim of this study is to establish the role and outcome of general practitioner (GP) involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: A ten year prospective observational study involving a cohort of Irish general practices. SETTING: 521 general practice settings distributed throughout the Republic of Ireland, representing approximately one quarter of all practices and a third of Irish GPs...
March 3, 2018: Resuscitation
Irina Uzhova, Clara Woolhead, Claire M Timon, Aifric O'Sullivan, Lorraine Brennan, José L Peñalvo, Eileen R Gibney
Nutritional data reduction methods are widely applied in nutrition epidemiology in order to classify individuals into meaningful groups with similar dietary patterns. To date, none of the existing studies have applied latent class analysis to examine dietary patterns which include meal types consumed throughout a day. We investigated main meal patterns followed on weekend and weekdays, and evaluated their associations with cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The analyses were performed within the NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey) a cross-sectional national food consumption survey of 1500 nationally representative Irish adults...
March 6, 2018: Nutrients
Clare F McCloskey, Ann-Marie Mongan, Shivona Chetty, Darren M J McAteer, Shauna M Quinn
INTRODUCTION: To determine visual and anatomical outcomes of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) patients in a tertiary centre following conversion to aflibercept having been refractory to previous treatment with bevacizumab/ranibizumab. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients with a diagnosis of DMO undergoing aflibercept intravitreal therapy for at least 6 months who had previous treatment with three consecutive bevacizumab/ranibizumab injections pre-switch...
March 5, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Anastasia Aliferi, Jim Thomson, Andrew McDonald, Vanessa Molin Paynter, Steven Ferguson, Des Vanhinsbergh, Denise Syndercombe Court, David Ballard
A total of 3128 Y-STR profiles from three UK and one Irish population have been analysed with the PowerPlex Y23 system and are reported here. Instances of haplotype sharing between apparently unrelated individuals were identified and further investigated with the use of the 5 additional markers within the Yfiler Plus kit, resulting in a reduction by 76% in the number of shared haplotypes. Furthermore, Yfiler Plus was also employed to verify locus deletions and duplications observed in Y23 genotypes while inconsistencies between the two kits were sequenced, revealing underlying Y23 primer binding site mutations in loci DYS392 and DYS576...
March 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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