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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#1
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900514/process-evaluation-of-a-community-garden-at-an-urban-outpatient-clinic
#2
Brandy-Joe Milliron, Mara Z Vitolins, Elizabeth Gamble, Robert Jones, Margaret C Chenault, Janet A Tooze
In addition to expediting patient recovery, community gardens that are associated with medical facilities can provide fresh produce to patients and their families, serve as a platform for clinic-based nutrition education, and help patients develop new skills and insights that can lead to positive health behavior change. While community gardening is undergoing resurgence, there is a strong need for evaluation studies that employ valid and reliable measures. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a community garden program at an urban medical clinic to estimate the prevalence of patient awareness and participation, food security, barriers to participation, and personal characteristics; garden volunteer satisfaction; and clinic staff perspectives in using the garden for patient education/treatment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880835/built-environment-selected-risk-factors-and-major-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#3
Pasmore Malambo, Andre P Kengne, Anniza De Villiers, Estelle V Lambert, Thandi Puoane
INTRODUCTION: Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks. DATA SOURCE: Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872274/voices-through-cameras-using-photovoice-to-explore-food-justice-issues-with-minority-youth-in-east-harlem-new-york
#4
May May Leung, Alen Agaronov, Tara Entwistle, Lorene Harry, Julie Sharkey-Buckley, Nicholas Freudenberg
Engaging and empowering youth to promote health could be important in promoting sustainable positive behaviors. Photovoice is a community-based participatory research tool giving priority populations opportunities for active community engagement and advocacy through photography. Our project objective was to better understand youth perceptions related to food justice within their own community and identify solutions to promote positive change, using photovoice. Twelve minority youth from a low-income New York City neighborhood participated...
November 21, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865651/beyond-supermarkets-food-outlet-location-selection-in-four-u-s-cities-over-time
#5
Pasquale E Rummo, David K Guilkey, Shu Wen Ng, Barry M Popkin, Kelly R Evenson, Penny Gordon-Larsen
INTRODUCTION: Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. METHODS: Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km(2) (density) of food outlets within real estate-derived neighborhoods...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832766/obesity-diet-quality-physical-activity-and-the-built-environment-the-need-for-behavioral-pathways
#6
Adam Drewnowski, Anju Aggarwal, Wesley Tang, Philip M Hurvitz, Jason Scully, Orion Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon
BACKGROUND: The built environment (BE) is said to influence local obesity rates. Few studies have explored causal pathways between home-neighborhood BE variables and health outcomes such as obesity. Such pathways are likely to involve both physical activity and diet. METHODS: The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) was a longitudinal cohort of 440 adult residents of King Co, WA. Home addresses were geocoded. Home-neighborhood BE measures were framed as counts and densities of food sources and physical activity locations...
November 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818916/neighborhood-factors-and-six-month-weight-change-among-overweight-individuals-in-a-weight-loss-intervention
#7
Dara D Mendez, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Rachel Goode, Yaguang Zheng, Christopher C Imes, Anthony Fabio, Jessica Duell, Lora E Burke
The purpose of this study was to examine the neighborhood environment and the association with weight change among overweight/obese individuals in the first six months of a 12-month weight loss intervention, EMPOWER, from 2011 to 2015. Measures of the neighborhood environment included neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood income, and neighborhood food retail stores density (e.g., grocery stores). Weight was measured at baseline and 6 months and calculated as the percent weight change from baseline to 6 months...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816854/diet-quality-is-associated-with-mental-health-social-support-and-neighborhood-factors-among-veterans
#8
Katherine D Hoerster, Sarah Wilson, Karin M Nelson, Gayle E Reiber, Robin M Masheb
United States Veterans have a higher prevalence of overweight and related chronic conditions compared to the general population. Although diet is a primary and modifiable contributor to these conditions, little is known about factors influencing diet quality among Veterans. The goal of this study is to examine individual, social environment, and physical environment correlates of general diet quality among Veterans. Study participants (N=653) received care at an urban VA Medical Center in Seattle, WA and completed a mailed survey in 2012 and 2013...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753629/neighborhood-environments-links-to-health-behaviors-and-obesity-status-in-vulnerable-children
#9
Jina Choo, Hye-Jin Kim, Sooyeon Park
This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity...
October 16, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716142/successful-customer-intercept-interview-recruitment-outside-small-and-midsize-urban-food-retailers
#10
Jennifer E Pelletier, Caitlin E Caspi, Liana R N Schreiber, Darin J Erickson, Lisa Harnack, Melissa N Laska
BACKGROUND: Customer intercept interviews are increasingly used to characterize food purchases at retail food outlets and restaurants; however, methodological procedures, logistical issues and response rates using intercept methods are not well described in the food environment literature. The aims of this manuscript were to 1) describe the development and implementation of a customer intercept interview protocol in a large, NIH-funded study assessing food purchases in small and midsize food retailers in Minneapolis and St...
October 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712948/community-organizing-for-healthier-communities-environmental-and-policy-outcomes-of-a-national-initiative
#11
Andrew M Subica, Cheryl T Grills, Sandra Villanueva, Jason A Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704384/neighborhood-context-and-preterm-delivery-among-african-american-women-the-mediating-role-of-psychosocial-factors
#12
Shawnita Sealy-Jefferson, Carmen Giurgescu, Jaime Slaughter-Acey, Cleopatra Caldwell, Dawn Misra
Preterm delivery (PTD), or birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is a serious public health issue, and racial disparities persist. In a recently published study, perceptions of the residential environment (or neighborhood context) were associated with PTD rates among urban African American women with low educational attainment (≤12 years); however, the mechanisms of these associations are unknown. Given this gap in the literature, we used data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study of postpartum African American women from Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan (2009-2011; n = 399), to examine whether psychosocial factors (depressive symptomology, psychological distress, and perceived stress) mediate associations between perceptions of the neighborhood context and PTD...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635379/assessing-mediation-of-behavioral-and-stress-pathways-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-environments-and-obesity-outcomes
#13
Samaah M Sullivan, Edward S Peters, Edward J Trapido, Evrim Oral, Richard A Scribner, Ariane L Rung
Although many studies have reported associations between characteristics of the neighborhood environment and obesity, little is understood about the pathways or mechanisms through which these associations operate. The purpose of this study was to examine possible behavioral and stress pathways hypothesized to mediate the association between neighborhood environments and obesity and whether pathways contribute to different obesity outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from the 2012-2014 Women and Their Children's Health Study (WaTCH) in Louisiana (N = 909)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619205/neighborhood-environment-correlates-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-among-latino-adults-in-massachusetts
#14
Valerie J Silfee, Milagros C Rosal, Meera Sreedhara, Vilma Lora, Stephenie C Lemon
BACKGROUND: U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA...
September 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614300/instrumental-variables-simultaneous-equations-model-of-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#15
Katie A Meyer, David K Guilkey, Hsiao-Chuen Tien, Catarina I Kiefe, Barry M Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen
We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical activity relative to body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical activity, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information maximum likelihood estimation to control for unobserved time-invariant and time-varying residual confounding and differential measurement error through model-derived discrete random effects...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614064/associations-of-neighborhood-socioeconomic-and-racial-ethnic-characteristics-with-changes-in-survey-based-neighborhood-quality-2000-2011
#16
Paulina Kaiser, Amy H Auchincloss, Kari Moore, Brisa N Sánchez, Veronica Berrocal, Norrina Allen, Ana V Diez Roux
We investigated the relationships between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (socioeconomic status [SES], percentage of Black residents, and percentage of Hispanic residents) and survey-based measures of the social environment (social cohesion, safety) and the physical environment (healthy food environment, walking environment) in six sites from 2000 through 2011. Neighborhood environments were patterned by area SES and racial/ethnic composition, such that higher SES and lower percentage minority neighborhoods had better physical and social environments...
November 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612577/the-context-of-context-examining-the-associations-between-healthy-and-unhealthy-measures-of-neighborhood-food-physical-activity-and-social-environments
#17
Candice A Myers, Kara D Denstel, Stephanie T Broyles
Multilevel health research often focuses on a singular dimension of the neighborhood environment in relation to individual-level health behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity) and outcomes (e.g., obesity). This study examined associations between healthy and unhealthy neighborhood features across food, physical activity, and social environments. We used neighborhood-level (i.e., census block group) access (0/1) measures of the 1) food (grocery store, convenience store, fast food restaurant), 2) physical activity (fitness/recreation facility, park), and 3) social (crime, renter occupancy) environments to capture both healthy and unhealthy neighborhood features for a sample of neighborhoods (n=126) in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, United States...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549991/population-cardiovascular-health-and-urban-environments-the-heart-healthy-hoods-exploratory-study-in-madrid-spain
#18
Usama Bilal, Julia Díez, Silvia Alfayate, Pedro Gullón, Isabel Del Cura, Francisco Escobar, María Sandín, Manuel Franco
BACKGROUND: Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood's social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. METHODS: We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain). We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536902/association-between-the-built-environment-in-school-neighborhoods-with-physical-activity-among-new-york-city-children-2012
#19
Matthew M Graziose, Heewon Lee Gray, James Quinn, Andrew G Rundle, Isobel R Contento, Pamela A Koch
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being are well established, yet built environment characteristics in the school neighborhood may constrain students' ability to engage in physical activity and contribute to the considerable variation in physical activity among students at different schools. METHODS: Baseline data from the Food, Health and Choices obesity prevention trial were used to create multilevel linear models of the relationship between fifth-grade students' (n = 952) physical activity and related psychosocial factors and characteristics of the built environment of the school's neighborhood (park access, public transportation density, total crime, and walkability), controlling for age and body mass index z scores...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528645/change-in-neighborhood-characteristics-and-change-in-coronary-artery-calcium-a-longitudinal-investigation-in-the-mesa-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-cohort
#20
Jeffrey J Wing, Ella August, Sara D Adar, Andrew L Dannenberg, Anjum Hajat, Brisa N Sánchez, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Ana V Diez Roux
BACKGROUND: Although some evidence shows that neighborhood deprivation is associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis, prior studies have not identified what aspects of deprived neighborhoods were driving the association. METHODS: We investigated whether social and physical neighborhood characteristics are related to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in 5950 adult participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) during a 12-year follow-up period...
August 16, 2016: Circulation
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