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Spatial analysis

Megan M Wisniewski, Heather A O'Connell
Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity...
February 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
M P Noonan, R B Mars, J Sallet, R I M Dunbar, L K Fellows
Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS)...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Biao Liu, Ranchao Wu, Liping Chen
Turing instability and pattern formation in a super cross-diffusion predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type predator harvesting are investigated. Stability of equilibrium points is first explored with or without super cross-diffusion. It is found that cross-diffusion could induce instability of equilibria. To further derive the conditions of Turing instability, the linear stability analysis is carried out. From theoretical analysis, note that cross-diffusion is the key mechanism for the formation of spatial patterns...
February 19, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Faizan Ur Rehman Qaisar, Fan Zhang, Ramesh Raj Pant, Guanxing Wang, Sardar Khan, Chen Zeng
The Indus River Basin (IRB) with an area of 139,202 km2 is the lifeline river basin of Pakistan. An intensive study was conducted in six subcatchments of the IRB with five in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and one of the Lower Indus Basin (LIB; between Tarbela Dam and Panjand), i.e., the Gilgit River Basin (UIB-I), Hunza River Basin (UIB-II), UIB-III, UIB-IV and UIB-V, and LIB. A total of 84 surface water samples were collected from main stream and tributaries from June to August, 2016. The pH, electric conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in situ, whereas major ions (Ca2+ , Mg2+ , K+ , Na+ , Cl- , SO4 2- , and NO3 - ) and Si were analyzed in the laboratory...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bizuneh Woldeab, Abebe Beyene, Argaw Ambelu, Ishi Buffam, Seid Tiku Mereta
This research investigated the spatiotemporal variation of water quality in the Gilgel Gibe reservoir, Ethiopia, using physicochemical water quality parameters. Nonparametric tests and multivariate statistical techniques were used to evaluate data sets measured during dry and rainy seasons. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 - ), total dissolved solids (TDSs), and total suspended solids (TSSs) were all significantly different among seasons (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jesse Whitehead, Matt Roskruge, Colin Tan, Alistair Smith, Grant Christey
AIM: Pre-hospital triage strategies aim to identify the type and extent of patient injuries and ensure that they are transferred to the most appropriate trauma centres. Despite the importance of appropriate pre-hospital transport, there is little evidence base to assist medical staff on optimal destination policy for emergent pre-hospital transport. This paper explores the spatial relationship of patient transfers prior to the implementation of the Midland Pre-Hospital Trauma Destination Matrix in New Zealand, and is a retrospective view of practice against a destination policy that was applied after the study period...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Reshma Munbodh, Jonathan P S Knisely, David A Jaffray, Douglas J Moseley
PURPOSE: We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. METHODS: We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Jiwen Cui, Shiyuan Zhao, Di Yang, Zhenyang Ding
We use a spectrum interpolation technique to improve the distributed strain measurement accuracy in a Rayleigh-scatter-based optical frequency domain reflectometry sensing system. We demonstrate that strain accuracy is not limited by the "uncertainty principle" that exists in the time-frequency analysis. Different interpolation methods are investigated and used to improve the accuracy of peak position of the cross-correlation and, therefore, improve the accuracy of the strain. Interpolation implemented by padding zeros on one side of the windowed data in the spatial domain, before the inverse fast Fourier transform, is found to have the best accuracy...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Mabel Ruiz-Lopez, Hugo Dacasa, Benoit Mahieu, Magali Lozano, Lu Li, Philippe Zeitoun, Davide Bleiner
Short-wavelength imaging, spectroscopy, and lithography scale down the characteristic length-scale to nanometers. This poses tight constraints on the optics finishing tolerances, which is often difficult to characterize. Indeed, even a tiny surface defect degrades the reflectivity and spatial projection of such optics. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally that a Hartmann wavefront sensor for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths is an effective non-contact analytical method for inspecting the surface of multilayer optics...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Pengcheng Zhou, Shanna L Resendez, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jessica C Jimenez, Shay Q Neufeld, Andrea Giovannucci, Johannes Friedrich, Eftychios A Pnevmatikakis, Garret D Stuber, Rene Hen, Mazen A Kheirbek, Bernardo L Sabatini, Robert E Kass, Liam Paninski
In vivo calcium imaging through microendoscopic lenses enables imaging of previously inaccessible neuronal populations deep within the brains of freely moving animals. However, it is computationally challenging to extract single-neuronal activity from microendoscopic data, because of the very large background fluctuations and high spatial overlaps intrinsic to this recording modality. Here, we describe a new constrained matrix factorization approach to accurately separate the background and then demix and denoise the neuronal signals of interest...
February 22, 2018: ELife
Ana I Freitas, Nathalie Lopes, Fernando Oliveira, Susana Brás, Ângela França, Carlos Vasconcelos, Manuel Vilanova, Nuno Cerca
AIM: To understand the relationship between ica, aap and bhp gene expression and the implications in biofilm formation in selected clinical and commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. MATERIAL & METHODS: Isolates were analyzed regarding their biofilm-forming capacity, biochemical matrix composition, biofilm spatial organization and expression of biofilm-related genes. RESULTS: On polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilms, aap and bhp contributions for the biofilm growth were negligible, despite very high levels of expression...
February 22, 2018: Future Microbiology
Zhang Xia, Xue Jing-Bo, Hu He-Hua, Liu Xiong, Cui Cai-Xia, Wen Xiao-Hong, Xie Xiao-Ping, Zhang Wei-Rong, Tian Rong, Dong Li-Chun, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Yi-Biao
OBJECTIVE: To understand the spatial distribution characteristics of wild feces in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Jiangling County, Hubei Province and further explore the source of infection efficiently, so as to provide the evidence for the development of corresponding monitoring and response technology. METHODS: In 2011, the fresh wild feces were investigated every two months in the selected 15 villages by the severity of historical endemic in Jiangling County...
March 7, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zheng Jin-Xin, Liu Lu, Feng Yun, Yang Guo-Jing
The monitoring and control of malaria depends largely on the spatial analysis technology and mathematical models. Visualization of malaria situation is the most popular way to present how malaria transmits. In this paper, the malaria epidemic situation and the application of spatial epidemiology of malaria in China are summarized, so as to provide the systematic epidemiological information for malaria elimination in China.
July 6, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zhan Xiao-Dong, Guo Wei, Chai Qiang, Sun En-Tao, Li Chao-Pin, Xi Yi-Long
OBJECTIVE: To understand the natural population dynamics and spatial distribution of Tyrophagus putrescentiae in storage flour, so as to provide an evidence for its prevention and control. METHODS: The samples from five sampling points in Wuhu City were collected monthly from January to December, 2013, and examined and counted for T. putrescentiae . The dispersion pattern target, Iwao's m*- x ̄; regression analysis and Taylor's lg S2 -lg x ̄; regression analysis were used for analyzing the spatial distribution pattern of T...
July 4, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Hu Fei, Lv Shang-Biao, Li Yi-Feng, Li Zhao-Jun, Ge Jun, Yuan Min, Chen Zhe, Liu Yue-Ming, Lin Dan-Dan
OBJECTIVE: To grasp the distribution status of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Poyang Lake area, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy in lake areas. METHODS: The vector grid was created and sampled randomly by 200 m × 200 m in the spatial database of grassland, and the distribution of snails was investigated in the selected grid by using the method of mechanical sampling by 50 m × 50 m. At the same time, the elevation of investigation points was extracted based on the topographic map of Poyang Lake...
August 29, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Pan Xiang, Yang Ya, Li Lin-Han, Cheng Wan-Ting, Yang Yu, Song Xiu-Xia, Zhou Yi-Biao, Jiang Qing-Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma infection of population and its risk factors in Eastern Dongting Lake area in 2012 and 2014, so as to provide the reference for formulating effective intervention measures. METHODS: Junshan District was selected as a study field in Eastern Dongting Lake area. The method of spatial autocorrelation analysis was applied to analyze the change of spatial distribution of Schistosoma infection in Junshan District in 2012 and 2014...
March 21, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
X Liu, D Krishnamoorthy, L Lin, P Xue, F Zhang, L Chi, R J Linhardt, J C Iatridis
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration results in the depletion of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which can lead to structural and mechanical loss of IVD function, ingrowth of nociceptive nerve fibres and eventually discogenic pain. Specific GAG types as well as their disaccharide patterns can be predictive of disease and degeneration in several tissues but have not been comprehensively studied within the IVD. A highly sensitive mass spectrometry based technique with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to provide characterisation of chondroitin sulphate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulphate (HS) and their disaccharide sulphation patterns across different anatomical regions of human IVDs...
February 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Fahmi Khalifa, Mohammed Ghazal, Nicola Ghazi, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
PURPOSE: This paper introduces a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detecting early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. METHODS: The proposed DR-CAD system is based on the analysis of new local features that describe both the appearance and retinal structure in OCTA images. It starts with a new segmentation approach that has the ability to extract the blood vessels from superficial and deep retinal OCTA maps...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Wenwen Wang, Shuhang Wang, Xia Jiang, Binghui Zheng, Li Zhao, Bo Zhang, Junyi Chen
The spectral characteristics, spatial distribution, and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in suspended solids and surface sediments of Lihu Lake, China, were investigated through excitation-emission matrix spectra and parallel factor analysis. The average content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the sediments reached 643.28 ± 58.34 mg C/kg and that in suspended solids was 714.87 ± 69.24 mg C/kg. The fluorescence intensity of WSOM totaled 90.87 ± 5.65 and 115.42 ± 8...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christophe Habas
Background: Previous ROI-based functional connectivity studies found functional coherence between cerebellum and cerebral amygdale, at rest. Moreover, some neurospychiatric symptoms were accompanied by abnormal activations of these two brain areas. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify a putative, resting-state intrinsically connected cerebello-amygdaloid network. Methods: ICA-based analysis was performed on brain resting-state functional images of 15 volunteers...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
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