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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223134/rapid-soil-formation-after-glacial-retreat-shaped-by-spatial-patterns-of-organic-matter-accrual-in-microaggregates
#1
Steffen A Schweizer, Carmen Hoeschen, Steffen Schlüter, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Carsten W Mueller
Global change contributes to the retreat of glaciers at unprecedented rates. The deglaciation facilitates biogeochemical processes on glacial deposits with initiating soil formation as an important driver of evolving ecosystems. The underlying mechanisms of soil formation and the association of soil organic matter (SOM) with mineral particles remain unclear, although further insights are critical to understand carbon sequestration in soils. We investigated the microspatial arrangement of SOM coatings at intact soil microaggregate structures during various stages of ecosystem development from 15 to >700 years after deglaciation in the proglacial environment of the Damma glacier (Switzerland)...
December 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223121/from-information-to-participation-and-self-organization-visions-for-european-river-basin-management
#2
Johannes Euler, Sonja Heldt
The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, 2000) calls for active inclusion of the public in the governance of waterbodies to enhance the effectiveness and legitimacy of water management schemes across the EU. As complex socio-ecological systems, river basins in western Europe could benefit from further support for inclusive management schemes. This paper makes use of case studies from Germany, England and Spain to explore the potential opportunities and challenges of different participatory management approaches...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222995/updating-edwin-chadwick-s-seminal-work-on-geographical-inequalities-by-occupation
#3
Mark A Green, Danny Dorling, Richard Mitchell
To honour the 175th anniversary of Edwin Chadwick's seminal 'Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor', we update Chadwick's famous analysis of geographical differences in occupational based inequalities. Much of the field of Health Geography owes both its direction of development and its initial impetus to his 1842 report. The report presented evidence for the importance of local context to health, with individuals of the lowest occupations in Rutland living longer than individuals of the highest occupations in Liverpool...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222683/evaluation-of-urban-transformation-areas-in-terms-of-user-satisfaction-the-case-study-of-za%C3%A4-nos-valley-trabzon-turkey
#4
Ertan Düzgüneş, Elif Saraç
Following the Industrial Revolution, rapid urbanization brought about many socio-economic, physical, and cultural problems. The concept of urban transformation has come to the fore as a solution to these emerging troubles. Especially since 1980, in Turkey, like other developing countries, the concept of urban transformation has only been evaluated as an economic standpoint ignoring the social and spatial dimensions of that area and the quality of life of people residing in the area. Therefore, the necessity of these socially accessible areas where individuals can regenerate themselves in spiritual and physical terms has increased even more...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222441/robust-rna-based-in-situ-mutation-detection-delineates-colorectal-cancer-subclonal-evolution
#5
Ann-Marie Baker, Weini Huang, Xiao-Ming Mindy Wang, Marnix Jansen, Xiao-Jun Ma, Jeffrey Kim, Courtney M Anderson, Xingyong Wu, Liuliu Pan, Nan Su, Yuling Luo, Enric Domingo, Timon Heide, Andrea Sottoriva, Annabelle Lewis, Andrew D Beggs, Nicholas A Wright, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Emily Park, Ian Tomlinson, Trevor A Graham
Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is a major underlying cause of therapy resistance and disease recurrence, and is a read-out of tumor growth. Current genetic ITH analysis methods do not preserve spatial context and may not detect rare subclones. Here, we address these shortfalls by developing and validating BaseScope-a novel mutation-specific RNA in situ hybridization assay. We target common point mutations in the BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA oncogenes in archival colorectal cancer samples to precisely map the spatial and morphological context of mutant subclones...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222348/insulin-degrading-enzyme-contributes-to-the-pathology-in-a-mixed-model-of-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Huajie Li, Jian Wu, Linfeng Zhu, Luolin Sha, Song Yang, Jiang Wei, Lei Ji, Xiaochun Tang, Keshi Mao, Liping Cao, Ning Wei, Wei Xie, Zhilong Yang
Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is believed to act as a junction point of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the underlying mechanism was not completely clear yet. Transgenic APPSwe/PS1 mice were used as the AD model and were treated with streptozocin/streptozotocin (STZ) to develop a mixed mice model presenting both AD and T2D. Morris Water Maze (MWM) and recognition task were performed to trace the cognitive function. The detection of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and plasma insulin concentration, and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were used to trace the metabolism evolution...
December 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222160/the-interactome-of-intact-mitochondria-by-cross-linking-mass-spectrometry-provides-evidence-for-co-existing-respiratory-supercomplexes
#7
Fan Liu, Philip Lössl, Beverley M Rabbitts, Robert S Balaban, Albert J R Heck
Mitochondria exert an immense amount of cytophysiological functions, but the structural basis of most of these processes is still poorly understood. Here we use cross-linking mass spectrometry to probe the organization of proteins in native mouse heart mitochondria. Our approach provides the largest survey of mitochondrial protein interactions reported so far. In total, we identify 3,322 unique residue-to-residue contacts involving half of the mitochondrial proteome detected by bottom-up proteomics. The obtained mitochondrial protein interactome gives insights in the architecture of defined protein assemblies, the sub-mitochondrial localization, and the mitochondrial localization of five proteins not yet included in the MitoCarta database...
December 8, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222057/unfolding-the-cognitive-map-the-role-of-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-substrates-based-on-a-systems-analysis-of-spatial-processing
#8
REVIEW
Michael Ryan Hunsaker, Raymond P Kesner
What has been long absent in understanding the neural circuit that sup- ports spatial processing is a thorough description and rigorous study of the distributed neural networks associated with spatial processing-both in the human as well as in rodents. Most of our understanding regarding the elu- cidation of a spatial neural circuit has been based on rodents and therefore the present manuscript will concentrate on that literature. There is a trend emerging in research to expand beyond the hippocampus for evaluating spa- tial memory, but the thrust of the research still focuses on the role of the hippocampus as essential and other neural substrates as performing sub- servient roles to support hippocampus-dependent spatial processing...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221956/global-burden-of-molar-incisor-hypomineralization
#9
REVIEW
Falk Schwendicke, Karim Elhennawy, Seif Reda, Katrin Bekes, David J Manton, Joachim Krois
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the global, super-regional, regional and national prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) and to determine the numbers of prevalent and incident cases on different spatial scales. The review was registered (PROSPERO CRD42017063842). SOURCES: Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, Google Scholar) were searched systematically. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies on the prevalence of MIH were included and the prevalence on different spatial scales (global, super-regional, regional, national) synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221925/detecting-protein-aggregation-and-interactions-in-live-cells-a-guide-to-number-and-brightness
#10
REVIEW
Rory Nolan, Maro Iliopoulou, Luis Alvarez, Sergi Padilla-Parra
The possibility to detect and quantify protein-protein interactions with good spatial and temporal resolutions in live cells is crucial in biology. Number and Brightness is a powerful approach to detect both protein aggregation/desegregation dynamics and stoichiometry in live cells. Importantly, this technique can be applied in commercial set ups: both camera based and laser scanning microscopes. It provides pixel-by-pixel information on protein oligomeric states. If performed with two colours, the technique can retrieve the stoichiometry of the reaction under study...
December 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221924/unraveling-co-translational-protein-folding-concepts-and-methods
#11
REVIEW
Anton A Komar
Advances in techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, and single-molecule and time-resolved fluorescent approaches are transforming our ability to study co-translational protein folding both in vivo in living cells and in vitro in reconstituted cell-free translation systems. These approaches provide comprehensive information on the spatial organization and dynamics of nascent polypeptide chains and the kinetics of co-translational protein folding. This information has led to an improved understanding of the process of protein folding in living cells and should allow remaining key questions in the field, such as what structures are formed within nascent chains during protein synthesis and when, to be answered...
December 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221763/cognitive-impairment-and-quality-of-life-of-people-with-epilepsy-and-neurocysticercosis-in-zambia
#12
Anne L Nau, Kabemba E Mwape, Jasmin Wiefek, Kathie Schmidt, Emmanuel Abatih, Pierre Dorny, Nicolas Praet, Clarance Chiluba, Holger Schmidt, Isaac K Phiri, Andrea S Winkler, Sarah Gabriël, Joachim Blocher
Cognitive impairment and quality of life (Qol) are important to assess the burden of epilepsy and neurocysticercosis (NCC), which are common but neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aims of this study were to assess cognitive performance and Qol of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Zambia and to explore differences in PWE with and without NCC. In this community based, cross-sectional case-control-study, 47 PWE and 50 healthy controls completed five neuropsychological tests (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit Span, Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Spatial Recall Test (SPART), Test Battery of Attentional Performance (TAP)) and a World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire of Qol...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221002/distributed-spatial-mode-dispersion-measurement-along-strongly-coupled-multicore-fibers-based-on-the-correlation-analysis-of-rayleigh-backscattering-amplitudes
#13
Shingo Ohno, Kunihiro Toge, Daisuke Iida, Tetsuya Manabe
We describe a method for measuring spatial mode dispersion (SMD) distribution along a strongly coupled multicore fiber (SC-MCF). The SMD has been defined for characterizing an SC-MCF, and it changes with respect to local fiber bending and twisting. However, conventional measurement methods characterize only the overall SMD, and cannot identify fiber portions where the environmental conditions affect the SMD. This paper demonstrates distributed SMD measurement along an SC-MCF by auto-correlating Rayleigh backscattering amplitudes obtained with coherent optical reflectometry...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220764/the-changing-pattern-of-urban-flooding-in-guangzhou-china
#14
Huabing Huang, Xi Chen, Zhanqiang Zhu, Yuhuan Xie, Lin Liu, Xianwei Wang, Xina Wang, Kai Liu
Extensive research has focused on modelling and analysis of urban flooding in relatively small catchments. Findings in small areas tend to be site-specific, and may not be applicable to larger study areas. Larger scale studies can identify general patterns and influential factors; however, few studies have investigated urban flooding on a larger scale such as a metropolitan area. In this study, we explored the spatial-temporal patterns of urban flooding during the period of 2009-2015 in the central area of Guangzhou, China...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220313/how-does-the-low-rank-matrix-decomposition-help-internal-and-external-learnings-for-super-resolution
#15
Shuang Wang, Bo Yue, Xuefeng Liang, Licheng Jiao
Wisely utilizing the internal and external learning methods is a new challenge in super-resolution problem. To address this issue, we analyze the attributes of two methodologies and find two observations of their recovered details: 1) they are complementary in both feature space and image plane and 2) they distribute sparsely in the spatial space. These inspire us to propose a low-rank solution which effectively integrates two learning methods and then achieves a superior result. To fit this solution, the internal learning method and the external learning method are tailored to produce multiple preliminary results...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220116/advances-in-microfluidics-applied-to-single-cell-operation
#16
REVIEW
Xudong Zhu, Ju Chu, Yonghong Wang
The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Microfluidic platforms have emerged as important tools for biology research at a small scale, even down to a single cell level. The spatial and temporal control of cells and stimuli transported by microfluidic channels in well-designed microsystems realized the studies of specific cells in a controlled microenvironment. The true cellular physiology responses, which were obtained mostly by inference from population-level data, could be revealed in this way...
December 8, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219097/analysis-of-the-impact-of-healthcare-support-initiatives-for-physically-disabled-people-on-their-access-to-care-in-the-city-of-saint-louis-senegal
#17
Diarra Bousso Senghor, Oumar Diop, Issa Sombié
BACKGROUND: People with disabilities represent approximately 6% of the Senegalese population. They face significant barriers to accessing health care. Although several initiatives have been implemented to improve access to health care for this vulnerable population, few studies have examined the effects of these initiatives. We conducted a mixed methods study in three neighborhoods in Saint-Louis City (Senegal) to assess the impact of health systems and social assistance programs aimed at improving access to health care for people with disabilities...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218792/complex-selection-on-a-regulator-of-social-cognition-evidence-of-balancing-selection-regulatory-interactions-and-population-differentiation-in-the-prairie-vole-avpr1a-locus
#18
Alejandro Berrio, Rafael F Guerrero, Galina V Aglyamova, Mariam Okhovat, Mikhail V Matz, Steven M Phelps
Adaptive variation in social behavior depends upon standing genetic variation, but we know little about how evolutionary forces shape genetic diversity relevant to brain and behavior. In prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), variants at the Avpr1a locus predict expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a brain region that mediates spatial and contextual memory; cortical V1aR abundance in turn predicts diversity in space-use and sexual fidelity in the field. To examine the potential contributions of adaptive and neutral forces to variation at the Avpr1a locus, we explore sequence diversity at the Avpr1a locus and throughout the genome in two populations of wild prairie voles...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218554/designing-and-performing-biological-solution-small-angle-neutron-scattering-contrast-variation-experiments-on-multi-component-assemblies
#19
Susan Krueger
Solution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) combined with contrast variation provides information about the size and shape of individual components of a multi-component biological assembly, as well as the spatial arrangements between the components. The large difference in the neutron scattering properties between hydrogen and deuterium is key to the method. Isotopic substitution of deuterium for some or all of the hydrogen in either the molecule or the solvent can greatly alter the scattering properties of the biological assembly, often with little or no change to its biochemical properties...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218449/generic-calibration-of-a-simple-model-of-diurnal-temperature-variations-for-spatial-analysis-of-accumulated-degree-days
#20
Raphael Felber, Sibylle Stoeckli, Pierluigi Calanca
Accumulated growing degree-days (aGDD) are widely used to predict phenological stages of plants and insects. It has been shown in the past that the best predictive performance is obtained when aGDD are computed from hourly temperature data. As the latter are not always available, models of diurnal temperature changes are often employed to retrieve the required information from data of daily minimum and maximum temperatures. In this study, we examine the performance of a well-known model of hourly temperature variations in the context of a spatial assessment of aGDD...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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