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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339603/optimization-of-stem-imaging-conditions-for-cryo-tomography
#1
Kazuhiro Aoyama, Kotaro Nagano, Kaoru Mitsuoka
For three-dimensional analysis of cryo-specimens using tomography at low and medium magnifications, the use of STEM images has some important advantages over TEM. A clear understanding of the electron dose in STEM is essential for optimized cryo-microscopy so a dose estimation technique for STEM imaging has been developed. The STEM convergence angle was shown to have a large impact on the image quality, in particular on the signal-to-noise ratio in the acquired images. Importantly, there is a clear trade-off between good STEM spatial resolution in the images with a large convergence angle and the signal-to-noise ratio, which is improved by reducing the convergence angle as much as possible...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335464/a-geographic-information-assisted-temporal-mixture-analysis-for-addressing-the-issue-of-endmember-class-and-endmember-spectra-variability
#2
Wenliang Li, Changshan Wu
Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA)...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335453/a-spatially-offset-raman-spectroscopy-method-for-non-destructive-detection-of-gelatin-encapsulated-powders
#3
Kuanglin Chao, Sagar Dhakal, Jianwei Qin, Yankun Peng, Walter F Schmidt, Moon S Kim, Diane E Chan
Non-destructive subsurface detection of encapsulated, coated, or seal-packaged foods and pharmaceuticals can help prevent distribution and consumption of counterfeit or hazardous products. This study used a Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) method to detect and identify urea, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen powders contained within one or more (up to eight) layers of gelatin capsules to demonstrate subsurface chemical detection and identification. A 785-nm point-scan Raman spectroscopy system was used to acquire spatially offset Raman spectra for an offset range of 0 to 10 mm from the surfaces of 24 encapsulated samples, using a step size of 0...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335415/time-modulated-arrays-from-their-origin-to-their-utilization-in-wireless-communication-systems
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Maneiro-Catoira, Julio Brégains, José A García-Naya, Luis Castedo
Time-modulated arrays (TMAs) are electromagnetic systems whose radiated power pattern is controlled by the application of variable-width periodical pulses to the individual elements. The nonlinear nature of the array operation causes the appearance of radiation patterns at the harmonic frequencies of such periodic pulses. The technique can be used for improving the side-lobe level (SLL) topology of the radiation pattern at the central frequency and/or to profitably exploit the harmonic patterns in order to supply smart antenna capabilities...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#5
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334963/three-and-four-dimensional-mapping-of-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#6
Yasuo Nakai, Jeong-Won Jeong, Erik C Brown, Robert Rothermel, Katsuaki Kojima, Toshimune Kambara, Aashit Shah, Sandeep Mittal, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes)...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#7
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334670/spatial-distribution-emission-source-and-health-risk-of-parent-pahs-and-derivatives-in-surface-soils-from-the-yangtze-river-delta-eastern-china
#8
ChuanYang Cai, JingYa Li, Di Wu, XiLong Wang, Daniel C W Tsang, XiangDong Li, JianTeng Sun, LiZhong Zhu, HuiZhong Shen, Shu Tao, WenXin Liu
243 surface soil samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, and the concentration distributions and compositional profiles of 27 parent PAHs (PPAHs), nitro- and oxy-derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs), respectively, and health risk of 16 PPAHs were determined. Atmospheric samples were collected at two sites with high topsoil concentrations of PAHs to assist in identifying the emission sources of PPAHs. The total concentrations of PPAHs, NPAHs and OPAHs fell in the ranges of 21.0-3563.2 ng/g, 0...
March 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334658/extraction-of-the-3d-local-orientation-of-myocytes-in-human-cardiac-tissue-using-x-ray-phase-contrast-micro-tomography-and-multi-scale-analysis
#9
François Varray, Iulia Mirea, Max Langer, Françoise Peyrin, Laurent Fanton, Isabelle E Magnin
This paper presents a methodology to access the 3D local myocyte arrangements in fresh human post-mortem heart samples. We investigated the cardiac micro-structure at a high and isotropic resolution of 3.5 µm in three dimensions using X-ray phase micro-tomography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We then processed the reconstructed volumes to extract the 3D local orientation of the myocytes using a multi-scale approach with no segmentation. We created a simplified 3D model of tissue sample made of simulated myocytes with known size and orientations, to evaluate our orientation extraction method...
February 20, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334264/spatial-patterns-and-sequential-sampling-plans-for-predators-of-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae-in-minnesota-soybean
#10
Anh K Tran, Robert L Koch
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an economically important soybean pest. Many studies have demonstrated that predatory insects are important in suppressing A. glycines population growth. However, to improve the utilization of predators in A. glycines management, sampling plans need to be developed and validated for predators. Aphid predators were sampled in soybean fields near Rosemount, Minnesota, from 2006-2007 and 2013-2015 with sample sizes of 20-80 plants. Sampling plans were developed for Orius insidiosus (Say), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), and all aphidophagous Coccinellidae species combined...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334259/population-distribution-and-range-expansion-of-the-invasive-mexican-rice-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-in-louisiana
#11
Blake E Wilson, Julien M Beuzelin, Thomas E Reagan
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern Texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the United States Gulf Coast. The pest attacks rice (Oryza sativa L.), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), corn (Zea mays L.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in Louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. Range expansion and population distribution of E. loftini were monitored with a network of 77 pheromone traps throughout southwestern Louisiana from 2013 to 2015...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334102/predation-by-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-significantly-reduces-viability-and-alters-the-microbial-community-composition-of-activated-sludge-flocs-and-granules
#12
Shugeng Feng, Chuan Hao Tan, Florentin Constancias, Gurjeet S Kohli, Yehuda Cohen, Scott A Rice
We recently isolated and characterized a predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strain from activated sludge (Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore), and this strain, B. bacteriovorus UP was able to prey upon a broad spectrum of bacterial isolates from the activated sludge when grown as planktonic cells or as biofilms. Here, we have tested the effect of Bdellovibrio predation on floccular and granular sludge to determine if the spatial organization, loosely or tightly aggregated communities, was protective from predation...
February 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334091/landscape-level-patterns-of-elevated-fs1-asian-allele-frequencies-in-populations-of-gypsy-moth-lepidoptera-erebidae-at-a-northern-u-s-boundary
#13
Marissa A Streifel, Patrick C Tobin, Lucia Hunt, Hannah Nadel, John J Molongoski, Brian H Aukema
From a regulatory perspective, Asian gypsy moth is a species complex consisting of three species of Lymantria and two subspecies of Lymantria dispar (L.), differing from the European subspecies, L. dispar dispar (L.), by having consistently flight-capable females. As such, the invasion potential in North America is thought to exceed that of European gypsy moth. USDA-APHIS therefore has a monitoring program to detect Asian gypsy moth at high-risk introduction pathways. Molecular markers are used to improve the diagnosis of Asian gypsy moth...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334085/environmental-niche-divergence-among-three-dune-shrub-sister-species-with-parapatric-distributions
#14
Sergio Chozas, Rosa M Chefaoui, Otília Correia, Raúl Bonal, Joaquín Hortal
Background and Aims: The geographical distributions of species are constrained by their ecological requirements. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of environmental conditions, historical events and biogeographical constraints on the diversification of the three species of the western Mediterranean shrub genus Stauracanthus , which have a parapatric distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods: Ecological niche factor analysis and generalized linear models were used to measure the response of all Stauracanthus species to the environmental gradients and map their potential distributions in the Iberian Peninsula...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334075/intrinsic-brain-hub-connectivity-underlies-individual-differences-in-spatial-working-memory
#15
Jin Liu, Mingrui Xia, Zhengjia Dai, Xiaoying Wang, Xuhong Liao, Yanchao Bi, Yong He
Spatial working memory (SWM) is an important component of working memory and plays an essential role in driving high-level cognitive abilities. Recent studies have demonstrated that individual SWM is associated with global brain communication. However, whether specific network nodal connectivity, such as brain hub connectivity, is involved in individual SWM performances remains largely unknown. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from a large group of 130 young healthy participants and evaluated their SWM performances...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333972/evaluation-of-high-resolution-in-vivo-mri-for-longitudinal-analysis-of-endochondral-fracture-healing-in-mice
#16
Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Fabian Müller-Graf, Romano Matthys, Yvonne Hägele, Verena Fischer, René Jonas, Alireza Abaei, Florian Gebhard, Volker Rasche, Anita Ignatius
Mice are extensively used for experimental bone-healing studies. However, there are few established nondestructive in vivo techniques for longitudinal fracture-healing analysis in mice, including in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) and radiography. Importantly, none of the established methods can discriminate between non-mineralized fibrous tissue and cartilage in the soft fracture callus. Therefore, the objective was to establish high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the longitudinal assessment of soft callus formation during bone healing in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333937/variability-in-age-and-size-at-maturation-reproductive-longevity-and-long-term-growth-dynamics-for-kemp-s-ridley-sea-turtles-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#17
Larisa Avens, Lisa R Goshe, Lewis Coggins, Donna J Shaver, Ben Higgins, Andre M Landry, Rhonda Bailey
Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333648/mobile-stride-length-estimation-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#18
Julius Hannink, Thomas Kautz, Cristian Pasluosta, Jens Barth, Samuel Schulein, Karl-Gunter Gassmann, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern Eskofier
OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimation of spatial gait characteristics is critical to assess motor impairments resulting from neurological or musculoskeletal disease. Currently, however, methodological constraints limit clinical applicability of state-ofthe- art double integration approaches to gait patterns with a clear zero-velocity phase. METHODS: We describe a novel approach to stride length estimation that uses deep convolutional neural networks to map stride-specific inertial sensor data to the resulting stride length...
March 9, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333638/a-comparative-study-for-identifying-the-chromosome-wide-spatial-clusters-from-high-throughput-chromatin-conformation-capture-data
#19
Xiangtao Li, Ka-Chun Wong
In the past years, the high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled massive insights into genomic annotations. In contrast, the full-scale three-dimensional arrangements of genomic regions are relatively unknown. Thanks to the recent breakthroughs in High-throughput Chromosome Conformation Capture (Hi-C) techniques, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been adopted to identify local spatial clusters of genomic regions from Hi-C data. However, such non-negative matrix factorization entails a high-dimensional non-convex objective function to be optimized with non-negative constraints...
March 20, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333630/multilinear-spatial-discriminant-analysis-for-dimensionality-reduction
#20
Sen Yuan, Xia Mao, Lijiang Chen
In the last few years, great efforts have been made to extend linear projection technique (LPT) for multidimensional data (i.e. tensor), generally referred to as multilinear projection technique (MPT). The vectorized nature of LPT requires high dimensional data to be converted to vector, hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. MPT well addresses this problem by encoding multidimensional data as general tensors of second or even higher order. In this paper, we propose a novel multilinear projection technique, called multilinear spatial discriminant analysis (MSDA), to identify the underlying manifold of high-order tensor data...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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