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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902497/what-is-the-contribution-of-city-scale-actions-to-the-overall-food-system-s-environmental-impacts-assessing-water-ghg-and-land-impacts-of-future-urban-food-scenarios
#1
Dana Boyer, Anu Anuradha Ramaswami
This paper develops a methodology for individual cities to analyze the in- and trans-boundary water, greenhouse gas (GHG) and land impacts of city-scale food system actions. Applied to Delhi, India, the analysis demonstrates that city-scale action can rival trans-boundary action, though no single city-scale action can rival in all three environmental impacts. Particularly improved food waste management within the city (7% system-wide GHG reduction) matches the GHG impact of pre-consumer trans-boundary food waste reduction...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876917/transformation-of-phosphorus-during-hydro-thermal-treatments-of-solid-biowastes-reaction-mechanisms-and-implications-for-p-reclamation-and-recycling
#2
Rixiang Huang, Ci Fang, Xiaowei Lu, Rongfeng Jiang, Yuanzhi Tang
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all organisms, thus playing unique and critical roles at the food-energy-water nexus. Most P utilized by human activities eventually converges into various solid biowastes, such as crop biomass, animal manures, and sewage sludges. Therefore, integration of efficient P recovery practices into solid biowaste management will not only significantly reduce the dependence on limited geological P resources but also reduce P runoff and related water contamination issues associated with traditional waste management strategies...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862427/clay-water-and-salt-controls-on-the-permeability-of-fine-grained-sedimentary-rocks
#3
Ian C Bourg, Jonathan B Ajo-Franklin
The ability to predict the permeability of fine-grained soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks is a fundamental challenge in the geosciences with potentially transformative implications in subsurface hydrology. In particular, fine-grained sedimentary rocks (shale, mudstone) constitute about two-thirds of the sedimentary rock mass and play important roles in three energy technologies: petroleum geology, geologic carbon sequestration, and radioactive waste management. The problem is a challenging one that requires understanding the properties of complex natural porous media on several length scales...
September 1, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819112/tracing-nitrate-sources-with-dual-isotopes-and-long-term-monitoring-of-nitrogen-species-in-the-yellow-river-china
#4
Fu-Jun Yue, Si-Liang Li, Cong-Qiang Liu, Zhi-Qi Zhao, Hu Ding
A heavy load of nitrogenous compounds reflects nutrient loss and influences water quality in large rivers. Nitrogenous concentrations and dual isotopes of nitrate were measured to ascertain the spatial and temporal distributions of nitrate transformation in the Yellow River, the second-longest river in China. Assessment of the long-term record indicates that [NO3(-)-N] has increased by two-fold over the past three decades. Weekly observation of ammonium over a twelve-year period revealed high concentrations and suggests impairment of water quality, particularly since 2011...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818397/life-cycle-inventory-and-mass-balance-of-municipal-food-waste-management-systems-decision-support-methods-beyond-the-waste-hierarchy
#5
Joel Edwards, Maazuza Othman, Enda Crossin, Stewart Burn
When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal...
August 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809593/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-jordan-s-healthcare-facilities
#6
Yousef Saleh Khader
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799050/environmental-building-policy-by-the-use-of-microalgae-and-decreasing-of-risks-for-canadian-oil-sand-sector-development
#7
Armen B Avagyan
Environmental building recommendations aimed towards new environmental policies and management-changing decisions which as example demonstrated in consideration of the problems of Canadian oil sands operators. For the implementation of the circular economic strategy, we use an in-depth analysis of reported environmental after-consequence on all stages of the production process. The study addressed the promotion of innovative solutions for greenhouse gas emission, waste mitigation, and risk of falling in oil prices for operators of oil sands with creating market opportunities...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796823/assessment-of-photocatalytic-potentiality-and-determination-of-ecotoxicity-using-plant-model-for-better-environmental-applicability-of-synthesized-copper-copper-oxide-and-copper-doped-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#8
Debadrito Das, Animesh Kumar Datta, Divya Vishambhar Kumbhakar, Bapi Ghosh, Ankita Pramanik, Sudha Gupta, Aninda Mandal
NPS SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND AZO-DYE DEGRADATION: A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes namely methyl red (MR) and malachite green (MG) that are released as industrial effluents in eco-environment intercollegium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783905/drug-residues-in-urban-water-a-database-for-ecotoxicological-risk-management
#9
Doriane Destrieux, François Laurent, Hélène Budzinski, Julie Pedelucq, Philippe Vervier, Magali Gerino
Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs)...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762145/modeling-of-cr-contamination-in-the-agricultural-lands-of-three-villages-near-the-leather-industry-in-kasur-pakistan-using-statistical-and-gis-techniques
#10
Muhammad Shafiq, Tahira Shaukat, Aisha Nazir, Firdaus-E- Bareen
Kasur is one of the hubs of leather industry in the Punjab, Pakistan, where chrome tanning method of leather processing is extensively being used. Chromium (Cr) accumulation levels in the irrigation water, soil, and seasonal vegetables were studied in three villages located in the vicinity of wastewater treatment plant and solid waste dumping site operated by the Kasur Tanneries Waste Management Agency (KTWMA). The data was interpreted using analysis of variance (ANOVA), clustering analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA)...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750288/combining-stable-isotopes-with-contamination-indicators-a-method-for-improved-investigation-of-nitrate-sources-and-dynamics-in-aquifers-with-mixed-nitrogen-inputs
#11
E P Minet, R Goodhue, W Meier-Augenstein, R M Kalin, O Fenton, K G Richards, C E Coxon
Excessive nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration in groundwater raises health and environmental issues that must be addressed by all European Union (EU) member states under the Nitrates Directive and the Water Framework Directive. The identification of NO3(-) sources is critical to efficiently control or reverse NO3(-) contamination that affects many aquifers. In that respect, the use of stable isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O in NO3(-) (expressed as δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-), respectively) has long shown its value...
July 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736047/health-risk-assessment-as-an-approach-to-manage-an-old-landfill-and-to-propose-integrated-solid-waste-treatment-a-case-study-in-italy
#12
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 21, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718785/uv-surface-treatment-of-fungal-resistant-polyether-polyurethane-film-induced-growth-of-entomopathogenic-fungi
#13
Gabriela Albara Lando, Letícia Marconatto, Felipe Kessler, William Lopes, Augusto Schrank, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Daniel Eduardo Weibel
Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU) are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae, when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700235/quantitative-crassphage-pcr-assays-for-human-fecal-pollution-measurement
#14
Elyse Stachler, Catherine Kelty, Mano Sivaganesan, Xiang Li, Kyle Bibby, Orin C Shanks
Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal-indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from other animal pollution sources. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693967/comparison-of-balance-of-tritium-activity-in-waste-water-from-nuclear-power-plants-and-at-selected-monitoring-sites-in-the-vltava-river-elbe-river-and-jihlava-dyje-river-catchments-in-the-czech-republic
#15
Eduard Hanslík, Diana Marešová, Eva Juranová, Barbora Sedlářová
During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692901/water-or-sediment-partitioning-the-role-of-water-column-and-sediment-chemistry-as-drivers-of-macroinvertebrate-communities-in-an-austral-south-african-stream
#16
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman, Jonathan D Tonkin, Tongayi Mwedzi, Mandla L Magoro, Olaf L F Weyl
Water pollution is a critical management issue, with many rivers and streams draining urban areas being polluted by the disposal of untreated solid waste and wastewater discharge, storm water and agricultural runoff. This has implications for biodiversity, and many rivers in the developing world are now considered compromised. We investigated benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and composition in relation to physico-chemical conditions of the water column and sediments. The study was conducted in an Austral catchment subject to both urban and agricultural pollutants in two different seasons...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687277/measurement-of-tributyl-phosphate-tbp-in-groundwater-at-a-legacy-radioactive-waste-site-and-its-possible-role-in-contaminant-mobilisation
#17
Brett Rowling, Andrew S Kinsela, M Josick Comarmond, Catherine E Hughes, Jennifer J Harrison, Mathew P Johansen, Timothy E Payne
At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681690/development-of-nutrient-rich-growing-media-with-hazelnut-husk-and-municipal-sewage-sludge
#18
Omer Hulusi Dede, Saim Ozdemir
In the present study, development of structurally stable, rich in nutrients and environmentally safe growing media was carried out by combining waste material: crop residue hazelnut husk and municipal sewage sludge. In order to achieve this goal, structurally stable lignocellulosic hazelnut husk (HH) residue was mixed with nutrient-rich sewage sludge (S) in various proportions: HH 100%; HH+S1 87.5% : 12.5%; HH+S2 75% : 2 5%; HH+S3 50% : 5 0%. Following composting, the key physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the growing media were characterized for long term ornamental nursery crops...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680802/lobster-processing-by-products-as-valuable-bioresource-of-marine-functional-ingredients-nutraceuticals-and-pharmaceuticals
#19
REVIEW
Trung T Nguyen, Andrew R Barber, Kendall Corbin, Wei Zhang
The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50-70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678643/a-novel-photocatalytic-purification-system-for-fish-culture
#20
Basilio Randazzo, Giulia Chemello, Ivan Tortarolo, Gian Luca Chiarello, Maciej Zalas, Alessandra Santini, Margaret Liberatore, Marco Liberatore, Elena Selli, Ike Olivotto
The accumulation of nitrogen compounds represents a pivotal problem in the management of fish culture. Several methods were investigated in the last decades for treatment of waste waters, and the use of photocatalytic materials has received increasing attention. The photocatalytic degradation (PCD) process with titanium dioxide (TiO2) represents the most promising single-step method to promote the removal of nitrogen compounds from water. The present study compares for the first time the effects on fish culture of a classical mechanical, biological, and ultraviolet purification system to a TiO2-PCD one, with particular emphasis on water chemistry and on physiological responses in zebrafish...
July 5, 2017: Zebrafish
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