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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938793/effects-of-protein-or-amino-acid-supplementation-on-the-physical-growth-of-young-children-in-low-income-countries
#1
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Child growth stunting is common in low-income countries, possibly due to insufficient protein intakes. Most previous studies have concluded that children's protein intakes are adequate in relation to estimated requirements, but these studies did not consider issues of protein digestibility and effects of infection on dietary protein utilization. Using an alternative approach to assess the possible role of protein inadequacy in children's growth restriction, the results of 18 intervention trials in which supplementary protein or amino acids were provided to children ages 6-35 months and growth outcomes were reviewed...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938791/effects-of-a-high-dose-of-microbial-phytase-and-myo-inositol-supplementation-on-growth-performance-tibia-mineralization-nutrient-digestibility-litter-moisture-content-and-foot-problems-in-broiler-chickens-fed-phosphorus-deficient-diets
#2
D Farhadi, A Karimi, Gh Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#3
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938785/growth-performance-and-gastrointestinal-responses-of-broiler-chickens-fed-corn-soybean-meal-diet-without-or-with-exogenous-epidermal-growth-factor-upon-challenge-with-eimeria
#4
E Kim, H Leung, N Akhtar, J Li, J R Barta, Y Wang, C Yang, E Kiarie
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#5
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#6
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938773/characteristics-of-global-organic-matrix-in-normal-and-pimpled-chicken-eggshells
#7
Z Liu, L Song, F Zhang, W He, R J Linhardt
The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938767/isothermal-gelation-behavior-of-myofibrillar-proteins-from-white-and-red-chicken-meat-at-different-temperatures
#8
S Glorieux, L Steen, H Paelinck, I Foubert, I Fraeye
This paper provides insights in the isothermal gelation behavior of white and red chicken myofibrillar proteins (CMP) at different temperatures (20 to 80°C) and the underlying aggregation mechanism, allowing understanding of structure formation in poultry products during thermal processing. At low temperatures (20 to 60°C), an increase in aromatic surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) was found, suggesting potential formation of hydrophobic interactions between CMP. At higher temperatures (60 to 80°C), high SoANS and a significant decrease in total sulfhydryl amount (SH-amount) strongly indicate the presence of hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonding, resulting in aggregation, as suggested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938766/dietary-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-fmbj-on-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-broilers-at-an-early-age
#9
Lili Zhang, Kaiwen Bai, Jingfei Zhang, Wen Xu, Qiang Huang, Tian Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the usage of Bacillus subtilis fmbj (BS fmbj) in broiler diets, and its effects on the antioxidant capacity of broilers at an early age. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, namely the control (CON) group (fed basal diets with 0 cfu/kg BS fmbj), the BS-1 group (fed basal diet with 0.2 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), BS-2 group (fed basal diet with 0.3 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), and BS-3 group (fed basal diet with 0.4 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938763/abnormal-histopathology-fat-percent-and-hepatic-apolipoprotein-a-i-and-apolipoprotein-b100-mrna-expression-in-fatty-liver-hemorrhagic-syndrome-and-their-improvement-by-soybean-lecithin
#10
Yalu Song, Jiming Ruan, Junrong Luo, Tiancheng Wang, Fei Yang, Huabin Cao, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of soybean lecithin against FLHS in laying hens, 135 healthy 300-day-old Hyline laying hens were randomly divided into groups: control (group 1), diseased (group 2), and protected (group 3). Each group contained 45 layers with 3 replicates. The birds in these 3 groups were fed a control diet, a high-energy/low-protein (HELP) diet or the HELP diet supplemented with 3% soybean lecithin instead of maize. The fat percent in the liver was calculated...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#11
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938721/the-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-desert-tree-populus-pruinosa
#12
Wenlu Yang, Kun Wang, Jian Zhang, Jianchao Ma, Jianquan Liu, Tao Ma
Populus pruinosa is a large tree that grows in deserts and shows distinct differences in both morphology and adaptation compared to its sister species, P. euphratica. Here we present a draft genome sequence for P. pruinosa and examine genomic variations between the 2 species. A total of 60 Gb of clean reads from whole-genome sequencing of a P. pruinosa individual were generated using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The assembled genome is 479.3 Mb in length, with an N50 contig size of 14.0 kb and a scaffold size of 698...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938719/population-wide-sampling-of-retrotransposon-insertion-polymorphisms-using-deep-sequencing-and-efficient-detection
#13
Qichao Yu, Wei Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongli Zeng, Yeming Wang, Yanhui Wang, Liqin Xu, Xiaoyun Huang, Nannan Li, Xinlan Zhou, Jie Lu, Xiaosen Guo, Guibo Li, Yong Hou, Shiping Liu, Bo Li
Active retrotransposons play important roles during evolution and continue to shape our genomes today, especially in genetic polymorphisms underlying a diverse set of diseases. However, studies of human retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms (RIPs) based on whole-genome deep sequencing at the population level have not been sufficiently undertaken, despite the obvious need for a thorough characterization of RIPs in the general population. Herein, we present a novel and efficient computational tool called Specific Insertions Detector (SID) for the detection of non-reference RIPs...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938696/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-in-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Hua-Chuan Zheng
Overcoming intrinsic and acquired drug resistance is a major challenge in treating cancer patients because chemoresistance causes recurrence, cancer dissemination and death. This review summarizes numerous molecular aspects of multi-resistance, including transporter pumps, oncogenes (EGFR, PI3K/Akt, Erk and NF-κB), tumor suppressor gene (p53), mitochondrial alteration, DNA repair, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stemness, and exosome. The chemoresistance-related proteins are localized to extracellular ligand, membrane receptor, cytosolic signal messenger, and nuclear transcription factors for various events, including proliferation, apoptosis, EMT, autophagy and exosome...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938671/pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-efficacy-and-safety-versus-docetaxel-monotherapy-in-advanced-nsclc-patients-after-first-line-treatment-option-systems-assessment
#15
Qiang Su, Zhigang Sun, Chenguang Zhang, Yanli Hou, Bangwei Cao
Meta-analysis was conducted to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of programmed cell death protein-1 or ligand-1 (PD-1 or PD-L1) antibodies versus docetaxel alone in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, the prognostic significance of PD-L1 expression in advanced NSCLC was also investigated. 5 eligible studies including 3579 patients were identified through comprehensive search of multiple databases. The results showed that pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938651/positive-transcription-elongation-factor-b-p-tefb-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-human-multiple-myeloma
#16
Yu Zhang, Liang Zhou, Yun Leng, Yun Dai, Robert Z Orlowski, Steven Grant
The role of the positive RNA Pol II regulator, P-TEFb (positive transcription elongation factor b), in maintenance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and bortezomib (btz) resistance was investigated in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Mcl-1 was up-regulated in all MM lines tested, including bortezomib-resistant lines, human MM xenograft mouse models, and primary CD138(+) MM cells. Mcl-1 over-expression significantly reduced bortezomib lethality, indicating a functional role for Mcl-1 in bortezomib resistance...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938650/genomic-variants-link-to-hepatitis-c-racial-disparities
#17
Matthew M Yeh, Sarag Boukhar, Benjamin Roberts, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Sayed S Daoud
Chronic liver diseases are one of the major public health issues in United States, and there are substantial racial disparities in liver cancer-related mortality. We previously identified racially distinct alterations in the expression of transcripts and proteins of hepatitis C (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) subgroups. Here, we performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of normal vs. HCV+ (cirrhotic state), and normal adjacent tissues (HCCN) vs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938647/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-for-promoting-metastasis-and-proliferation-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-144-3p-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#18
Yong Wang, Yueyang Zhang, Tao Yang, Wei Zhao, Ningning Wang, Pengcheng Li, Xiandong Zeng, Weiguo Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes and diseases including osteosarcoma. Long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overly expressed in osteosarcoma. But the function and mechanism it works on in osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis mediated by Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) remain unclear. In the present study, an elevated MALAT1 was found in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, and the elevated MALAT1 was correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938642/facile-total-synthesis-of-lysicamine-and-the-anticancer-activities-of-the-ru-ii-rh-iii-mn-ii-and-zn-ii-complexes-of-lysicamine
#19
Jiao-Lan Qin, Ting Meng, Zhen-Feng Chen, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi-Pin Qin, Xiao-Ju He, Ke-Bin Huang, Hong Liang
Lysicamine is a natural oxoaporphine alkaloid, which isolated from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs and has been shown to possess cytotoxicity to hepatocarcinoma cell lines. Reports on its antitumor activity are scarce because lysicamine occurs in plants at a low content. In this work, we demonstrate a facile concise total synthesis of lysicamine from simple raw materials under mild reaction conditions, and the preparation of the Ru(II), Rh(III), Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes 1-4 of lysicamine (LY). All the compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938639/spondin2-is-a-new-prognostic-biomarker-for-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Xiaopeng Yuan, Tingting Bian, Jian Liu, Honggang Ke, Jia Feng, Qing Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoli Li, Yifei Liu, Jianguo Zhang
Spondin 2 (SPON2) is a member of the F-spondin superfamily of genes that encode an extracellular matrix protein. SPON2 has been identified by mRNA differential display screening of cancerous and noncancerous lung cell lines in vitro [1], however, its role in pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients remains unclear. In our study, we evaluated whether SPON2 can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pulmonary ADC and any association between SPON2 protein levels and clinicopathological characteristics. Firstly, the mRNA levels of SPON2 in pulmonary ADCs and normal adjacent tissue samples were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (n = 60) assay and the expression of SPON2 protein were detected by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC) (n = 280)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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