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Marco Muth, Stefanie Rothkötter, Steven Paprosch, Reiner P Schmid, Klaus Schnitzlein
Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides yields glycerol and free fatty-acids, provided that the enzyme is non-regioselective. For an Sn-1,3 regioselective enzyme, such as lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the final product is no longer glycerol but Sn-2 monoglyceride instead. However, surface active molecules generated by lipolysis may have a detrimental effect on the interfacial biocatalysis since it is known that low molecular weight surfactants can displace proteins from interfaces. By using drop profile analysis tensiometry, we evaluated the interfacial properties of the lipase-generated molecules and their competitive effect on the adsorption behavior of the lipase and on the proceeding lipolysis...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Alexandra Kodadová, Zuzana Vitková, Jarmila Oremusová, Petra Herdová, Anton Ťažký, Peter Mikuš
This work was aimed at a progressive formulation of drugs into chitosan hydrogels. It was taken into consideration that a therapeutic effect of the drugs could be enhanced by a combination of natural compounds with chemical (synthetic) drugs. In this work, sage essential oil (SEO) bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic, antiseptic, and antimycotic properties were combined with terbinafine (TB) having a strong antimycotic activity. Detail optimization of the hydrogel-drugs composition (SEO monoterpenes, TB, chitosan, and polysorbate 80 concentrations), based on permeation experiment and UV absorption/GC-MS analysis of permeated species (eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thujone, TB) in dialysates, was made...
October 22, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Omar Santana-Méridas, Azucena González-Coloma, Maria Fe Andrés, Veroniki P Vidali, Moschos G Polissiou, Athanasios C Kimbaris
Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. M. spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum)...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Joyeeta Mukherjee, Munishwar N Gupta
Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMC) are a high-activity preparation of enzymes for use in low-water media. The protocols for the preparation of PCMCs of Subtilisin Carlsberg and Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL B) are described. The combi-PCMC concept is useful both for cascade and non-cascade reactions. It can also be beneficial to combine two different specificities of a lipase when the substrate requires it. Combi-PCMC of CALB and Palatase used for the conversion of coffee oil present in spent coffee grounds to biodiesel is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lijuan Sun, Kevin Wei Jie Tan, Joseph Zhien Lim, Faidon Magkos, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
October 21, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Xiaxia Meng, Dengwu Li, Dan Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Qiaoxiao Liu, Sufang Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ali Reza Fardin-Kia
Non-conjugated geometric/positional isomers of linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2) are often present in processed foods and oils. The following work presents a simple addition/elimination reaction for preparation of non-conjugated 18:2 fatty acid isomers. A mixture containing positional and geometric isomers of C18:2 fatty acids was produced by addition of hydrobromic acid to the fatty acid double bonds, followed by its elimination with a strong sterically hindered base. Pure 8,12-, 8,13-, 9,12-, and 9,13-18:2 fatty acid methyl esters were isolated from the synthetic mixture by a combination of sub-ambient RP-HPLC and Ag(+)-HPLC...
October 18, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Moslem Mohammadi, Zohreh Zare, Esmaeil Allah-Moradi, Narges Vaezi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani
Organophosphates affect brain function through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared role as cholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the expression of glial (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters at mRNA and protein levels in paraoxon-treated rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with either vehicle (corn oil) or one of three dosages of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7 or 1mg/kg). After 4 or 18h, both hippocampi of each rat were collected to detect mRNA and protein expression of glutamate transporters using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Natasha R Catlin, Ron Herbert, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Milton R Hejtmancik, Laurene M Fomboy, Molly Vallant, Grace E Kissling, Michael J DeVito
Virginia cedarwood oil is widely used as a fragrance material in household and personal products and as a naturally derived pesticide alternative. Due to conflicting literature on dermal exposures in animals and humans, concern for safe levels of human exposure remains. The present study evaluated the toxicity of cedarwood oil applied dermally to F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice for 13 weeks. Groups of 10 male and female rats and mice received no treatment (untreated control) or were administered cedarwood oil in 95% aqueous ethanol dermally at concentrations ranging from 0% (vehicle control), 6...
October 18, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Razegheh Akhbarizadeh, Farid Moore, Behnam Keshavarzi, Alireza Moeinpour
Marine pollutants are becoming a growing concern due to their ecological consequences. This study investigates the potential risk posed by microplastics and toxic elements in coastal sediments of Khark Island, the main oil export hub of Iran. Principal component biplots exhibited a significant positive correlation between microplastic quantities (ranging in shape and color) and concentration of heavy metals with industrial activity. Source identification of the heavy metals indicated both natural and anthropogenic origin...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ferdaous Ghrab Ben Djemaa, Khaled Bellassoued, Sami Zouari, Abdelfatteh El Feki, Emna Ammar
Lavandula aspic L. is a strongly aromatic shrub plant of the Lamiaceae family and traditionally used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several skin disorders, including wounds, burns, and ulcers. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of lavender essential oil. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the excision wound healing activity and antioxidant property of a Lavandula aspic L. essential oil formulated in ointment using a rat model. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
Mira M Sachdeva, Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Athanasios Papakostas, Dean Eliott
PURPOSE: Large relaxing retinectomies have become increasingly used in the repair of retinal detachment related to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retinectomies expose the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the vitreous cavity; the direct effects of silicone oil on the RPE are only beginning to be understood. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients noted to develop pigmented epiretinal deposits at regularly scheduled follow-up visits after repair of complex retinal detachments using silicone oil tamponade and retinectomy...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Siti Baidurah, Paramasivam Murugan, Lee Joyyi, Junya Fukuda, Masaya Yamada, Kumar Sudesh, Yasuyuki Ishida
Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) in the presence of an organic alkali was validated for the compositional analysis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] accumulated in whole bacterial cells. Recombinant Cupriavidus necator Re2058/pCB113 was grown in a batch fermentation with different concentration of palm oil and fructose in order to control the molar fraction of 3HHx in P(3HB-co-3HHx) produced in the cells. Trace amounts (30μg) of freeze-dried cells were directly subjected to THM-GC in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) at 400°C...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
M Antonietta Baldo, Paolo Oliveri, Remo Simonetti, Salvatore Daniele
In this paper, a novel voltammetric/amperometric approach for the direct determination of free acidity (FFA, expressed as mass percentage of free oleic acid) in olive oil samples is presented. The method is based on the reduction processes occurring at a platinum microdisk electrode involving the free fatty acids present in the matrices. To overcome problems related to the low conductivity of the samples investigated, olive oils were mixed with suitable amounts of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-hexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6](+)[NTf2](-)), which acted as a supporting electrolyte...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Cristiane I Cerceau, Luiz C A Barbosa, Elson S Alvarenga, Antonio G Ferreira, Sérgio S Thomasi
α-Bisabolol is a natural terpene produced by Eremanthus erythropappus and is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimycotic properties. Due to these applications, a control of composition and authenticity of commercial oils rich in this terpene is required, resulting in a demand for new methodologies for quality control. In this work a rapid and efficient method for quantification of α-bisabolol in the essential oil of E. erythropappus (candeia) using (1)H NMR was developed, validated and compared to gas chromatography (GC) method...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ilaria Degano, Jacopo La Nasa, Elisa Ghelardi, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Lipid binders have traditionally been determined in paintings by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the characteristic profiles and ratios of fatty acids . However, the presence of mixtures in contemporary and modern oil paints makes the GC/MS determination of fatty acids insufficient to fully characterize the lipid binding media. In this study we prove that triacylglycerol (TAG) profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, using ESI in positive and negative ionization modes is highly effective...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Regina Aroca-Santos, John C Cancilla, Enrique S Pariente, José S Torrecilla
The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hongli Li, Victoria M Hitchins, Samanthi Wickramasekara
Bacterial endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides bound to the bacterial cell wall and released when bacteria rupture or disintegrate. Possible contamination of endotoxin in ophthalmic devices can cause a painful eye inflammation or result in toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery. Measurement of bacterial endotoxin in medical device materials is difficult since endotoxin binds with polymer matrix and some of the materials are very viscous and non-water soluble, where traditional enzyme-based Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay cannot be applied...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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