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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549287/unconventional-energy-resources-in-a-crowded-subsurface-reducing-uncertainty-and-developing-a-separation-zone-concept-for-resource-estimation-and-deep-3d-subsurface-planning-using-legacy-mining-data
#1
Alison A Monaghan
Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#2
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548859/separation-of-oil-in-water-emulsions-using-hydrophilic-electrospun-membranes-with-anisotropic-pores
#3
Weerapha Panatdasirisuk, Zhiwei Liao, Thammasit Vongsetskul, Shu Yang
It has been challenging to separate oil from oil/water emulsions with droplet size less than 1 μm using conventional porous membranes. Membranes with small pores are preferred, but the trade-off is a dramatic reduction of volumetric flux. Here, we prepared membranes from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with high porosity (∼88%). When the membranes were stretched uniaxially at different strain levels, the pores became anisotropic with an aspect ratio (pore length/width) up to 5.3 ± 3.0. To improve their wettability, we added Tween 80, a hydrophilic surfactant, to PCL solutions for electrospinning...
May 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548824/improved-mechanistic-understanding-of-natural-gas-methane-emissions-from-spatially-resolved-aircraft-measurements
#4
Stefan Schwietzke, Gabrielle Petron, Stephen A Conley, Cody Pickering, Ingrid Mielke-Maday, Edward J Dlugokencky, Pieter P Tans, Tim Vaughn, Clay S Bell, Daniel Zimmerle, Sonja Wolter, Clark King, Allen B White, Timothy Coleman, Laura Bianco, Russell Schnell
Divergence in recent oil and gas related methane emission estimates between aircraft studies (basin total for a midday window) and emissions inventories (annualized regional and national statistics) indicate the need for better understanding the experimental design, including temporal and spatial alignment and interpretation of results. Our aircraft based methane emission estimates in a major US shale gas basin resolved from West to East show (i) similar spatial distributions for two days, (ii) strong spatial correlations with reported NG production (R(2)=0...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548686/studies-on-the-antibody-response-and-side-effects-after-intramuscular-and-intraperitoneal-injection-of-atlantic-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus-l-with-different-oil-based-vaccines
#5
T Erkinharju, M R Lundberg, E Isdal, I Hordvik, R A Dalmo, T Seternes
Atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) is used as a biological delousing agent for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis K.) infestations in Norwegian aquaculture. Here, we present a study on the antibody response and vaccine side effects after intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection of lumpfish with two vaccines. Both vaccines contained bacterial antigens from atypical Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 and Moritella viscosa sp., but one vaccine contained a vegetable oil-based adjuvant, while the other contained a mineral oil-based adjuvant...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548560/microalgal-oil-from-schizochytrium-sp-prevents-hfd-induced-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#6
Jinhui Yu, Yong Ma, Jie Sun, Liyuan Ran, Youwei Li, Ning Wang, Tao Yu, Wenting Gao, Wenbin Jia, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Yuping Bi, Yingjie Wu
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are proved to be effective in obesity reduction. Microalgal oil (MO) is an important alternative source of n-3 PUFAs that effectively alleviates obesity. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil from Schizochytrium sp. (SMO) and to compare the effects of 2 SMOs (SMO1 and SMO2) with different levels of purity of n-3 PUFAs on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548173/effects-of-freeze-thawing-cycles-on-desorption-behaviors-of-pah-contaminated-soil-in-the-presence-of-a-biosurfactant-a-case-study-in-western-canada
#7
Y Yao, G H Huang, C J An, G H Cheng, J Wei
Many regions in Canada are facing increasing environmental threats posed by oil and gas exploitation and transportation. These contaminated lands are inevitably subjected to seasonal and diurnal freeze-thawing cycles (FTCs). However, knowledge about the effect of FTCs on the behaviours of hydrophobic contaminants during the aging process of soil is limited. This study investigated the desorption characteristics of phenanthrene in aging soils in the presence of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid under diurnal and seasonal FTC treatments...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548150/using-%C3%AE-2-rheology-to-quantify-rheological-properties-during-repeated-reversible-phase-transitions-of-soft-matter
#8
Matthew D Wehrman, Melissa J Milstrey, Seth Lindberg, Kelly M Schultz
A microfluidic device is designed to measure repeated phase transitions, gelation and degradation, on a single sample by exchanging the surrounding fluid while minimizing shear stress. This device enables quantitative microrheological characterization of material properties over multiple phase transitions, determining whether the material returns to the same equilibrium state. Fluid exchange is accomplished by using a two layer design, the sample is trapped in the first layer and the second layer is a well for the exchanging fluid...
May 26, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547316/preliminary-study-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-for-use-as-an-intraocular-tamponading-agent-in-minipigs
#9
Vincent J Soler, Camille Laurent, Frédéric Sakr, Alain Regnier, Cyrielle Tricoire, Olivier Cases, Renata Kozyraki, Jean-Yves Douet, Véronique Pagot-Mathis
PURPOSE: To date, only silicone oils and gases have the appropriate characteristics for use in vitreo-retinal surgery as vitreous substitutes with intraocular tamponading properties. This preliminary study evaluated the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for use as a tamponading agent in minipigs. METHODS: In 15 minipigs, 15 right eyes underwent vitrectomies followed by injection of MCT tamponade (day 1). Two groups were defined. In Group A (ten eyes), the surgical procedure before MCT injection included induced rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retina flattening, and retinopexy...
May 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546951/common-chemotherapeutic-agents-modulate-fatty-acid-distribution-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Amir Mehdizadeh, Morteza Bonyadi, Masoud Darabi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Soheila Montazersaheb, Kobra Velaei, Maghsood Shaaker, Mohammad-Hossein Somi
Introduction: Cancer cells are critically correlated with lipid molecules, particularly fatty acids, as structural blocks for membrane building, energy sources, and related signaling molecules. Therefore, cancer progression is in direct correlation with fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of common chemotherapeutic agents on the lipid metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, with a focus on alterations in cellular fatty acid contents...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546949/properties-of-macerated-herbal-oil
#11
Fahsai Kantawong, Supawatchara Singhatong, Aomjai Srilamay, Kantarose Boonyuen, Niroot Mooti, Phenphichar Wanachantararak, Thasaneeya Kuboki
Introduction: The addition of herbs into hot sesame oil could increase the oil-pulling efficiency of sesame oil. The aim of present study was to modify the proportion of herbs and sesame oil with the addition of other ingredients including menthol, camphor, and borneol and improve the medicinal properties and the scent of the oil. Methods: Macerated herbal oil was prepared by heat extraction of five species of herbs (Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber zerumbet, Plantago major Linn, Citrus hystrix, and Amomum biflorum) with hot sesame oil...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546841/the-effect-of-cyclodextrin-complexation-on-the-solubility-and-photostability-of-nerolidol-as-pure-compound-and-as-main-constituent-of-cabreuva-essential-oil
#12
Joyce Azzi, Pierre-Edouard Danjou, David Landy, Steven Ruellan, Lizette Auezova, Hélène Greige-Gerges, Sophie Fourmentin
Nerolidol (Ner), a major component of many plant essential oils, is known for its various biological properties. However, the low solubility of Ner in water and its susceptibility to degradation limit its application. The aim of our study was to improve the solubility and photostability of Ner through its encapsulation in different cyclodextrins (CDs). The formation constants of cis-, trans-Ner and their commercial mixture with various CDs (α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD, RAMEB, CRYSMEB and SBE-β-CD) were determined by phase solubility studies and confirmed by the spectral displacement UV-visible method...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546822/commercial-essential-oils-as-potential-antimicrobials-to-treat-skin-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ané Orchard, Sandy van Vuuren
Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546556/smelting-reduction-and-kinetics-analysis-of-magnetic-iron-in-copper-slag-using-waste-cooking-oil
#14
Bo Li, Xubin Wang, Hua Wang, Yonggang Wei, Jianhang Hu
To improve the recovery of copper, the viscosity of copper molten slag is decreased by the reduction of magnetic iron, which, in turn, accelerates the settling and separation of copper droplets from the slag. A new technology is proposed in which waste cooking oil is used as a reductant to reduce magnetic iron in the copper smelting slag and consequently reduce carbon emissions in the copper smelting process. A kinetic model of the reduction of magnetic iron in copper slag by waste cooking oil was built using experimental data, and the accuracy of the model was verified...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546498/draft-genome-sequence-of-microbacterium-foliorum-strain-122-isolated-from-a-plant-growing-in-a-chronically-hydrocarbon-contaminated-site
#15
Rhea Lumactud, Roberta Fulthorpe, Vladimir Sentchilo, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546125/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-coft1-a-homolog-of-flowering-locus-t-ft-from-camellia-oleifera
#16
Hengjiu Lei, Shuchai Su, Luyi Ma, Yue Wen, Xiangnan Wang
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important integrator of flowering genetic pathways and plays crucial roles in flowering transition. The tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a valuable woody oil crop, but the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering are still unclear. In this study, a FT-like gene, CoFT1, was isolated and characterized from C. oleifera. The CoFT1 protein was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Arabidopsis protoplasts, and exhibited no transactivation activity in yeast cells. CoFT1 was highly expressed in mature leaves and reproductive organs, such as flower buds, flowers, flower organs, and young fruits...
May 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546114/melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-prevents-alterations-to-purinergic-enzymes-and-ameliorates-the-innate-immune-response-in-silver-catfish-infected-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#17
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Pedro H Doleski, Agueda C de Vargas, Marta M M F Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Aline A Boligon, Daniela B R Leal, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Aeromonas hydrophila infection represents a major impediment to the development of aquaculture, leading to important economic losses. Over the last few years, different methods have been used to counteract and minimize the negative effects of this infection, such as the use of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), that possess a bactericide action against A. hydrophila. The purinergic system develops an important role in the inflammatory response, principally due to involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the inflammatory process, as well as by the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine (Ado), a molecule that is controlled by NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545970/chitosan-stabilized-camptothecin-nanoemulsions-development-evaluation-and-biodistribution-in-preclinical-breast-cancer-animal-mode
#18
Subramanian Natesan, Abimanyu Sugumaran, Chandrasekar Ponnusamy, Vignesh Thiagarajan, Rajaguru Palanichamy, Ruckmani Kandasamy
Clinical use of camptothecin (CPT) is hindered due to its poor water and oil solubility, active lactone ring instability and non-targeted toxicity. Recently we reported formulation of camptothecin microemulsions with increased solubility for the improved treatment of breast cancer. In this research chitosan stabilized camptothecin nanoemulsions (CHI-CPT-NEs) were formulated improve the cancer targeting efficiency of CPT. The developed NEs were characterized for their droplet size distribution, stability in plasma and evaluated for in-vitro drug release, in-vivo targeting potential, in-vitro hemolytic potential, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and in-vivo biodistribution...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545947/transformation-of-oil-palm-fronds-into-pentose-sugars-using-copper-ii-sulfate-pentahydrate-with-the-assistance-of-chemical-additive
#19
Yu-Loong Loow, Ta Yeong Wu
Among the chemical pretreatments available for pretreating biomass, the inorganic salt is considered to be a relatively new but simple reagent that offers comparable pentose (C5) sugar recoveries as the conventional dilute acid hydrolysis. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations (1.5-6.0% (v/v)) of H2O2 or Na2S2O8 in facilitating CuSO4·5H2O pretreatment for improving pentose sugar recovery from oil palm fronds. The best result was observed when 0.2 mol/L of CuSO4·5H2O was integrated with 4...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545863/the-impact-of-dissolved-inorganic-nitrogen-and-phosphorous-on-responses-of-microbial-plankton-to-the-texas-city-y-oil-spill-in-galveston-bay-texas-usa
#20
Alicia K Williams, Hernando P Bacosa, Antonietta Quigg
Ongoing bioremediation research seeks to promote naturally occurring microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation during and after oil spill events. However, complex relationships among functionally different microbial groups, nutrients and PAHs remain unconstrained. We conducted a surface water survey and corresponding nutrient amendment bioassays following the Texas City "Y" oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas. Resident microbial groups, defined as either heterotrophic or autotrophic were enumerated by flow cytometry...
May 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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