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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331904/anthocyanins-in-perilla-plants-and-dried-leaves
#1
Yumi Fujiwara, Miya Kono, Airi Ito, Michiho Ito
High-quality perilla leaves are purple on upper and lower surfaces and have a good aroma. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia specifies the content of essential oils in perilla leaves but not that of anthocyanins. Several reports have described the chemical species of anthocyanins in red perilla, but a complete analysis of anthocyanins in perilla has not been reported. In this study, the anthocyanins in the leaves of cultivated and wild species of perilla and those in commercially available perilla herbs were studied...
January 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331893/ambient-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-in-communities-of-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-sources-and-screening-health-risk-assessment
#2
Md Aynul Bari, Warren B Kindzierski
An investigation of ambient levels and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated public health risks was carried out at two northern Alberta oil sands communities (Fort McKay and Fort McMurray located < 25 km and >30 km from oil sands development, respectively) for the period January 2010-March 2015. Levels of total detected VOCs were comparatively similar at both communities (Fort McKay: geometric mean = 22.8 μg/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 13.8-41 μg/m3); (Fort McMurray: geometric mean = 23...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331851/rhizospheric-microorganisms-as-a-solution-for-the-recovery-of-soils-contaminated-by-petroleum-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Jéssica Janzen Dos Santos, Leila Teresinha Maranho
Petroleum is currently the world's main energy source, and its demand is expected to increase in coming years. Its intense exploitation can lead to an increase in the number of environmental accidents, such as spills and leaks, and an increase in the generation of environmental liabilities resulting from refining. Due to its hydrophobic characteristics and slow process of biodegradation, petroleum can remain in the environment for a long time and its toxicity can cause a negative impact on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with the main negative effects related to its carcinogenic potential for both animals and humans...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331799/the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-coast-guard-cohort-study-a-cross-sectional-study-of-acute-respiratory-health-symptoms
#4
Melannie Alexander, Lawrence S Engel, Nathan Olaiya, Li Wang, John Barrett, Laura Weems, Erica G Schwartz, Jennifer A Rusiecki
INTRODUCTION: Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. METHODS: USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331711/omega-3-supplements-reduce-self-reported-physical-aggression-in-healthy-adults
#5
Laurent Bègue, Ap Zaalberg, Rébecca Shankland, Aaron Duke, Julie Jacquet, Perla Kaliman, Lucie Pennel, Marc Chanove, Philippe Arvers, Brad J Bushman
There is emerging evidence that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements can decrease aggression. However, experimental studies with adults from non-specific populations are scarce. We hypothesized that Omega-3 supplements would decrease self-reported aggression among non-clinical participants. In a double-blind randomized trial, two groups of participants (N = 194) aged 18-45 from the general population followed a 6-weeks treatment with 638mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 772mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) per day or the equivalent quantity of copra oil (placebo)...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331510/effects-of-sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-lemon-essential-oil-on-the-acid-tolerance-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-mutans
#6
Yanwei Sun, Sijia Chen, Chen Zhang, Yali Liu, Li Ma, Xiangyu Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Lemon essential oil (LEO) is a kind of secondary metabolite from lemon peels and has been found to inhibit cariogenic bacteria for decades. However, its effects on main cariogenic virulence factors are rarely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of LEO on the acid tolerance and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and preliminarily reveal the possible underlying mechanisms. DESIGNS: Effects of LEO on the acid tolerance and biofilm formation of S...
December 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330836/pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-mediated-by-yap
#8
Ping Chen, Qihui Luo, Chao Huang, Qi Gao, Like Li, Jingfei Chen, Bing Chen, Wentao Liu, Wen Zeng, Zhengli Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the interaction between Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathways in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Serum samples of monkeys with biopsy-proven NAFLD and healthy normal monkeys were used to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) and albumin (ALB) with the BECKMAN CX5 PRO...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330573/tocotrienol-supplementation-suppressed-bone-resorption-and-oxidative-stress-in-postmenopausal-osteopenic-women-a-12-week-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
C-L Shen, S Yang, M D Tomison, A W Romero, C K Felton, H Mo
Tocotrienols have shown bone-protective effect in animals. This study showed that a 12-week tocotrienol supplementation decreased concentrations of bone resorption biomarker and bone remodeling regulators via suppressing oxidative stress in postmenopausal osteopenic women. INTRODUCTION: Tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to benefit bone health in ovariectomized animals, a model of postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12-week TT supplementation on bone markers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), and serum osteoprotegerin (OPG)), urine calcium, and an oxidative stress biomarker (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) in postmenopausal women with osteopenia...
January 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330492/turning-a-normal-microscope-into-a-super-resolution-instrument-using-a-scanning-microlens-array
#10
Gergely Huszka, Martin A M Gijs
We report dielectric microsphere array-based optical super-resolution microscopy. A dielectric microsphere that is placed on a sample is known to generate a virtual image with resolution better than the optical diffraction limit. However, a limitation of such type of super-resolution microscopy is the restricted field-of-view, essentially limited to the central area of the microsphere-generated image. We overcame this limitation by scanning a micro-fabricated array of ordered microspheres over the sample using a customized algorithm that moved step-by-step a motorized stage, meanwhile the microscope-mounted camera was taking pictures at every step...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330468/alteration-in-yield-and-oil-quality-traits-of-winter-rapeseed-by-lodging-at-different-planting-density-and-nitrogen-rates
#11
Shahbaz Khan, Sumera Anwar, Jie Kuai, Ali Noman, Muhammad Shahid, Mairaj Din, Ahmed Ali, Guangsheng Zhou
Lodging is a factor that negatively affects yield, seed quality, and harvest ability in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we quantified the lodging-induced yield losses, changes in fatty acid composition, and oil quality in rapeseed under different nitrogen application rates and planting densities. Field experiments were conducted in 2014-2017 for studying the effect of manually-induced lodging angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), 10, 20 and 30 d post-flowering at different densities and nitrogen application rates...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330432/developing-genome-wide-snps-and-constructing-an-ultrahigh-density-linkage-map-in-oil-palm
#13
Bin Bai, Le Wang, Ying Jun Zhang, May Lee, Rahmadsyah Rahmadsyah, Yuzer Alfiko, Bao Qing Ye, Sigit Purwantomo, Antonius Suwanto, Nam-Hai Chua, Gen Hua Yue
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the leading oil-producing crops and the most important edible oil resource worldwide. DNA markers and genetic linkage maps are essential resources for marker-assisted selection to accelerate genetic improvement. We conducted RAD-seq on an Illumina NextSeq500 to discover genome-wide SNPs, and used the SNPs to construct a linkage map for an oil palm (Tenera) population derived from a cross between a Deli Dura and an AVROS Pisifera. The RAD-seq produced 1,076 million single-end reads across the breeding population containing 155 trees...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330231/some-clues-for-studying-long-term-health-effects-of-oil-spills
#14
Jan Paul Zock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329945/model-of-acetic-acid-affected-growth-and-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-production-by-cupriavidus-necator-dsm-545
#15
Jaruwan Marudkla, Wen-Chien Lee, Siwaporn Wannawilai, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Acetic acid, a potential growth inhibitor, commonly occurs in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The growth of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by this bacterium in a glucose-based medium supplemented with various initial concentrations of acetic acid are reported. The bacterium could use both glucose and acetic acid to grow and produce PHB, but acetic acid inhibited growth once its initial concentration exceeded 0.5 g/L. As acetic acid is an unavoidable contaminant in hydrolysates used as sugar sources in commercial fermentations, a mathematical model was developed to describe its impact on growth and the production of PHB...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329876/discrimination-of-processing-grades-of-olive-oil-and-other-vegetable-oils-by-monochloropropanediol-esters-and-glycidyl-esters
#16
Jing Yan, Sergio B Oey, Stefan P J van Leeuwen, Saskia M van Ruth
In this study, the processing derived contaminants 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) were analysed in 84 oil samples by GC-MS/MS for the discrimination of processing grades of olive oils as a potential authentication tool. Concentrations of 2- and 3-MCPD esters and GEs varied in the ranges 0-6 mg/kg, 0-1.5 mg/kg, and 0-1 mg/kg oil, respectively. The concentrations of the three compounds in lower grade olive oils were significantly higher (P < .001) than that in EVOO...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329855/production-of-three-types-of-krill-oils-from-krill-meal-by-a-three-step-solvent-extraction-procedure
#17
Dan Xie, Hongyan Mu, Tianpei Tang, Xiaosan Wang, Wei Wei, Jun Jin, Xingguo Wang, Qingzhe Jin
In this study, a three-step extraction method (separately use acetone, hexane, and ethanol as extraction solvent in each step) was conducted to selectively extract three types of krill oils with different compositions. The lipid yields were 5.08% in step 1, 4.80% in step 2, and 9.11% in step 3, with a total of 18.99%. The krill oil extracted with acetone in step 1 (A-KO) contained the lowest contents of phospholipids (PL) (2.32%) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (16.63%), but the highest levels of minor components (505...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329854/enzymatic-preparation-of-functional-oil-rich-in-feruloylated-structured-lipids-with-solvent-free-ultrasound-pretreatment
#18
Haiping Zhang, Mingming Zheng, Jie Shi, Hu Tang, Qianchun Deng, Fenghong Huang, Dan Luo
In this study, a series of functional oils rich in feruloylated structured lipids (FSLs) was prepared by enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with triglycerides under ultrasound pretreatment. A conversion of more than 92.7% and controllable FSLs (3.1%-26.3%) can be obtained under the following conditions: 16% enzyme, substrate ratio 1:5 (oil/EF, mol/mol), 85 °C, ultrasound 1 h, pulse mode 3 s/3s (working/waiting), and 17.0 W/mL. Compared to conventional mechanical stirring, the activation energy decreased from 50...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329848/utilization-of-mixed-adsorbents-to-extend-frying-oil-life-cycle-in-poultry-processing
#19
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Bhundit Innawong, Chatchalai Siasakul, Christopher Okafor
The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329846/nutritionally-enriched-1-3-diacylglycerol-rich-oil-low-calorie-fat-with-hypolipidemic-effects-in-rats
#20
B L A Prabhavathi Devi, K N Gangadhar, R B N Prasad, D Sugasini, Y Poorna Chandra Rao, B R Lokesh
An enzymatic process was developed for the preparation of a nutritionally enriched 1,3-diacylglycerol(DAG)-rich oil from a blend of refined sunflower and rice bran oils. The process involves hydrolysis of vegetable oil blend using Candida cylindracea followed by esterification with glycerol using Lipozyme RM1M. The resultant DAG-rich oil contains 84% of DAG (66% of 1,3-DAG, 18% of 1,2-DAG) and 16% of triacylglycerol (TAG) along with micro nutrients like γ-oryzanol, tocotrienols, tocopherols and phytosterols...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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