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Plant dna methylation

Xiaomei Dong, Jian Chen, Tong Li, En Li, Xiangbo Zhang, Mei Zhang, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
Genomic imprinting refers to allele-specific expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin, play a critical role in gene transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unknown whether differential nucleosome organization is related to the allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Here, we generated a genome-wide map of allele-specific nucleosome occupancy in maize endosperm and presented an integrated analysis of its relationship with parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression and DNA methylation...
June 14, 2018: Genome Research
Guanfeng Xu, Jie Zhang, Hao Lyu, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng, Hui Xiang, Sichun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Accurate regulation of tissue- and stage-specific expression of genes is prerequisite for normal development in organisms. DNA methylation plays an important role in modulating gene expression in mammals and plants. However, there is no direct evidence showing how DNA methylation regulates gene transcription in insects. RESULTS: During the development of Bombyx mori wing, the expression level of DNA methyltransferase 1 (BmDnmt1) gradually declined and became stationary at pupal stage, resulting in a lower methylation rate of the intragenic promoter of the mid-pupal wing-specific gene BmCHSA-2b, an epidermal chitin synthase controlling mid-pupal wing development in B...
June 14, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Christopher J Hosford, Joshua S Chappie
Restriction modification systems consist of an endonuclease that cleaves foreign DNA site-specifically and an associated methyltransferase that protects the corresponding target site in the host genome. Modification-dependent restriction systems, in contrast, specifically recognize and cleave methylated and/or glucosylated DNA. The LlaJI restriction system contains two 5-methyl-cytosine (5mC) methyltransferases (LlaJI.M1 and LlaJI.M2) and two restriction proteins (LlaJI.R1 and LlaJI.R2). LlaJI.R1 and LlaJI...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tao Wang, Dongya Huang, Baoyu Chen, Nini Mao, Yushan Qiao, Muxiang Ji
Polyploidization always induces a series of changes in genome, transcriptome and epigenetics, of which changes in gene expression are the immediate causes of genotype alterations of polyploid plants. In our previous study on strawberry polyploidization, genes related to photosynthesis were found to undergo changes in gene expression and DNA methylation. Therefore, we chose 11 genes that were closely related to plant photosynthesis and analysed their expression during strawberry hybridization and chromosome doubling...
March 2018: Genes & Genomics
Fang-Fang Fu, R Kelly Dawe, Jonathan I Gent
Plants make use of distinct types of DNA methylation characterized by their DNA methyltransferases and modes of regulation. One type, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), is guided by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the edges of transposons that are close to genes, areas called mCHH islands in maize (Zea mays). Another type, chromomethylation, is guided by histone H3 lysine 9 methylation to heterochromatin across the genome. We examined DNA methylation and small RNA expression in plant tissues that were mutant for both copies of the genes encoding chromomethylases as well as mutants for both copies of the genes encoding DECREASED DNA METHYLATION1 (DDM1)-type nucleosome remodelers, which facilitate chromomethylation...
June 8, 2018: Plant Cell
Jinhua Zuo, Yunxiang Wang, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao
DNA methylation is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation and plays a role in various physiological and biochemical processes at CG, CHG, and CHH sites in plants. LeERF1 is an ethylene response factor (ERF) found in tomatoes which plays an important role in ethylene signal transduction. To explore the characteristics of DNA methylation in the ethylene pathway, sense-/antisense-LeERF1 transgenic tomato fruit were chosen for deep sequencing and bioinformatics parsing. The methylation type with the greatest distribution was CG, (71...
May 21, 2018: Genes
Daniela Dal Bosco, Iraci Sinski, Patrícia S Ritschel, Umberto A Camargo, Thor V M Fajardo, Ricardo Harakava, Vera Quecini
Increased tolerance to pathogens is an important goal in conventional and biotechnology-assisted grapevine breeding programs worldwide. Fungal and viral pathogens cause direct losses in berry production, but also affect the quality of the final products. Precision breeding strategies allow the introduction of resistance characters in elite cultivars, although the factors determining the plant's overall performance are not fully characterized. Grapevine plants expressing defense proteins, from fungal or plant origins, or of the coat protein gene of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of somatic embryos and shoot apical meristems...
June 6, 2018: Transgenic Research
Yuan-Ye Zhang, Vit Latzel, Markus Fischer, Oliver Bossdorf
Increasing evidence for epigenetic variation within and among natural plant populations has led to much speculation about its role in the evolution of plant phenotypes. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the evolutionary potential of epigenetic variation, in particular in comparison to DNA sequence-based variation. To address this question, we compared the magnitudes of heritable phenotypic variation in epigenetic recombinant inbred lines (epiRILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana-lines that mainly differ in DNA methylation but only very little in DNA sequence-with other types of A...
June 6, 2018: Heredity
Shira Corem, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Ophélie Jouffroy, Florian Maumus, Tzahi Arazi, Nicolas Bouché
In plants, cytosine methylation, an epigenetic mark critical for transposon silencing, is maintained over generations by key enzymes that directly methylate DNA and is facilitated by chromatin remodelers, like DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1). Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) also mediate transposon DNA methylation through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), siRNAs are primarily mapped to gene-rich chromosome arms, and not to pericentromeric regions as in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 6, 2018: Plant Cell
Tami Coursey, Milica Milutinovic, Elizabeth Regedanz, Jelena Brkljacic, David M Bisaro
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) impart information that regulates chromatin structure and activity. Their effects are mediated by histone reader proteins that bind specific PTMs to modify chromatin and/or recruit appropriate effectors to alter the chromatin landscape. Despite their crucial juxtaposition between information and functional outcome, relatively few plant histone readers have been identified, and nothing is known about their impact on viral chromatin and pathogenesis. We used the geminivirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) as a model to functionally characterize two recently identified reader proteins, EMSY-LIKE 1 and 3 (EML1 and EML3), which contain Tudor-like Agenet domains predictive of histone PTM binding function...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jérôme Zervudacki, Agnès Yu, Delase Amesefe, Jingyu Wang, Jan Drouaud, Lionel Navarro, Angélique Deleris
Mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) in plants has been recognized as a driving force of evolution and adaptation, in particular by providing genes with regulatory modules that impact their transcription. In this study, we employed an ATCOPIA93 long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter- GUS fusion to show that this retrotransposon behaves like an immune-responsive gene during pathogen defense in Arabidopsis We also showed that the endogenous ATCOPIA93 copy " EVD ", which is activated in the presence of bacterial stress, is negatively regulated by both DNA methylation and polycomb-mediated silencing, a mode of repression typically found at protein-coding and microRNA genes...
June 5, 2018: EMBO Journal
Yizan Ma, Ling Min, Maojun Wang, Chaozhi Wang, Yunlong Zhao, Yaoyao Li, Qidi Fang, Yuanlong Wu, Sai Xie, Yuanhao Ding, Xiaojun Su, Qin Hu, Qinghua Zhang, Xueyuan Li, Xianlong Zhang
High temperature (HT) stress induces male sterility, leading to yield reductions in crops. DNA methylation regulates a range of processes involved in plant development and stress responses, but its role in male sterility under HT remains unknown. Here, we investigated DNA methylation levels in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers under HT and normal temperature (NT) conditions by performing whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to investigate the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in male fertility under HT. Global disruption of DNA methylation, especially CHH methylation (where H=A, C or T), was detected in an HT-sensitive line...
June 4, 2018: Plant Cell
Silvia Proietti, Lotte Caarls, Silvia Coolen, Johan A Van Pelt, Saskia C M Van Wees, Corné M J Pieterse
Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and insect herbivores. Salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) can antagonize JA-regulated defenses, thereby modulating pathogen or insect resistance. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study on natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana for the effect of SA and ABA on the JA pathway. We treated 349 Arabidopsis accessions with methyl JA (MeJA), or a combination of MeJA and either SA or ABA, after which expression of the JA-responsive marker gene PDF1...
May 31, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Zhaoxue Han, Peter A Crisp, Scott Stelpflug, Shawn M Kaeppler, Qing Li, Nathan M Springer
DNA methylation can contribute to the maintenance of genome integrity and regulation of gene expression. In most situations, DNA methylation patterns are inherited quite stably. However, changes in DNA methylation can occur at some loci as a result of tissue culture resulting in somaclonal variation. To investigate heritable epigenetic changes as a consequence of tissue culture, a sequence-capture bisulfite sequencing approach was implemented to monitor context-specific DNA methylation patterns in ∼15Mb of the maize genome for a population of plants that had been regenerated from tissue culture...
May 30, 2018: Genetics
Clément Lafon-Placette, Marcelinus R Hatorangan, Kim A Steige, Amandine Cornille, Martin Lascoux, Tanja Slotte, Claudia Köhler
Hybrid seed lethality is a widespread type of reproductive barrier among angiosperm taxa1,2 that contributes to species divergence by preventing gene flow between natural populations3,4 . Besides its ecological importance, it is an important obstacle to plant breeding strategies 5 . Hybrid seed lethality is mostly due to a failure of the nourishing endosperm tissue, resulting in embryo arrest3,6,7 . The cause of this failure is a parental dosage imbalance in the endosperm that can be a consequence of either differences in parental ploidy levels or differences in the 'effective ploidy', also known as the endosperm balance number (EBN)8,9 ...
June 2018: Nature Plants
Juan Liu, Laura Chatham, Rishi Aryal, Qingyi Yu, Ray Ming
Papaya is trioecious and an excellent system for studying sex determination and differentiation in plants. An ortholog of HUA1, CpHUA1, a gene controlling stamen and carpel development in Arabidopsis, was cloned and characterized in papaya. CpHUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 19,313 bp in male AU9 and 19,312 bp in hermaphrodite SunUp, whereas the Arabidopsis HUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 4300 bp. All the 324 SNPs between male and hermaphrodite varieties are in the 11th intron, which spans 8...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Thomas K Uthup, Rekha Karumamkandathil, Minimol Ravindran, Thakurdas Saha
Heterografting induced intraclonal epigenetic variations were detected among rubber plants. Interaction between genetically divergent root stock and scion tissues might have triggered these epigenetic changes which may eventually lead to intraclonal variability in rubber. DNA methylation in response to stress may be associated with the alteration in gene transcription leading to morphological changes in plants. Rubber tree is commercially propagated by bud grafting where the scion of a high yielding variety is grafted on to a genetically divergent root stock...
May 24, 2018: Planta
Feng Tan, Yue Lu, Wei Jiang, Yu Zhao, Tian Wu, Ruoyu Zhang, Dao-Xiu Zhou
Cytosine methylation of DNA, which occurs at CG, CHG, and CHH (H=A, C, or T) sequences in plants, is a hallmark for epigenetic repression of repetitive sequences. The chromatin remodeling factor DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION1 (DDM1) is essential for DNA methylation, especially at CG and CHG sequences. However, its potential role in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and in chromatin function is not completely understood in rice (Oryza sativa). In this work, we used high-throughput approaches to study the function of rice DDM1 (OsDDM1) in RdDM and the expression of non-coding RNA (ncRNA)...
May 24, 2018: Plant Physiology
Huiming Zhang, Zhaobo Lang, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic modification that is important for gene regulation and genome stability. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation can lead to plant developmental abnormalities. A specific DNA methylation state is an outcome of dynamic regulation by de novo methylation, maintenance of methylation and active demethylation, which are catalysed by various enzymes that are targeted by distinct regulatory pathways. In this Review, we discuss DNA methylation in plants, including methylating and demethylating enzymes and regulatory factors, and the coordination of methylation and demethylation activities by a so-called methylstat mechanism; the functions of DNA methylation in regulating transposon silencing, gene expression and chromosome interactions; the roles of DNA methylation in plant development; and the involvement of DNA methylation in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Dohyup Kim, Bushra F Minhas, Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Allison K Hansen
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles...
May 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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