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Hugo Pereira, Katkam N Gangadhar, Peter S C Schulze, Tamára Santos, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, Lisa M Schueler, Luísa Custódio, F Xavier Malcata, Luísa Gouveia, João C S Varela, Luísa Barreira
Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Jaeger, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Elina Oberländer, Robin Wördenweber, Julian Wichmann, Jan H Mussgnug, Thomas Huser, Olaf Kruse
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this study, both techniques were applied to the oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium neglectum, a biotechnologically promising microalga resistant to commonly applied lipid staining techniques...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yue Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Chieh-Lun Cheng, Wan-Qian Guo, Dillirani Nagarajan, Nan-Qi Ren, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
Although microalgae can serve as an appropriate alternative feedstock for biofuel production, the high microalgal cultivation cost has been a major obstacle for commercializing such attempts. One of the feasible solution for cost reduction is to couple microalgal biofuel production system with wastewater treatment, as microalgae are known to effectively eliminate a variety of nutrients/pollutants in wastewater, such as nitrogen/phosphate, organic carbons, VFAs, pharmaceutical compounds, textile dye compounds, and heavy metals...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yongjin He, Jingbo Li, Sitharam Kodali, Bilian Chen, Zheng Guo
Dramatic decline in the quality and quantity of ω-3 PUFAs from marine resource demands new environmental-friendly technology to produce high quality ω-3 PUFAs concentrates in a better bioavailable form. Accordingly this work demonstrated an exceptionally highly efficient non-aqueous approach that non-regiospecific and non ω-3 PUFAs preferential Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A), functioning as a near-ideal biocatalyst, is capable to directly concentrate ω-3 PUFAs from 20% to 30% in oils to up to >90% in monoacylglycerols form through one step reaction...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
Sari Dewi Kurniasih, Tomohito Yamasaki, Fantao Kong, Sigeru Okada, Dwiyantari Widyaningrum, Takeshi Ohama
In this investigation, we succeeded to generate Chlamydomonas mutants that bear dramatically enhanced ability for transgene expression. To yield these mutants, we utilized DNA methyltransferase deficient strain. These mutants must be useful as a plant cell factory. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (hereafter Chlamydomonas) is a green freshwater microalga. It is a promising cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins because it rapidly grows in simple salt-based media. However, expression of transgenes integrated into the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas is very poor, probably because of severe transcriptional silencing irrespective of the genomic position...
October 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Jooyeon Jeong, Kwangryul Baek, Henning Kirst, Anastasios Melis, EonSeon Jin
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii truncated light-harvesting antenna 4 (tla4) DNA transposon mutant has a pale green phenotype, a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per cell and a higher Chl a/b ratio in comparison with the wild type. It required a higher light intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and displayed a greater per chlorophyll light-saturated rate of oxygen evolution than the wild type. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems in the tla4 mutant was only about 65% of that measured in the wild type. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that a single plasmid DNA insertion disrupted two genes on chromosome 11 of the mutant...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A Sobrino-Figueroa
The toxic effects of four powder detergents: two laundry detergents (A and B), one household detergent (C), one dishwashing detergent (D), and the surfactant alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were analyzed in this study on organisms from different trophic levels (microalgae, cladocerans, ostracods, amphipods, macrophytes, and fish). LC50 and EC50 values obtained in the toxicity bioassays varied between 0.019 and 116.9 mg L(-1). The sensitivity of the organisms to the detergents was (from most sensitive to least sensitive) Ostracods > microalgae > amphipods > cladocerans > fishes > macrophytes...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Francisco Navarro, Eduardo Forján, María Vázquez, Zaida Montero, Elisabeth Bermejo, Miguel Ángel Castaño, Alberto Toimil, Enrique Chagüaceda, Miguel Ángel García-Sevillano, Marisa Sánchez, María José Domínguez, Rosario Pásaro, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, José María Vega
BACKGROUND: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Prashant Praveen, Jonathan Yun Ping Heng, Kai-Chee Loh
Discharge of wastewater with high nitrogen and phosphorus content is a major cause of eutrophication. In this study, a microfiltration-based membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) and forward osmosis-based osmotic membrane photobioreactor (OMPBR) have been operated with Chlorella vulgaris for continuous tertiary wastewater treatment. Both the bioreactors exhibited good biomass accumulation (over 2g/L), although the OMPBR achieved better nutrients removal due to high rejection properties of the membranes. At 2days HRT, the OMPBR achieved nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 86-99% and 100%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values in the MPBR were 48-97% and 46%, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
S Schiavo, N Duroudier, E Bilbao, M Mikolaczyk, J Schäfer, M P Cajaraville, S Manzo
In the last years, applications for silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) continue to increase together with the concerns about their potential input and hazards in aquatic ecosystems, where microalgae are key organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative sensitivity of three marine microalgae species with differences in cell wall composition/structure exposed to Poly N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone/Polyethyleneimine (PVP/PEI) coated 5nm Ag NPs and uncoated 47nm Ag NP. As limited attention has been paid to the role of coating agents in NP toxicity, the effect of PVP/PEI alone was also evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ward Blanken, Stefan Schaap, Sophie Theobald, Arjen Rinzema, René H Wijffels, Marcel Janssen
The loss of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the environment during microalgae cultivation is undesirable for both environmental and economic reasons. In this study, a phototrophic biofilm growth model was developed and validated with the objective to maximize both CO2 utilization efficiency and production of microalgae in biofilms. The model was validated in growth experiments with CO2 as the limiting substrate. The CO2 utilization and biomass productivity were maximized by changing the gas flow rate, the number of biofilm reactors in series, and gas composition...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Man-Gi Cho
Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL(-1) on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition...
2016: BioMed Research International
Tim de Mooij, Kira Schediwy, René H Wijffels, Marcel Janssen
Under high light conditions, microalgae are oversaturated with light which significantly reduces the light use efficiency. Microalgae with a reduced pigment content, antenna size mutants, have been proposed as a potential solution to increase the light use efficiency. The goal of this study was to investigate the competition between antenna size mutants and wild type microalgae in mass cultures. Using a kinetic model and literature-derived experimental data from wild type Chlorella sorokiniana, the productivity and competition of wild type cells and antenna size mutants were simulated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Jung Ah Choi, Dong-Yeon Kim, Yeong Hwan Seo, Jong-In Han
In this study, Chlorella sorokiniana was successfully cultivated in the recycled medium whose nitrogen was supplied directly from the coagulant, Fe(NO3)3. With a dosage of 0.80g/L, harvesting efficiency of 95% could be achieved. What is more, this amount of nitrate in the coagulant was enough to fully support the growth of C. sorokiniana during the 8day cultivation period, almost as much as the initial nitrogen content in the BG11 culture medium. Other nutrients had to be supplemented, however, with at least 50% amount as in the BG11 recipe...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yun Huang, Wei Xiong, Qiang Liao, Qian Fu, Ao Xia, Xun Zhu, Yahui Sun
To investigate light transmission and cells affinity to CO2, Chlorellavulgaris was attached to microfiltration membrane that laid on the solidified BG11 medium compared to that in suspended cultivation mode in this study. The results showed that C. vulgaris showed a 30.4% higher biomass production (103gm(-2)) in attached than in suspend system. The upper layer of biofilm with a thickness of 41.31μm (the corresponding areal density of 40gm(-2)) was effectively illuminated under light intensity of 120μmolm(-2)s(-1) and more than 40% of the microalgal cells were in light even the areal density was high to 100gm(-2)...
October 3, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Hristina Bodin, Håkan Asp, Malin Hultberg
Removal of cadmium (Cd) present at low levels (1 µg L(-1)) in water was investigated using three different microorganism treatments: the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, the fungus Aspergillus niger and for the first time biopellets composed of C. vulgaris and A. niger. After 5 days, all microorganism treatments resulted in significantly lower Cd concentrations compared with the control. Biopellets treatment resulted in significantly lower pH values than other microorganism treatments, indicating that the biopellets should be investigated further for their water treatment capacity, since pH is a factor affecting the fate of numerous pollutants in water...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Paran Gani, Norshuhaila Mohamed Sunar, Hazel Matias-Peralta, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Siti Fatimah Zaharah Mohamad Fuzi
Microalgae biomass has been recognised as a sustainable bio-product to replace terrestrial biomass in biofuel production. The microalgae industry has high operating costs, specifically on harvesting and biomass recovery. Therefore, the development of an efficient harvesting method is crucial to the minimisation of production cost. A statistical analysis via response surface methodology was used to investigate the optimisation of harvesting efficiency using alum and chitosan as a coagulant. Growth rate and biomass productivity were also determined...
October 13, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Luca Zuliani, Nicola Frison, Aleksandra Jelic, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Matteo Ballottari
Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO₂, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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