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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161457/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-cyg12-is-required-for-the-acclimation-to-hypoxia-and-trophic-regimes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#1
Melis Düner, Jan Lambertz, Carolin Mügge, Anja Hemschemeier
Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159730/uplc-elsd-analysis-of-algal-lipid-classes-and-derivatization-of-bound-and-free-fatty-acids-and-sterols-for-gc-ms-methods
#2
Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heli Nygren, Heiko Rischer
Constituents of microalgae and sample preparation for UPLC-ELSD and GC-MS analyses are described. Bound fatty acids from acylglycerols, alkylacylglycerols, galactosyldiacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and sterol esters are derivatized by using transesterification with sodium methoxide to form fatty acid methyl esters. Compounds containing free hydroxyl groups, either present originally or formed during previous step, like free fatty acids, sterols, α-tocopherol, phytol, and nonesterified alkoxyglycerols, are trimethylsilylated...
November 21, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158560/field-sampling-marine-plankton-for-biodiscovery
#3
Richard Andre Ingebrigtsen, Espen Hansen, Jeanette Hammer Andersen, Hans Christian Eilertsen
Microalgae and plankton can be a rich source of bioactivity. However, induction of secondary metabolite production in lab conditions can be difficult. One simple way of bypassing this issue is to collect biomass in the field and screen for bioactivity. Therefore, bulk net samples from three areas along the coast of northern Norway and Spitsbergen were collected, extracted and fractionated. Biomass samples from a strain of a mass-cultivated diatom Porosira glacialis were used as a reference for comparison to field samples...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151889/cell-growth-and-lipid-accumulation-of-a-microalgal-mutant-scenedesmus-sp-z-4-by-combining-light-dark-cycle-with-temperature-variation
#4
Chao Ma, Yan-Bo Zhang, Shih-Hsin Ho, De-Feng Xing, Nan-Qi Ren, Bing-Feng Liu
Background: The light/dark cycle is one of the most important factors affecting the microalgal growth and lipid accumulation. Biomass concentration and lipid productivity could be enhanced by optimization of light/dark cycles, and this is considered an effective control strategy for microalgal cultivation. Currently, most research on effects of light/dark cycles on algae is carried out under autotrophic conditions and little information is about the effects under mixotrophic cultivation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151886/optogenetic-regulation-of-artificial-microrna-improves-h2-production-in-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#5
Yuting Wang, Xinqin Jiang, Changxing Hu, Ting Sun, Zhiyong Zeng, Xiaoqi Cai, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu
Background: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism not only for the study of basic metabolic processes in both plants and animals but also the production of biofuels including hydrogen. Transgenic analysis of C. reinhardtii is now well established and very convenient, but inducible exogenous gene expression systems remain under-studied. The most commonly used heat shock-inducible system has serious effects on algal cell growth and is difficult and costly to control in large-scale culture...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151396/effect-of-dietary-sources-of-n-3-fatty-acids-on-pig-performance-and-technological-nutritional-and-sensory-qualities-of-pork
#6
A de Tonnac, J Mourot
In France, animal products (dairy products, meat and eggs) are the main source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the human diet; however, many individuals do not consume enough of this nutrient. The objective of this study was to increase n-3 PUFA precursor and derivative contents in tissues and test how they influence technological and sensory qualities of meat without negatively affecting growth performances of pigs. A total of 60 male pigs [(Large White×Landrace)×Pietrain] were assigned according to their initial liveweight (50...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150257/utilization-of-organic-residues-using-heterotrophic-microalgae-and-insects
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Pleissner, Birgit A Rumpold
Various organic residues occur globally in the form of straw, wood, green biomass, food waste, feces, manure etc. Other utilization strategies apart from anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration are needed to make use of the whole potential of organic residues as sources of various value added compounds. This review compares the cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae and insects using organic residues as nutrient sources and illuminates their potential with regard to biomass production, productivity and yield, and utilization strategies of produced biomasses...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145114/boosting-nannochloropsis-oculata-growth-and-lipid-accumulation-in-a-lab-scale-open-raceway-pond-characterized-by-improved-light-distributions-employing-built-in-planar-waveguide-modules
#8
Yahui Sun, Yun Huang, Qiang Liao, Ao Xia, Qian Fu, Xun Zhu, Jingwei Fu
Aiming at alleviating the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth, planar waveguide modules functioned as diluting and redistributing the intense incident light within microalgae culture more homogeneously were introduced into a lab-scale open raceway pond (ORP) for Nannochloropsis oculata cultivation. As compared to the conventional ORP, the illumination surface area to volume ratio and effective illuminated volume percentage in the proposed ORP were respectively improved by 5.53 times and 19...
November 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144303/zero-valent-aluminum-mediated-degradation-of-bisphenol-a-in-the-presence-of-common-oxidants
#9
I Arslan-Alaton, T Olmez-Hanci, M Dogan, T Ozturk
The use of a commercial, nano-scale zero-valent aluminum (ZVA) powder was explored for the treatment of aqueous Bisphenol A (BPA). The study focused on the (i) activation of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and persulfate (PS) oxidants with ZVA to accelerate BPA degradation, (ii) comparison of the treatment performance in pure and real surface water (SW) samples, (iii) effects on toxicity and (iv) reuse potential of ZVA nanoparticles after ZVA/HP and ZVA/PS treatments. In pure water, ZVA coupled with HP or PS provided an effective means of BPA treatment particularly when PS was employed as the oxidant...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137190/spirulina-maxima-extract-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-impairments-via-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-induced-by-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#10
Eun-Jeong Koh, Kui-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Song, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Ho Jin Heo, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima, a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137149/physiological-and-biochemical-changes-reveal-differential-patterns-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-partitioning-in-two-marine-algal-strains-of-isochrysis
#11
Zheng Sun, Yong Chen, Xuemei Mao, Jin Liu
The marine microalgae Isochrysis are a good producer of natural docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). To better understand the patterns of DHA accumulation and distribution, two Isochrysis strains, CL153180 and CCMP462, were evaluated in this study. In a batch culture, CL153180 showed a decline in DHA content while CCMP462 exhibited a progressive increase during the late growth period when nitrogen was almost exhausted. In response to nitrogen deficiency (ND), both strains showed a considerable increase in neutral lipids (NL) at the expense of glycolipids (GL) but had little variation in phospholipids (PL)...
November 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136934/differential-responses-of-the-green-microalga-chlorella-zofingiensis-to-the-starvation-of-various-nutrients-for-oil-and-astaxanthin-production
#12
Xuemei Mao, Tao Wu, Dongzhe Sun, Zhao Zhang, Feng Chen
Chlorella zofingiensis has been proposed as a potential producer of lipids and the high-value carotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, the responses of photoautotrophic C. zofingiensis with respect to growth, lipid profiles and astaxanthin accumulation were investigated upon the starvation of N (NS), P (PS) and S (SS). NS and SS stimulated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, which reached 27% and 21% of dry weight (DW), respectively. Stresses also stimulated astaxanthin accumulation greatly, reaching 3.9 mg/g DW by NS...
October 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135235/estimating-the-strength-of-single-chitin-nanofibrils-via-sonication-induced-fragmentation
#13
Yu Bamba, Yu Ogawa, Tsuguyuki Saito, Lars A Berglund, Akira Isogai
We report the mechanical strength of native chitin nanofibrils. Highly crystalline α-chitin nanofibrils were purified from filaments produced by a microalgae Phaeocystis globosa, and two types of β-chitin nanofibrils were purified from pens of a squid Loligo bleekeri and tubes of a tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma, with relatively low and high crystallinity, respectively. These chitin nanofibrils were fully dispersed in water. Strength of individualized nanofibrils was estimated using cavitation-induced tensile fracture of nanoscale filaments in a liquid medium...
November 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132753/multi-product-microalgae-biorefineries-from-concept-towards-reality
#14
REVIEW
G P 't Lam, M H Vermuë, M H M Eppink, R H Wijffels, C van den Berg
Although microalgae are a promising biobased feedstock, industrial scale production is still far off. To enhance the economic viability of large-scale microalgae processes, all biomass components need to be valorized, requiring a multi-product biorefinery. However, this concept is still too expensive. Typically, downstream processing of industrial biotechnological bulk products accounts for 20-40% of the total production costs, while for a microalgae multi-product biorefinery the costs are substantially higher (50-60%)...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129670/microalgae-derived-oxylipins-decrease-inflammatory-mediators-by-regulating-the-subcellular-location-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ppar-%C3%AE
#15
Javier Ávila-Román, Elena Talero, Carolina de Los Reyes, Sofía García-Mauriño, Virginia Motilva
Oxylipins (OXLs) are bioactive molecules generated by the oxidation of fatty acids that promote the resolution of acute inflammation and prevent chronic inflammatory processes through molecular mechanisms that are not well known. We have previously reported the anti-inflammatory activity of microalgae-derived OXLs and OXL-containing biomass in two inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) models: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis and TNBS-induced recurrent colitis. In this study, we examined the in vitro anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of the most abundant OXLs isolated from Chlamydomonas debaryana (13S-HOTE and 13S-HODE) and Nannochloropsis gaditana (15S-HEPE)...
November 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126108/laboratory-scale-photobiotechnology-current-trends-and-future-perspectives
#16
Holger Morschett, Varun Loomba, Gregor Huber, Wolfgang Wiechert, Eric von Lieres, Marco Oldiges
Phototrophic bioprocesses are a promising puzzle piece in future bio-economy concepts but mostly fail for economic reasons, yet. Besides other aspects, this is mainly attributed to the omnipresent issue of optimal light supply impeding scale-up and -down of phototrophic processes according to classic established concepts. This MiniReview examines two current trends in photobiotechnology, namely microscale cultivation and modeling and simulation. Micro photobioreactors are a valuable and promising trend with microfluidic chips and microtiter plates as predominant design concepts...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125050/nano-fumed-silica-as-a-novel-pollutant-that-inhibits-the-algicidal-effect-of-p-hydroxybenzoic-acid-on-microcystis-aeruginosa
#17
Xiaofeng Jiang, Shengpeng Zuo, Liangtao Ye, Wenxiu Hong
Nanomaterials and/or contaminants are becoming more common in the developing world, but their effects on interspecific interactions are rarely reported, particularly in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, the present study determined the effects of the novel pollutant nano-fumed silica (NFS) on algal control by a macrophyte via the allelochemical p-hydroxybenzoic acid in a microcosm test. The allelochemical p-hydroxybenzoic acid caused significant decreases in chlorophyll a, but increased the amount of superoxide anion radicals (O2(• -)) and the electric conductivity in Microcystis aeruginosa...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119322/studies-on-the-scale-up-of-biomass-production-with-scenedesmus-spp-in-flat-plate-gas-lift-photobioreactors
#18
Anja Pia Koller, Lara Wolf, Thomas Brück, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Microalgae are flagged as next-generation biomass feedstock for sustainable chemicals and fuels, because they actively metabolize the climate gas CO2, do not impact food production, and are not associated with land-use change. Scaling microalgae cultivation processes from lab to pilot scale is key to assessing their economic and ecologic viability. In this work, process performances of two different Scenedesmus species were studied using a 300 L flat-plate gas-lift photobioreactor system (14 m(2) photosynthetically active area) equipped with a customized, broad-spectrum LED illumination system...
November 8, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117213/effect-of-microalgae-on-intestinal-inflammation-triggered-by-soybean-meal-and-bacterial-infection-in-zebrafish
#19
Karina Bravo-Tello, Nicole Ehrenfeld, Camila J Solís, Pilar E Ulloa, Manuel Hedrera, Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Carmen G Feijóo
Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio) of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts); Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt); Chlorella sp (Ch); Nannochloropsis oculata (No); or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116873/the-effect-of-experimental-supplementation-with-the-klamath-algae-extract-klamin-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Maurizio Cremonte, Davide Sisti, Ilaria Maraucci, Simona Giribone, Evelin Colombo, Marco Bruno Luigi Rocchi, Stefano Scoglio
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin(®) extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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