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Late blight

Justine Sucher, Rainer Boni, Ping Yang, Peter Rogowsky, Heike Büchner, Christine Kastner, Jochen Kumlehn, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Maize (corn) is one of the most widely grown cereal crops globally. Fungal diseases of maize cause significant economic damage by reducing maize yields and by increasing input costs for disease management. The most sustainable control of maize diseases is through the release and planting of maize cultivars with durable disease resistance. The wheat gene Lr34 provides durable and partial field resistance against multiple fungal diseases of wheat, including three wheat rust pathogens and wheat powdery mildew...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kiki Kots, Harold J G Meijer, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers, Tijs Ketelaar
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages. Previously, we identified actin plaques as structures that are unique for oomycetes. Here we describe two additional novel actin configurations; one associated with plug deposition in germ tubes and the other with appressoria, infection structures formed prior to host cell penetration...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Nicolas Mariette, Annabelle Androdias, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Bruno Marquer, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Environmental factors such as temperature strongly impact microbial communities. In the current context of global warming, it is therefore crucial to understand the effects of these factors on human, animal, or plant pathogens. Here, we used a common-garden experiment to analyze the thermal responses of three life-history traits (latent period, lesion growth, spore number) in isolates of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from different climatic zones. We also used a fitness index (FI) aggregating these traits into a single parameter...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Satoru Tomita, Seishi Ikeda, Shogo Tsuda, Nobutaka Someya, Kenji Asano, Jun Kikuchi, Eisuke Chikayama, Hiroshi Ono, Yasuyo Sekiyama
Non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling was applied to potato leaves to survey metabolic changes associated with late blight resistance under field conditions. Potato plants were grown in an experimental field and the compound leaves with no visible symptoms were collected from 20 cultivars/lines at two sampling time points: (i) the time of initial presentation of symptoms in susceptible cultivars and (ii) 12 days before this initiation. (1) H NMR spectra of the foliar metabolites soluble in deuterium oxide- or methanol-d4 -based buffers were measured and used for multivariate analysis...
August 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Liangliang Gao, James M Bradeen
The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P...
2016: PloS One
William E Fry
New tools have revealed that migrations of Phytophthora infestans have been a dominant feature of the population biology of this pathogen for the past 50 years, and maybe for the past 170 years. We now have accurate information on the composition of many P. infestans populations. However, migration followed by selection can lead and has led to dramatically rapid changes in populations over large regions. Except for the highlands of central Mexico, many populations of P. infestans have probably been in flux over the past several decades...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Brian J Knaus, Javier Tabima, Carol Davis, Howard Judelson, Niklaus J Grünwald
Populations of the potato and tomato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, are well known for emerging as novel clonal lineages. These successions of dominant clones have historically been named US1 through US24, in order of appearance, since their first characterization using molecular markers. Hypothetically, these lineages can emerge through divergence from other US lineages, recombination among lineages or as novel, independent lineages originating outside the US. We tested for the presence of phylogenetic relationships among US lineages using a population of 31 whole genome sequences including dominant US clonal lineages as well as available samples from global populations...
June 27, 2016: Phytopathology
Yuya Uji, Shiduku Taniguchi, Daisuke Tamaoki, Hodaka Shishido, Kazuya Akimitsu, Kenji Gomi
JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner...
September 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jack H Vossen, Gert van Arkel, Marjan Bergervoet, Kwang-Ryong Jo, Evert Jacobsen, Richard G F Visser
The potato late blight resistance gene R8 has been cloned. R8 is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato. The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum demissum was cloned based on a previously published coarse map position on the lower arm of chromosome IX. Fine mapping in a recombinant population and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening resulted in a BAC contig spanning 170 kb of the R8 haplotype...
September 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Pauline S M Van Weymers, Katie Baker, Xinwei Chen, Brian Harrower, David E L Cooke, Eleanor M Gilroy, Paul R J Birch, Gaëtan J A Thilliez, Alison K Lees, James S Lynott, Miles R Armstrong, Gaynor McKenzie, Glenn J Bryan, Ingo Hein
The greatest threat to potato production world-wide is late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A screen of 126 wild diploid Solanum accessions from the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) with P. infestans isolates belonging to the genotype 13-A2 identified resistances in the species S. bulbocastanum, S. capsicibaccatum, S. microdontum, S. mochiquense, S. okadae, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense, and S. verrucosum. Effector-omics, allele mining, and diagnostic RenSeq (dRenSeq) were utilized to investigate the nature of resistances in S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Khaoula Belhaj, Liliana M Cano, David C Prince, Ariane Kemen, Kentaro Yoshida, Yasin F Dagdas, Graham J Etherington, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, H Peter van Esse, Jonathan D G Jones, Sophien Kamoun, Sebastian Schornack
The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes potato late blight, and as a potato and tomato specialist pathogen, is seemingly poorly adapted to infect plants outside the Solanaceae. Here, we report the unexpected finding that P. infestans can infect Arabidopsis thaliana when another oomycete pathogen, Albugo laibachii, has colonized the host plant. The behaviour and speed of P. infestans infection in Arabidopsis pre-infected with A. laibachii resemble P. infestans infection of susceptible potato plants...
June 15, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Teresa Mosquera, Maria Fernanda Alvarez, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Meki Shehabu Muktar, Maria João Paulo, Sebastian Steinemann, Jinquan Li, Astrid Draffehn, Andrea Hofmann, Jens Lübeck, Josef Strahwald, Eckhard Tacke, Hans-Reinhardt Hofferbert, Birgit Walkemeier, Christiane Gebhardt
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, which can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the past 160 years, late blight has been the most important potato disease worldwide. The identification of cultivars with high and durable field resistance to P. infestans is an objective of most potato breeding programs. This type of resistance is polygenic and therefore quantitative. Its evaluation requires multi-year and location trials. Furthermore, quantitative resistance to late blight correlates with late plant maturity, a negative agricultural trait...
2016: PloS One
Kaile Sun, Anne-Marie A Wolters, Jack H Vossen, Maarten E Rouwet, Annelies E H M Loonen, Evert Jacobsen, Richard G F Visser, Yuling Bai
Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to commercial potato production worldwide. Significant costs are required for crop protection to secure yield. Many dominant genes for resistance (R-genes) to potato late blight have been identified, and some of these R-genes have been applied in potato breeding. However, the P. infestans population rapidly accumulates new virulent strains that render R-genes ineffective. Here we introduce a new class of resistance which is based on the loss-of-function of a susceptibility gene (S-gene) encoding a product exploited by pathogens during infection and colonization...
October 2016: Transgenic Research
Christopher K Morrison, Amy Novinscak, Vijay J Gadkar, David L Joly, Martin Filion
Herein provided is the full-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636. This strain is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, an antibiotic involved in the biocontrol of numerous plant pathogens, including late blight of potato caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans.
2016: Genome Announcements
Jennifer Town, Nina Cui, Patrice Audy, Sue Boyetchko, Tim J Dumonceaux
Pseudomonas sp. strain KENGFT3 inhibits the growth of Phytophthora infestans and is a potentially useful biopesticide for plant diseases, including potato late blight. We sequenced the 6.2-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into a single scaffold with 9 contigs. KENGFT3 is related to previously sequenced strains of P. fluorescens.
2016: Genome Announcements
P Skelsey, D E L Cooke, J S Lynott, A K Lees
The impact of climate change on dispersal processes is largely ignored in risk assessments for crop diseases, as inoculum is generally assumed to be ubiquitous and non-limiting. We suggest that consideration of the impact of climate change on the connectivity of crops for inoculum transmission may provide additional explanatory and predictive power in disease risk assessments, leading to improved recommendations for agricultural adaptation to climate change. In this study a crop growth model was combined with aerobiological models and a newly developed infection risk model to provide a framework for quantifying the impact of future climates on the risk of disease occurrence and spread...
May 23, 2016: Global Change Biology
Yao-hua Hu, Xue-wen Ping, Ming-zhu Xu, Wei-xing Shan, Yong He
Hyperspectral imaging feature on potato leaves stressed by late blight was studied in the present paper. The experiment used 60 potato leaves. Among those 60 potato leaves, 48 leaves were vitro inoculated with pathogen of potato late blight, the rest 12 leaves were used as control samples. The leaves were observed for 7 continuous days before and after inoculated and samples including healthy and infested were acquired. Hyperspectral data of healthy and infected potato samples of different disease severity were obtained by the hyperspectral imaging system from 374 to 1,018 nm and then extract spectral data of region of interest (ROI) from those hyperspectral data by the ENVI software...
February 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
E-Jiao Wu, Li-Na Yang, Wen Zhu, Xiao-Mei Chen, Li-Ping Shang, Jiasui Zhan
Evolution of virulence in plant pathogens is still poorly understood but the knowledge is important for the effective use of plant resistance and sustainable disease management. Spatial population dynamics of virulence, race and SSR markers in 140 genotypes sampled from seven geographic locations in China were compared to infer the mechanisms driving the evolution of virulence in Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans). All virulence types and a full spectrum of race complexity, ranging from the race able to infect the universally susceptible cultivar only to all differentials, were detected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoping Niu, Hong Gao, Jianmin Qi, Miancai Chen, Aifen Tao, Jiantang Xu, Zhigang Dai, Jianguang Su
Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China...
2016: Scientific Reports
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