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Late blight

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402161/ein2-mediated-signaling-is-involved-in-pre-invasion-defense-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-against-potato-late-blight-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#1
Soriya Rin, Yuri Mizuno, Yusuke Shibata, Mayuka Fushimi, Shinpei Katou, Ikuo Sato, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhito Kawakita, Daigo Takemoto
Nicotiana benthamiana ABCG1 and ABCG2 are ABC transporters which are probably involved in the export of capsidiol, the major phytoalexin of Nicotiana species. While capsidiol export by these transporters plays an essential role in post-invasion defense against Phytophthora infestans, they also export unidentified antimicrobial compound(s) involved in pre-invasion defense. In this study, promoter activity of NbABCG2 (Pabcg2a) was analyzed using a GFP marker. Expression of GFP under the control of Pabcg2a was significantly increased by co-expression with the INF1 elicitor from P...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350531/phytophthora-infestans-effectors-ipi-o1-and-ipi-o4-each-contribute-to-pathogen-virulence
#2
Yu Chen, Dennis A Halterman
Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive plant diseases. Despite decades of intensive breeding efforts, it remains a threat to potato production worldwide, because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes quickly. The RB protein, from the diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers partial resistance to most P. infestans strains through its recognition of members of the corresponding pathogen effector protein family IPI-O...
May 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320402/albugo-imposed-changes-to-tryptophan-derived-antimicrobial-metabolite-biosynthesis-may-contribute-to-suppression-of-non-host-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
David C Prince, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Deyang Xu, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Volkan Çevik, Shuta Asai, Eric Kemen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ariane Kemen, Khaoula Belhaj, Sebastian Schornack, Sophien Kamoun, Eric B Holub, Barbara A Halkier, Jonathan D G Jones
BACKGROUND: Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 20, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274218/genotypic-background-of-the-recipient-plant-is-crucial-for-conferring-rb-gene-mediated-late-blight-resistance-in-potato
#4
Rajesh K Shandil, Swarup K Chakrabarti, Bir Pal Singh, Sanjeev Sharma, S Sundaresha, Surinder K Kaushik, Arvind K Bhatt, Nitya Nand Sharma
BACKGROUND: Late blight, caused by oomycetes pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. RB gene from Solanum bulbocastanum has been shown to impart broad spectrum resistance against P. infestans races. In this study Katahdin transgenic event SP951 was used as male parent to cross with the popular Indian potato cultivars viz., Kufri Bahar (KB) and Kufri Jyoti (KJ) to enhance the late blight resistance. RESULTS: Populations of 271 F1seedlings from the crosses KB × SP951 (87) and KJ × SP951 (184) were screened for inheritance of RB transgene through PCR and bioassay...
March 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228125/rna-seq-of-life-stages-of-the-oomycete-phytophthora-infestans-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-metabolic-signal-transduction-and-pathogenesis-genes-and-a-major-role-for-calcium-signaling-in-development
#5
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Kyoung Su Kim, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes the devastating late blight diseases of potato and tomato. P. infestans uses spores for dissemination and infection, like many other filamentous eukaryotic plant pathogens. The expression of a subset of its genes during spore formation and germination were studied previously, but comprehensive genome-wide data have not been available. RESULTS: RNA-seq was used to profile hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, motile zoospores, and germinated cysts of P...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167034/stwrky8-transcription-factor-regulates-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-pathway-in-potato-conferring-resistance-to-late-blight
#6
Kalenahalli N Yogendra, Dhananjay Dhokane, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Felipe Sarmiento, Ernesto Rodriguez, Teresa Mosquera
The resistance to late blight is either qualitative or quantitative in nature. Quantitative resistance is durable, but challenging due to polygenic inheritance. In the present study, the diploid potato genotypes resistant and susceptible to late blight, were profiled for metabolites. Tissue specific metabolite analysis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) in response to pathogen infection revealed increased accumulation of morphinone, codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronides. These BIAs are antimicrobial compounds and possibly involved in cell wall reinforcement, especially through cross-linking cell wall pectins...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152045/comparative-analysis-of-sterol-acquisition-in-the-oomycetes-saprolegnia-parasitica-and-phytophthora-infestans
#7
Paul Dahlin, Vaibhav Srivastava, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
The oomycete class includes pathogens of animals and plants which are responsible for some of the most significant global losses in agriculture and aquaculture. There is a need to replace traditional chemical means of controlling oomycete growth with more targeted approaches, and the inhibition of sterol synthesis is one promising area. To better direct these efforts, we have studied sterol acquisition in two model organisms: the sterol-autotrophic Saprolegnia parasitica, and the sterol-heterotrophic Phytophthora infestans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134594/expression-of-the-potato-late-blight-resistance-gene-rpi-phu1-and-phytophthora-infestans-effectors-in-the-compatible-and-incompatible-interactions-in-potato
#8
Emil Stefańczyk, Sylwester Sobkowiak, Marta Brylińska, Jadwiga Śliwka
This study describes late blight resistance of potato breeding lines resulting from crosses between cultivar 'Sárpo Mira' and Rpi-phu1 gene donors. The progeny is investigated for the presence of Rpi-Smira1 and Rpi-phu1 resistance (R) genes. Interestingly, in detached-leaflet tests, plants with both R genes withstood the infection of the Phytophthora infestans isolate virulent to each gene separately, due to either interaction of these genes or the presence of additional resistance loci. The interaction was studied further in three chosen breeding lines on the transcriptional level...
April 4, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052487/the-coexistence-of-generalist-and-specialist-clonal-lineages-in-natural-populations-of-the-irish-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans-explains-local-adaptation-to-potato-and-tomato
#9
Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at 12 microsatellite loci assigned potato isolates to the 13_A2, 6_A1 and 1_A1 lineages, and tomato isolates to the 23_A1, 2_A1 and unclassified multilocus genotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035737/high-levels-of-diversity-and-population-structure-in-the-potato-late-blight-pathogen-at-the-mexico-centre-of-origin
#10
Jianan Wang, Sylvia P Fernández-Pavía, Meredith M Larsen, Edith Garay-Serrano, Rosario Gregorio-Cipriano, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, Niklaus J Grünwald, Erica M Goss
Globally destructive crop pathogens often emerge by migrating out of their native ranges. These pathogens are often diverse at their centre of origin and may exhibit adaptive variation in the invaded range via multiple introductions from different source populations. However, source populations are generally unidentified or poorly studied compared to invasive populations. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is one of the most costly pathogens of potato and tomato worldwide. Mexico is the centre of origin and diversity of P...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030580/historic-late-blight-outbreaks-caused-by-a-widespread-dominant-lineage-of-phytophthora-infestans-mont-de-bary
#11
Amanda C Saville, Michael D Martin, Jean B Ristaino
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846-1970) and more recent isolates (1992-2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#12
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878481/field-investigations-of-dissipations-and-residues-of-cyazofamid-in-soil-and-tomato-risk-assessment-of-human-exposure-to-cyazofamid-via-tomato-intake
#13
Zhenlan Xu, Changpeng Zhang, Jianzhong Yu, Chunrong Zhang, Min Wu, Hongmei He, Yahong Zhu, Fangyuan Lou, Yuanyuan Wu, Yanhua Wang, Liezhong Chen, Hua Zhao, Qiang Wang, Leiming Cai
Cyazofamid, as a fungicide of the novel cyanoimidazole chemical class, has been widely used to control tomato late blight. Understanding of cyazofamid residues in environment and crops is an essential prerequisite for its risk assessment. In this study, field investigations in four typical tomato-producing areas were conducted to explore the dissipation kinetics and residues of cyazofamid and its primary metabolite 4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile (CCIM) in soil and tomato. A robust method using QuEChERS coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous analysis of cyazofamid and CCIM, with limits of quantification of 0...
February 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877177/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-transgenic-melatonin-biosynthesis-ovine-hiomt-gene-in-switchgrass
#14
Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Sijia Liu, Yanhua Huang, Danyang Tian, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827009/phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-production-by-pseudomonas-fluorescens-lbum636-alters-phytophthora-infestans-growth-and-late-blight-development
#15
Christopher K Morrison, Tanya Arseneault, Amy Novinscak, Martin Filion
Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, one of the most devastating diseases affecting potato production. Alternative approaches for controlling late blight are being increasingly sought due to increasing environmental concerns over the use of chemical pesticides and the increasing resistance of P. infestans to fungicides. Our research group has isolated a new strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (LBUM636) of biocontrol interest producing the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Wild-type LBUM636 was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Phytophthora infestans in in vitro confrontational assays whereas its isogenic mutant (phzC-; not producing PCA) only slightly altered the pathogen's growth...
March 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812174/genetic-variation-within-clonal-lineages-of-phytophthora-infestans-revealed-through-genotyping-by-sequencing-and-implications-for-late-blight-epidemiology
#16
Zachariah R Hansen, Kathryne L Everts, William E Fry, Amanda J Gevens, Niklaus J Grünwald, Beth K Gugino, Dennis A Johnson, Steven B Johnson, Howard S Judelson, Brian J Knaus, Margaret T McGrath, Kevin L Myers, Jean B Ristaino, Pamela D Roberts, Gary A Secor, Christine D Smart
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed on 257 Phytophthora infestans isolates belonging to four clonal lineages to study within-lineage diversity. The four lineages used in the study were US-8 (n = 28), US-11 (n = 27), US-23 (n = 166), and US-24 (n = 36), with isolates originating from 23 of the United States and Ontario, Canada. The majority of isolates were collected between 2010 and 2014 (94%), with the remaining isolates collected from 1994 to 2009, and 2015. Between 3,774 and 5,070 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within each lineage and were used to investigate relationships among individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779242/mir1918-enhances-tomato-sensitivity-to-phytophthora-infestans-infection
#17
Yushi Luan, Jun Cui, Weichen Wang, Jun Meng
Late blight of tomato is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In our previous work, we identified and characterized a miR1918 in P. infestans (pi-miR1918), and showed that its sequence is similar to the sequence of tomato miR1918 (sly-miR1918). In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana pre-miR159a as a backbone to synthesize pi-miR1918 via PCR and mutagenesis. The artificial pi-miR1918 was used to investigate the role of miR1918 in tomato-P. infestans interaction. Trangenic tomato plants that overexpressed the artificial pi-miR1918 displayed more serious disease symptoms than wild-type tomato plants after infection with P...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734576/the-durable-wheat-disease-resistance-gene-lr34-confers-common-rust-and-northern-corn-leaf-blight-resistance-in-maize
#18
Justine Sucher, Rainer Boni, Ping Yang, Peter Rogowsky, Heike Büchner, Christine Kastner, Jochen Kumlehn, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Maize (corn) is one of the most widely grown cereal crops globally. Fungal diseases of maize cause significant economic damage by reducing maize yields and by increasing input costs for disease management. The most sustainable control of maize diseases is through the release and planting of maize cultivars with durable disease resistance. The wheat gene Lr34 provides durable and partial field resistance against multiple fungal diseases of wheat, including three wheat rust pathogens and wheat powdery mildew...
April 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723513/the-cell-biology-of-late-blight-disease
#19
REVIEW
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714409/filamentous-actin-accumulates-during-plant-cell-penetration-and-cell-wall-plug-formation-in-phytophthora-infestans
#20
Kiki Kots, Harold J G Meijer, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers, Tijs Ketelaar
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages. Previously, we identified actin plaques as structures that are unique for oomycetes. Here we describe two additional novel actin configurations; one associated with plug deposition in germ tubes and the other with appressoria, infection structures formed prior to host cell penetration...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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