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Late blight

Tanmoy Dey, Amanda Saville, Kevin Myers, Susanta Tewari, David E L Cooke, Sucheta Tripathy, William E Fry, Jean B Ristaino, Sanjoy Guha Roy
The population structure of the Phytophthora infestans populations that caused the recent 2013-14 late blight epidemic in eastern India (EI) and northeastern India (NEI) was examined. The data provide new baseline information for populations of P. infestans in India. A migrant European 13_A2 genotype was responsible for the 2013-14 epidemic, replacing the existing populations. Mutations have generated substantial sub-clonal variation with 24 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) found, of which 19 were unique variants not yet reported elsewhere globally...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey W Habig, Aaron Rowland, Matthew G Pence, Cathy X Zhong
Resistance genes (R-genes) from wild potato species confer protection against disease and can be introduced into cultivated potato varieties using breeding or biotechnology. The R-gene, Rpi-vnt1, which encodes the VNT1 protein, protects against late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Heterologous expression and purification of active VNT1 in quantities sufficient for regulatory biosafety studies was problematic, making it impractical to generate hazard characterization data. As a case study for R-proteins, a weight-of-evidence, tiered approach was used to evaluate the safety of VNT1...
March 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Simon Caulier, Annika Gillis, Gil Colau, Florent Licciardi, Maxime Liépin, Nicolas Desoignies, Pauline Modrie, Anne Legrève, Jacques Mahillon, Claude Bragard
The world potato is facing major economic losses due to disease pressure and environmental concerns regarding pesticides use. This work aims at addressing these two issues by isolating indigenous bacteria that can be integrated into pest management strategies. More than 2,800 strains of Bacillus -like and Pseudomonas -like were isolated from several soils and substrates associated with potato agro-systems in Belgium. Screenings for antagonistic activities against the potato pathogens Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani (BCCM-MUCL 5492), Pectobacterium carotovorum (ATCC 15713), Phytophthora infestans (CRA-W10022) and Rhizoctonia solani (BCCM-MUCL 51929) were performed, allowing the selection of 52 Bacillus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jinzhu Lu, Reza Ehsani, Yeyin Shi, Ana Isabel de Castro, Shuang Wang
Several diseases have threatened tomato production in Florida, resulting in large losses, especially in fresh markets. In this study, a high-resolution portable spectral sensor was used to investigate the feasibility of detecting multi-diseased tomato leaves in different stages, including early or asymptomatic stages. One healthy leaf and three diseased tomato leaves (late blight, target and bacterial spots) were defined into four stages (healthy, asymptomatic, early stage and late stage) and collected from a field...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Jiang, Jingcai Li, Zhendong Tian, Juan Du, Miles Armstrong, Katie Baker, Joanne Tze-Yin Lim, Jack H Vossen, Huan He, Leticia Portal, Jun Zhou, Merideth Bonierbale, Ingo Hein, Hannele Lindqvist-Kreuze, Conghua Xie
Following the often short-lived protection that major nucleotide binding, leucine-rich-repeat resistance genes offer against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans, field resistance was thought to provide a more durable alternative to prevent late blight disease. We previously identified the QTL dPI09c on potato chromosome 9 as a more durable field resistance source against late blight. Here, the resistance QTL was fine-mapped to a 186 kb region. The interval corresponds to a larger, 389 kb, genomic region in the potato reference genome of DM and from which functional NB-LRRs R8, R9aRpi-moc1 and Rpi_vnt1 have arisen independently in wild species...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hans-Rudolf Forrer, Susanne Vogelgsang, Tomke Musa
Potato late blight (PLB) caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi) is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA), roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis), were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Kibrom Abreha, Åsa Lankinen, Laura Masini, Sofia Hydbom, Erik Andreasson
To understand the contribution of wild Solanum species to the epidemiology of potato late blight in Sweden, we characterized the resistance of the three putative alternative hosts; Solanum physalifolium, S. nigrum, and S. dulcamara to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. The pathogen sporulated in all ten investigated S. physalifolium genotypes, suggesting susceptibility (S phenotype). Field-grown S. physalifolium was naturally infected but could regrow, though highly infected genotypes were smaller at the end of the season...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Linda A T Jones, Anne Bryden, Tracey L Wheeler, Keith E Tansey, Kim D Anderson, Michael S Beattie, Andrew Blight, Armin Curt, Edelle Field-Fote, James D Guest, Jane Hseih, Lyn B Jakeman, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Laura Krisa, Daniel P Lammertse, Benjamin Leiby, Ralph Marino, Jan M Schwab, Giorgio Scivoletto, David S Tulsky, Ed Wirth, José Zariffa, Naomi Kleitman, Mary Jane Mulcahey, John D Steeves
STUDY DESIGN: This is a focused review article. OBJECTIVES: This review presents important features of clinical outcomes assessments (COAs) in human spinal cord injury research. Considerations for COAs by trial phase and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health are presented as well as strengths and recommendations for upper extremity COAs for research. Clinical trial tools and designs to address recruitment challenges are identified. METHODS: The methods include a summary of topics discussed during a two-day workshop, conceptual discussion of upper extremity COAs and additional focused literature review...
December 28, 2017: Spinal Cord
Mohammad Samir Farooqi, Animesh Kumar, D C Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil Rai, K K Chaturvedi, S B Lal, Anu Sharma
Late blight, is one of the most serious disease in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. In spite of adopting so many agricultural practices this disease is still a threat for potato. Recent studies showed that microRNA (miRNA), an important gene expression regulator, plays a very important role in host-pathogen interaction by silencing genes either by destructing or blocking of translation of mRNA. To date only few miRNA have been discovered which are related to late blight disease of potato during host pathogen interaction...
December 13, 2017: MicroRNA
Shumin Zhang, Xianzhe Zheng, Russel J Reiter, Shun Feng, Ying Wang, Sen Liu, Liang Jin, Zhengguo Li, Raju Datla, Maozhi Ren
Phytophthora infestans ( P. infestans ) is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans ...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nima Ranjbar Sistani, Hans-Peter Kaul, Getinet Desalegn, Stefanie Wienkoop
In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hyo-Hyoun Seo, Ae Ran Park, Hyun-Hwa Lee, Sangkyu Park, Yun-Jeong Han, Quyen T N Hoang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Yong Soon Kim, Jeong-Il Kim
Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jae Woo Han, Sang Hee Shim, Kyoung Soo Jang, Yong Ho Choi, Quang Le Dang, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi
As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Charikleia Schoina, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers
BACKGROUND: The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight on potato and tomato. Despite extensive research, the P. infestans-host interaction is still poorly understood. To find new ways to further unravel this interaction we established a new infection system using MsK8 tomato cells. These cells grow in suspension and can be maintained as a stable cell line that is representative for tomato. RESULTS: MsK8 cells can host several Phytophthora species pathogenic on tomato...
2017: Plant Methods
Mehran Khan, Benjin Li, Yue Jiang, Qiyong Weng, Qinghe Chen
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases affecting potato and tomato worldwide. Early diagnosis of the P. infestans pathogen causing late blight should be the top priority for addressing disease epidemics and management. In this study, we performed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and real-time PCR to verify and compare the sensitivity and specificity of the reaction based on the Ypt1 (Ras-related protein) gene of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Seong Mi Lim, Mi-Young Yoon, Gyung Ja Choi, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Teak Soo Shin, Hae Woong Park, Nan Hee Yu, Young Ho Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim
The aim of this study was to identify volatile and agar-diffusible antifungal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. G341 with strong antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. Strain G341 isolated from four-year-old roots of Korean ginseng with rot symptoms was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on 16S rDNA and gyrA sequences. Strain G341 inhibited mycelial growth of all phytopathogenic fungi tested. In vivo experiment results revealed that n-butanol extract of fermentation broth effectively controlled the development of rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew, and red pepper anthracnose...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Jolly Shrivastava, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: How pathogen genomes evolve to support distinct lifestyles is not well-understood. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight agent, is a largely biotrophic pathogen that feeds from living host cells, which become necrotic only late in infection. The related oomycete Pythium ultimum grows saprophytically in soil and as a necrotroph in plants, causing massive tissue destruction. To learn what distinguishes their lifestyles, we compared their gene contents and expression patterns in media and a shared host, potato tuber...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Svante Resjö, Maja Brus, Ashfaq Ali, Harold J G Meijer, Marianne Sandin, Francine Govers, Fredrik Levander, Laura Grenville-Briggs, Erik Andreasson
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the most harmful pathogen of potato. It causes the disease late blight, which generates increased yearly costs of up to one billion euro in the EU alone and is difficult to control. We have performed a large-scale quantitative proteomics study of six P. infestans life stages with the aim to identify proteins that change in abundance during development, with a focus on preinfectious life stages. Over 10 000 peptides from 2061 proteins were analyzed. We identified several abundance profiles of proteins that were up- or downregulated in different combinations of life stages...
November 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Nam Hee Choi, Ja Yeong Jang, Gyung Ja Choi, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Van Thu Nguyen, Byung-Sun Min, Quang Le Dang, Jin-Cheol Kim
The in vivo antifungal activity of crude extracts of Dipsacus asper roots was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita and Rhizoctonia solani using a whole-plant assay method. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts, at 1000μg/mL, suppressed the development of tomato gray mold (TGM) and tomato late blight (TLB) by 90%. Through bioassay-guided isolation, five antifungal substances were isolated from the D...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Aurélien Bailly, Laure Weisskopf
Microbial lifeforms associated with land plants represent a rich source for crop growth- and health-promoting microorganisms and biocontrol agents. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant microbiota have been demonstrated to elicit plant defenses and inhibit the growth and development of numerous plant pathogens. Therefore, these molecules are prospective alternatives to synthetic pesticides and the determination of their bioactivities against plant threats could contribute to the development of control strategies for sustainable agriculture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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