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Jayanna N Banavath, Thammineni Chakradhar, Varakumar Pandit, Sravani Konduru, Krishna K Guduru, Chandra S Akila, Sudhakar Podha, Chandra O R Puli
Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Chunyan Mo, Shumin Wan, Youquan Xia, Ning Ren, Yang Zhou, Xingyu Jiang
Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juan P Gallino, Cecilia Ruibal, Esteban Casaretto, Andrea L Fleitas, Victoria Bonnecarrère, Omar Borsani, Sabina Vidal
Water is usually the main limiting factor for soybean productivity worldwide and yet advances in genetic improvement for drought resistance in this crop are still limited. In the present study, we investigated the physiological and molecular responses to drought in two soybean contrasting genotypes, a slow wilting N7001 and a drought sensitive TJS2049 cultivars. Measurements of stomatal conductance, carbon isotope ratios and accumulated dry matter showed that N7001 responds to drought by employing mechanisms resulting in a more efficient water use than TJS2049...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Rath, T R Mitchell, S E Gold
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria have recently been investigated due to their role in plant growth promotion and defense. Whereas some bacterial VOCs like 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol produced by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens promote plant growth, others like hydrogen cyanide and 3-phenylpropionic acid are phytotoxic, inhibiting plant growth. Bacillus mojavensis, a close relative of B. subtilis, is an endophytic bacterium of maize that has been shown to have antagonistic activity against the mycotoxigenic phytopathogen Fusarium verticillioides and growth promotion activity on maize seedlings...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Paola Fincheira, Andrés Quiroz
Agricultural practices require novel products that allow sustainable development and commercial production according to the needs of farmers and consumers. Therefore, in the last decade, eco-friendly alternatives have been studied, so volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by microorganisms have emerged as a cheaper, effective, efficient, and an eco-friendly alternative. VOCs are lipophilic compounds derived from microbial metabolic pathways with low molecular weight (<300 g mol-1 ), low boiling point, and high vapor pressure that allow them to act as signal molecules over short and long distances...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Hector Urbina, Martin F Breed, Weizhou Zhao, Kanaka Lakshmi Gurrala, Siv G E Andersson, Jon Ågren, Sandra Baldauf, Anna Rosling
Biotic and abiotic conditions in soil pose major constraints on growth and reproductive success of plants. Fungi are important agents in plant soil interactions but the belowground mycobiota associated with plants remains poorly understood. We grew one genotype each from Sweden and Italy of the widely-studied plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in organic topsoil local to the Swedish genotype, and harvested after ten weeks. Total DNA was extracted from three belowground compartments: endosphere (sonicated roots), rhizosphere and bulk soil, and fungal communities were characterized from each by amplification and sequencing of the fungal barcode region ITS2...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Jian Liang, Junxian He
Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient of plants but often a limiting factor for plant growth and crop yield. To adapt to N deficiency, plants have evolved adaptive responses including accumulation of anthocyanins. However, it is still unclear whether the accumulated anthocyanins are part of the components of plant tolerance under low N stress. Here, we demonstrate that low N-induced anthocyanins contribute substantially to the low N tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. pap1-1, a mutant defective in MYB75 (PAP1), a MYB-type transcription factor that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, was found to have significantly decreased survival rate to low N stress compared to its wild-type plants...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hye-Yeon Seok, Linh Vu Nguyen, Hee-Yeon Park, Vaishali N Tarte, Jimin Ha, Sun-Young Lee, Yong-Hwan Moon
Functional studies of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins in abiotic stress responses have largely focused on tandem CCCH-type zinc finger (TZF) genes, whereas the study of functional roles of non-TZF genes in abiotic stress responses has largely been neglected. Here, we investigated the functional roles of AtC3H17, a non-TZF gene of Arabidopsis, in salt stress responses. AtC3H17 expression significantly increased under NaCl, mannitol, and ABA treatments. AtC3H17-overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) were more tolerant under NaCl and MV treatment conditions than the wild type (WT)...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alexandra J Townsend, Francesco Saccon, Vasco Giovagnetti, Sam Wilson, Petra Ungerer, Alexander V Ruban
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence is the process by which excess light energy is harmlessly dissipated within the photosynthetic membrane. The fastest component of NPQ, known as energy-dependent quenching (qE), occurs within minutes, but the site and mechanism of qE remain of great debate. Here, the chlorophyll fluorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (WT) plants was compared to mutants lacking all minor antenna complexes (NoM). Upon illumination, NoM exhibits altered chlorophyll fluorescence quenching induction (i...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Celine Tasset, Avilash Singh Yadav, Sridevi Sureshkumar, Rupali Singh, Lennard van der Woude, Maxim Nekrasov, David Tremethick, Martijn van Zanten, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian
Ambient temperature affects plant growth and even minor changes can substantially impact crop yields. The underlying mechanisms of temperature perception and response are just beginning to emerge. Chromatin remodeling, via the eviction of the histone variant H2A.Z containing nucleosomes, is a critical component of thermal response in plants. However, the role of histone modifications remains unknown. Here, through a forward genetic screen, we identify POWERDRESS (PWR), a SANT-domain containing protein known to interact with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9), as a novel factor required for thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Ravi Prakash Saini, Venkat Raman, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Era Vaidya Malhotra, Rohini Sreevathsa, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Tilak R Sharma, Debasis Pattanayak
The polyphagous insect-pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is a serious threat to a number of economically important crops. Chemical application and/or cultivation of Bt transgenic crops are the two strategies available now for insect-pest management. However, environmental pollution and long-term sustainability are major concerns against these two options. RNAi is now considered as a promising technology to complement Bt to tackle insect-pests menace. In this study, we report host-delivered silencing of HaAce1 gene, encoding the predominant isoform of H...
2018: PloS One
Cleverson Carlos Matiolli, Maeli Melotto
Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library screening is a valuable tool to uncover protein-protein interactions and represents a widely used method to investigate protein function. However, cDNA libraries with low transcript representation limits the depth of the screening. We have developed a Y2H library with cDNA made from Arabidopsis leaves exposed to several stressors as well as untreated leaves. The library was built using pooled mRNA extracted from plants challenged with plant and human bacterial pathogens, the flg22 elicitor, the phytotoxin coronatine, and several hormones associated with environmental stress responses...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Fırat Kurt, Ertugrul Filiz
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant life. Its deficiency impedes growth and development and excessive iron can cause the toxic effect via the Fenton reaction. Thus, plants have developed various mechanisms to acquire, distribute and utilize Fe for the maintenance of their iron homeostasis at cellular and systemic levels. A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family plays essential roles in many regulatory and development processes in plants. In this study, we aimed to understand the roles of bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100 and bHLH101 genes for Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, soybean and maize species by using bioinformatics approaches...
March 15, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Zi-Ru Chen, Lu Kuang, Yi-Qun Gao, Ya-Ling Wang, David E Salt, Dai-Yin Chao
Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plant growth and development, and Zn derived from crop plants in the diet is also important for human health. Here, we report that genetic variation in Heavy Metal-ATPase 4 ( HMA4 ) controls natural variation in leaf Zn content. Investigation of the natural variation in leaf Zn content in a world-wide collection of 349 Arabidopsis thaliana wild collected accessions identified two accessions, Van-0 and Fab-2, which accumulate significantly lower Zn when compared with Col-0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alison Woods-Tör, David J Studholme, Volkan Cevik, Osman Telli, Eric B Holub, Mahmut Tör
The pathosystem of Arabidopsis thaliana and diploid biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ( Hpa ) has been a model for investigating the molecular basis of Flor's gene-for-gene hypothesis. The isolates Hpa -Noks1 and Hpa -Cala2 are virulent on Arabidopsis accession RMX-A02 whilst an F1 generated from a cross between these two isolates was avirulent. The F2 progeny segregated 3,1 (avirulent, virulent), indicating a single major effect AVR locus in this pathogen. SNP-based linkage mapping confirmed a single AVR locus within a 14 kb map interval containing two genes encoding putative effectors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiangxiu Liang, Miaomiao Ma, Zhaoyang Zhou, Jinlong Wang, Xinru Yang, Shaofei Rao, Guozhi Bi, Lin Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jijie Chai, She Chen, Jian-Min Zhou
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse processes by coupling to single-transmembrane receptors. One such receptor is the FLS2 receptor kinase, which perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate immunity through a class of cytoplasmic kinases called BIK1/PBLs. Unlike animal and fungal heterotrimeric G proteins that are activated by a ligand-induced guanine nucleotide exchange activity of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plant heterotrimeric G proteins are self-activating...
March 15, 2018: Cell Research
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
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