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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735409/silencing-of-stress-regulated-mirnas-in-plants-by-short-tandem-target-mimic-sttm-approach
#1
Sachin Teotia, Guiliang Tang
In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate more than hundred target genes comprising largely transcription factors that control growth and development as well as stress responses. However, the exact functions of miRNA families could not be deciphered because each miRNA family has multiple loci in the genome, thus are functionally redundant. Therefore, an ideal approach to study the function of a miRNA family is to silence the expression of all members simultaneously, which is a daunting task. However, this can be partly overcome by Target Mimic (TM) approach that can knockdown an entire miRNA family...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735408/rapid-quantification-of-abscisic-acid-by-gc-ms-ms-for-studies-of-abiotic-stress-response
#2
Paul E Verslues
Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735393/generation-of-a-stress-inducible-luminescent-arabidopsis-and-its-use-in-genetic-screening-for-stress-responsive-gene-deregulation-mutants
#3
Si-In Yu, Byeong-Ha Lee
In order to understand plant stress tolerance and its application, it is important to identify the signaling components involved in the stress-regulated gene expression. One initial step for this is generation of a stress-inducible luminescent Arabidopsis and its use in genetic mutant screening. Here, we describe how to generate a transgenic Arabidopsis line harboring a single copy of the STABILIZED1 (STA1) promoter-driven luciferase transgene (STA1p-LUC) as an example. STA1 is a pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp6p homolog and is induced by cold and heat stresses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735024/n-linked-glycosylation-of-the-p24-family-protein-p24%C3%AE-5-modulates-retrograde-golgi-to-er-transport-of-k-hdel-ligands-in-arabidopsis
#4
Noelia Pastor-Cantizano, María Jesús García-Murria, Cesar Bernat-Silvestre, María Jesús Marcote, Ismael Mingarro, Fernando Aniento
The K/HDEL receptor ERD2 mediates the transport of soluble endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins containing a C-terminal K/HDEL signal from the Golgi apparatus back to the ER via COPI (COat Protein I)-coated vesicles. Sorting of ERD2 within COPI vesicles is facilitated by p24 proteins. In particular, Arabidopsis p24δ5 has been shown to interact directly with ERD2 (via its luminal GOLD -GOLgi Dynamics- domain) and with COPI proteins (via its cytoplasmic C-terminal tail) at the acidic pH of the Golgi apparatus...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735023/arabidopsis-wrky45-interacts-with-the-della-protein-rgl1-to-positively-regulate-age-triggered-leaf-senescence
#5
Ligang Chen, Shengyuan Xiang, Yanli Chen, Daibo Li, Diqiu Yu
Leaf senescence can be triggered and promoted by various environmental stressors, developmental cues, and endogenous hormone signals. Several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of WRKY transcription factors in the regulation of leaf senescence, but the related signaling pathways and physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we initially identified Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY DNA binding protein 45 (WRKY45) as a positive regulator of age-triggered leaf senescence. Mutation of WRKY45 resulted in enhanced leaf longevity in age-triggered senescence, whereas overexpression of WRKY45 significantly accelerated age-triggered leaf senescence...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734978/insights-into-the-functional-properties-of-the-marneral-oxidase-cyp71a16-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Sarah Kranz-Finger, Osama Mahmoud, Esther Ricklefs, Nikolas Ditz, Patrick J Bakkes, Vlada B Urlacher
The Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding CYP71A16 is part of the gene cluster for the biosynthesis and modification of the triterpenoid marneral. Previous investigations of A. thaliana have revealed that CYP71A16 oxidizes marneral, while it also can accept marnerol as substrate. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional properties of CYP71A16 in vitro. For this purpose, heterologous expression of a N-terminally modified version of CYP71A16 was established in Escherichia coli, which yielded up to 50mg·L(-1) recombinant enzyme...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733652/deficient-glutamate-biosynthesis-triggers-a-concerted-upregulation-of-ribosomal-protein-genes-in-arabidopsis
#7
Tamara Muñoz-Nortes, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, Raquel Sarmiento-Mañús, Héctor Candela, José Luis Micol
Biomass production requires the coordination between growth and metabolism. In a large-scale screen for mutants affected in leaf morphology, we isolated the orbiculata1 (orb1) mutants, which exhibit a pale green phenotype and reduced growth. The combination of map-based cloning and next-generation sequencing allowed us to establish that ORB1 encodes the GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE 1 (GLU1) enzyme, also known as FERREDOXIN-DEPENDENT GLUTAMINE OXOGLUTARATE AMINOTRANSFERASE 1 (Fd-GOGAT1). We performed an RNA-seq analysis to identify global gene expression changes in the orb1-3 mutant...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733420/sg2-type-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-myb15-controls-defense-induced-lignification-and-basal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#8
William R Chezem, Altamash Memon, Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng, Nicole Kho Clay
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733391/diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-mediated-triacylglyerol-synthesis-augments-basal-thermotolerance
#9
Stephanie P Mueller, Melissa Unger, Lena Guender, Agnes Fekete, Martin J Mueller
High temperatures rapidly induce a genetically programmed heat shock response (HSR) that is essential to establish short-term acquired thermotolerance. In addition, an immediate HSR-independent metabolic response is triggered resulting in an accumulation of unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the cytosol. The metabolic processes involved in heat-induced TAG formation in plants and their physiological significance remain to be clarified. Lipidomic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings indicated that during heat stress polyunsaturated fatty acids from thylakoid galactolipids are incorporated into cytosolic TAGs...
July 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733390/triphosphate-tunnel-metalloenzyme-function-in-senescence-highlights-a-biological-diversification-of-this-protein-superfamily
#10
Huoi Ung, Purva KAria, Kazuo Ebine, Wolfgang Moeder, Takashi Ueda, Keiko Yoshioka
The triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily comprises a group of enzymes that hydrolyze organophosphate substrates. They exist in all domains of life, yet the biological role of most family members is unclear. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three TTM genes. We have previously reported that AtTTM2 displays pyrophosphatase activity and is involved in pathogen resistance. Here we report the biochemical activity and biological function of AtTTM1 and diversification of the biological roles between AtTTM1 and 2...
July 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732105/shining-a-light-on-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock
#11
REVIEW
Rachael J Oakenfull, Seth J Davis
The circadian clock provides essential timing information to ensure optimal growth to prevailing external environmental conditions. A major time-setting mechanism (zeitgeber) in clock synchronisation is light. Differing light wavelengths, intensities and photoperiodic duration are processed for the clock-setting mechanism. Many studies on light-input pathways to the clock have focused on Arabidopsis thaliana. Photoreceptors are specific chromic proteins that detect light signals and transmit this information to the central circadian oscillator through a number of different signalling mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732049/testing-the-optimal-defense-hypothesis-in-nature-variation-for-glucosinolate-profiles-within-plants
#12
Rose A Keith, Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Plants employ highly variable chemical defenses against a broad community of herbivores, which vary in their susceptibilities to specific compounds. Variation in chemical defenses within the plant has been found in many species; the ecological and evolutionary influences on this variation, however, are less well-understood. One central theory describing the allocation of defenses in the plant is the Optimal Defense Hypothesis (ODH), which predicts that defenses will be concentrated in tissues that are of high fitness value to the plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730525/identification-of-a-seed-coat-specific-promoter-fragment-from-the-arabidopsis-mucilage-modified4-gene
#13
Gillian H Dean, Zhaoqing Jin, Lin Shi, Elahe Esfandiari, Robert McGee, Kylie Nabata, Tiffany Lee, Ljerka Kunst, Tamara L Western, George W Haughn
The Arabidopsis seed coat-specific promoter fragment described is an important tool for basic and applied research in Brassicaceae species. During differentiation, the epidermal cells of the Arabidopsis seed coat produce and secrete large quantities of mucilage. On hydration of mature seeds, this mucilage becomes easily accessible as it is extruded to form a tightly attached halo at the seed surface. Mucilage is composed mainly of pectin, and also contains the key cell wall components cellulose, hemicellulose, and proteins, making it a valuable model for studying numerous aspects of cell wall biology...
July 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729870/plastid-nucleus-distance-alters-the-behavior-of-stromules
#14
Jessica L Erickson, Matthias Kantek, Martin H Schattat
Plastids send "retrograde" signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729662/erratum-the-arabidopsis-cop9-signalosome-subunit-4-csn4-is-involved-in-adventitious-root-formation
#15
Daniel Ioan Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara Pacurar, Abdellah Lakehal, Andrea Mariana Pacurar, Alok Ranjan, Catherine Bellini
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#16
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727145/transcriptional-control-of-photosynthetic-capacity-conservation-and-divergence-from-arabidopsis-to-rice
#17
REVIEW
Peng Wang, Ross-William Hendron, Steven Kelly
1 I. 1 II. 2 III. 5 IV. 10 12 References 12 SUMMARY: Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes on Earth. It provides the consumable energy upon which almost all organisms are dependent, and modulates the composition of the planet's atmosphere. To carry out photosynthesis, plants require a large cohort of genes. These genes encode proteins that capture light energy, store energy in sugars and build the subcellular structures required to facilitate this energy capture. Although the function of many of these genes is known, little is understood about the transcriptional networks that coordinate their expression...
July 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#18
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726644/arabidopsis-calmodulin-like-protein-cml36-is-a-calcium-ca-2-sensor-that-interacts-with-the-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-isoform-aca8-and-stimulates-its-activity
#19
Alessandra Astegno, Maria Cristina Bonza, Rosario Vallone, Valentina La Verde, Mariapina D'Onofrio, Laura Luoni, Barbara Molesini, Paola Dominici
Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are major EF hand-containing, calcium (Ca(2+))-binding proteins with crucial roles in plant development and in coordinating plant stress tolerance. Given their abundance in plants, the properties of Ca(2+) sensors and identification of novel target proteins of CMLs deserve special attention. To this end, we recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized CML36 from Arabidopsis thaliana We analyzed Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding to the individual EF hands, observed metal-induced conformational changes, and identified a physiologically relevant target...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726305/myb30-transcription-factor-regulates-oxidative-and-heat-stress-responses-through-annexin-mediated-cytosolic-calcium-signaling-in-arabidopsis
#20
Chancan Liao, Yuan Zheng, Yan Guo
Cytosolic calcium signaling is critical for regulating downstream responses in plants encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. In a genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in stress-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) elevations, we identified the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB30 as a regulator of [Ca(2+) ]cyt in response to H2 O2 and heat stresses. Plants lacking MYB30 protein exhibited greater elevation of [Ca(2+) ]cyt in response to oxidative and heat stimuli. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that the expression of a number of ANNEXIN (ANN) genes, which encode Ca(2+) -regulated membrane-binding proteins modulating cytosolic calcium signatures, were upregulated in myb30 mutants...
July 20, 2017: New Phytologist
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