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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822306/xyloglucan-endotransglucosylase-hydrolases-xths-are-inactivated-by-binding-to-glass-and-cellulosic-surfaces-and-released-in-active-form-by-a-heat-stable-polymer-from-cauliflower-florets
#1
Sandra C Sharples, Tu C Nguyen-Phan, Stephen C Fry
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822137/studying-the-function-of-the-phosphorylated-pathway-of-serine-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Stephan Krueger, Ruben M Benstein, Sabine Wulfert, Armand D Anoman, María Flores-Tornero, Roc Ros
Photorespiration is an essential pathway in photosynthetic organisms and is particularly important to detoxify and recycle 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG), a by-product of oxygenic photosynthesis. The enzymes that catalyze the reactions in the photorespiratory core cycle and closely associated pathways have been identified; however, open questions remain concerning the metabolic network in which photorespiration is embedded. The amino acid serine represents one of the major intermediates in the photorespiratory pathway and photorespiration is thought to be the major source of serine in plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822136/investigating-the-role-of-the-photorespiratory-pathway-in-non-photosynthetic-tissues
#3
Alisdair R Fernie, Hermann Bauwe, Lee J Sweetlove
Whilst photorespiration represents one of the dominant pathway fluxes in photosynthetic tissues there are hints from publically available gene expression data such as that housed in the bioarray resource (BAR; www.bar.utoronto.ca) that several of the constituent enzymes are present in roots and other heterotrophic tissues. Here we describe a protocol based on modification of the gaseous environment surrounding individual tissues of mutant and wild type Arabidopsis and evaluation of the consequences. This method could additionally easily be used for larger plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822132/-13-co2-labeling-and-mass-spectral-analysis-of-photorespiration
#4
Leonardo Perez de Souza, Marek Szecówka, Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Photorespiratory metabolism is compartmented over the chloroplast, peroxisome, cytosol, and mitochondria, and due to its complex structure it is often the case that metabolite levels alone are not able to fully describe photorespiration. Metabolic fluxes represent a more meaningful biological description of metabolism, adding to metabolite levels and often revealing different aspects of the system such as the presence of inactive metabolic pools of photorespiratory intermediates. We describe here a protocol for the (13)CO2 feeding of Arabidopsis and tracing of (13)C enriched metabolites for metabolic fluxes estimation, which allows high throughput analysis of labeling pattern on different metabolites involved in photorespiration and downstream processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822131/metabolic-engineering-of-photorespiration
#5
Martin K M Engqvist, Veronica G Maurino
The introduction of two alternative glycolate catabolic pathways in the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana rendered plants with increased biomass. To introduce these synthetic pathways, the selected genes were stepwise integrated in the nuclear genome of wild-type plants. These plants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the binary vectors using the floral dip method. Selection of transformants was conducted using different selection agents and the expression of the transgenes was confirmed by PCR and enzyme activity measurements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821747/the-integration-of-g%C3%AE-and-mapk-signaling-cascade-in-zygote-development
#6
Guo-Liang Yuan, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Cells respond to many signals with a limited number of signaling components. Heterotrimeric G proteins and MAPK cascades are universally used by eukaryotic cells to transduce signals in various developmental processes or stress responses by activating different effectors. MAPK cascade is integrated with G proteins by scaffold protein during plant immunity. However, the molecular relationship between G proteins and MAPK modules in plant development is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis Gβ protein AGB1 interacts with MPK3 and 6, MKK4 and 5, as well as the regulatory domains of YODA (YDA), the upstream MEKK of MKK4/5...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821594/lazy-genes-mediate-the-effects-of-gravity-on-auxin-gradients-and-plant-architecture
#7
Takeshi Yoshihara, Edgar P Spalding
A rice mutant led to the discovery of a plant-specific LAZY1 protein that controls the orientation of shoots. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses six LAZY genes having spatially distinct expression patterns. Branch angle phenotypes previously associated with single LAZY genes were here studied in roots and shoots of single and higher-order atlazy mutants. The results identify the major contributors to root and shoot branch angles and gravitropic behavior of seedling hypocotyls and primary roots. AtLAZY1 is the principal determinant of inflorescence branch angle...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821591/specifying-cell-fate-in-roots-requires-coordinative-lineage-instruction-and-positional-reprogramming
#8
Qiaozhi Yu, Pengxue Li, Nengsong Liang, Hong Wang, Meizhi Xu, Shuang Wu
Tissue organization and pattern formation within a multicellular organism relies on coordinated cell division and cell fate determination. In animals cell fates are mainly determined by a cell lineage dependent mechanism, whereas in plants positional information is thought to be the primary determinant of cell fates (Scheres, 2001; Kidner et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2005; Scheres et al., 2002). However, our understanding of cell fate regulation in plants mostly relies on the histological and anatomical studies on Arabidopsis roots which contain a single layer of each cell type in non-vascular tissues (Scheres et al...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820483/a-microsomal-proteomics-view-of-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-and-aba-dependent-responses
#9
May Alqurashi, Ludivine Thomas, Chris Gehring, Claudius Marondedze
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates a number of plant developmental processes and responses to stress. In planta, ABA has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through the action of plasma membrane-associated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases. Although quantitative proteomics studies have been performed to identify ABA- or hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-dependent proteins, little is known about the ABA- and H₂O₂-dependent microsomal proteome changes...
August 18, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#10
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819808/mir398-and-mir395-are-involved-in-response-to-so2-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Lihong Li, Huilan Yi, Meizhao Xue, Min Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that has adverse effects on plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA that play critical roles in plant development and stress response. In this study, we found that two miRNAs, miR398 and miR395, were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoots under SO2 stress. The expression of miR398 was down-regulated, and the transcript levels of its target genes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSD1 and CSD2), were increased during SO2 exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the major antioxidant enzymes, was enhanced with the increase in the CSD transcript level, suggesting an important role of miR398 in response to SO2-induced oxidative stress...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819739/oligosaccharide-elicitor-prepared-from-salecan-triggers-the-defense-responses-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-col0-against-botrytis-cinerea-infection
#12
Haiyang Xu, Jing Li, Shiming Wang, Linxiang Xu, Rui Cheng, Jianfa Zhang
Oligosaccharides from the water-soluble β-glucan, Salecan, were investigated to evaluate the activation effect on the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col0. Salecan oligosaccharides (ScOs, DP 5-10) were prepared at first by acid hydrolysis and gel filtration chromatography and then employed for foliar spray on Arabidopsis seedlings and plants. After ScOs treatment, increase of hydrogen peroxide was histologically and analytically detected in leaves. Transcription levels of several indicator genes which correspond to the signaling pathways and pathogenesis-related proteins were up-regulated at different time by means of quantitative RT-PCR analysis...
August 17, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819684/comparison-of-transcriptome-profiles-by-fusarium-oxysporum-inoculation-between-fusarium-yellows-resistant-and-susceptible-lines-in-brassica-rapa-l
#13
Naomi Miyaji, Motoki Shimizu, Junji Miyazaki, Kenji Osabe, Maho Sato, Yusuke Ebe, Satoko Takada, Makoto Kaji, Elizabeth S Dennis, Ryo Fujimoto, Keiichi Okazaki
Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples...
August 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818969/distinct-phases-of-polycomb-silencing-to-hold-epigenetic-memory-of-cold-in-arabidopsis
#14
Hongchun Yang, Scott Berry, Tjelvar S G Olsson, Matthew Hartley, Martin Howard, Caroline Dean
Gene silencing by Polycomb complexes is central to eukaryotic development. Cold-induced epigenetic repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the plant Arabidopsis provides an opportunity to study initiation and maintenance of Polycomb silencing. Here, we show that a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 factors nucleate silencing in a small region within FLC, locally increasing H3K27me3 levels. This nucleation confers a silenced state that is metastably inherited, with memory held in the local chromatin. Metastable memory is then converted to stable epigenetic silencing through separate Polycomb factors, which spread across the locus after cold to enlarge the domain containing H3K27me3...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818860/the-chickpea-early-flowering-1-efl1-locus-is-an-ortholog-of-arabidopsis-elf3
#15
Stephen Ridge, Amit Deokar, Robyn Lee, Ketema Daba, Richard C Macknight, James L Weller, Bunyamin Tar'an
In climates that experience short growing seasons due to drought, heat or end-of-season frost, early flowering is a highly desirable trait for chickpeas. In this study, we mapped, sequenced and characterized Efl1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis ELF3 that confers early flowering in chickpea. In a RIL population derived from a cross between CDC Frontier and ICCV 96029, this gene was mapped to the site of a QTL on Ca5 that explained 59% of flowering time variation under SD. Sequencing of ELF3 in ICCV 96029 revealed an 11-bp deletion in the first exon that was predicted to result in a premature stop codon...
August 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818777/algae-biomass-as-a-precursor-for-synthesis-of-nitrogen-and-sulfur-co-doped-carbon-dots-a-better-probe-in-arabidopsis-guard-cells-and-root-tissues
#16
Che Zhang, Yumei Xiao, Yongqiang Ma, Baoming Li, Zhidan Liu, Cheng Lu, Xue Liu, Yao Wei, Zhangbing Zhu, Yuanhui Zhang
The challenge of controlling algal blooms and reusing algal biomass remain unsolved worldwide. We introduce a facile method to reuse Nannochloropsis biocrude oil (NBO) for the synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N-S-C-dots). N-S-C-dots can pass through the heavily thickened wall of mature Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) guard cells because of high solubility and excellent biocompatibility. N-S-C-dots exhibit multicolor luminescence and could effectively reduce the interference of autofluorescence in plant cells by changing filters...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818758/phytoremediation-of-arsenic-from-the-contaminated-soil-using-transgenic-tobacco-plants-expressing-acr2-gene-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Noor Nahar, Aminur Rahman, Neelu N Nawani, Sibdas Ghosh, Abul Mandal
We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818757/expression-of-a-na-h-antiporter-rtnhx1-from-a-recretohalophyte-reaumuria-trigyna-improved-salt-tolerance-of-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Ningning Li, Xue Wang, Binjie Ma, Chao Du, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small xeric shrub that is endemic to the eastern Alxa and western Ordos areas of Inner Mongolia, China. Using transcriptome data, we identified a 1662-bp open reading frame encoding a 553-amino-acid protein corresponding to a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (RtNHX1) from R. trigyna. RtNHX1 was rapidly up-regulated by NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid treatment and had different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after salt-stress treatment. Overexpression of RtNHX1 enhanced seed germination, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under salt stress and rescued the salt-sensitive deficiencies of the nhx1 mutant...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818753/benzoylsalicylic-acid-derivatives-as-defense-activators-in-tobacco-and-arabidopsis
#19
Samuel Kamatham, Reddanna Pallu, Anil Kumar Pasupulati, Surya Satyanarayana Singh, Padmaja Gudipalli
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long lasting inducible whole plant immunity often induced by either pathogens or chemical elicitors. Salicylic acid (SA) is a known SAR signal against a broad spectrum of pathogens in plants. In a recent study, we have reported that benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) is a SAR inducer in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we have synthesized BzSA derivatives using SA and benzoyl chlorides of various moieties as substrates. The chemical structures of BzSA derivatives were elucidated using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) and High-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) analysis...
August 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818464/one-pot-synthesis-of-bioactive-cyclopentenones-from-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid
#20
Daniel Maynard, Sara Mareike Müller, Monika Hahmeier, Jana Löwe, Ivo Feussner, Harald Gröger, Andrea Viehhauser, Karl-Josef Dietz
Oxidation products of the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are bioactive in plants and animals as shown for the cyclopentenones prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 and PGA2, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), and 14-A-4 neuroprostane. In this study an inexpensive and simple enzymatic multi-step one-pot synthesis is presented for 12-OPDA, which is derived from α-linolenic acid, and the analogous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived cyclopentenone [(4Z,7Z,10Z)-12-[[-(1S,5S)-4-oxo-5-(2Z)-pent-2-en-1yl]-cyclopent-2-en-1yl] dodeca-4,7,10-trienoic acid, OCPD]...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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