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Atrial fibrillation AND inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346407/relaxin-reverses-inflammatory-and-immune-signals-in-aged-hearts
#1
Brian Martin, Beth Ann Gabris-Weber, Rajiv Reddy, Guillermo Romero, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: 'Healthy' aging drives structural and functional changes in the heart including maladaptive electrical remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, which lower the threshold for cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite mixed results in recent clinical trials, Relaxin-therapy for 2-days could reduce mortality by 37% at 180-days post-treatment, in patients with acute decompensated HF. Relaxin's short life-span (hours) but long-lasting protective actions led us to test the hypothesis that relaxin acts at a genomic level to reverse maladaptive remodeling in aging and HF...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332603/previous-use-of-statins-and-atrial-electrical-remodeling-in-patients-with-cryptogenic-stroke
#2
Maurizio Acampa, Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Francesca Guideri, Rossana Tassi, Andrea Lo Monaco, Giuseppe Martini
BACKGROUND: In the general population the leading cause of cardioembolic stroke is atrial fibrillation (AF). A silent AF is also the possible cause of many cryptogenic strokes. P wave dispersion (PWD), a predictor of AF, has been proposed as a marker of silent AF occurrence in these strokes. PWD correlates with high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels reflecting the role of inflammation in promoting a slowed and inhomogeneous atrial conduction. Statins have a multitude of additional effects beyond lipid lowering, in particular anti-inflammatory effects that may influence atrial conduction...
January 10, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326834/ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Marwan M Refaat, Jad Ballout, Moussa Mansour
With improved surgical techniques and medical management for patients with congenital heart diseases, more patients are living longer and well into adulthood. This improved survival comes with a price of increased morbidity, mainly secondary to increased risk of tachyarrhythmias. One of the major arrhythmias commonly encountered in this subset of cardiac patients is AF. Similar to the general population, the risk of AF increases with advancing age, and is mainly secondary to the abnormal anatomy, abnormal pressure and volume parameters in the hearts of these patients and to the increased scarring and inflammation seen in the left atrium following multiple surgical procedures...
December 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287900/galectin-3-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Qi Kang, XiaoLong Li, Mengyun Yang, Taniya Fernando, Zheng Wan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the change of the inflammatory factor Galectin-3 in patients with coronary heart disease, and the correlation between Galectin-3 and the severity of the disease. To observe changes of Galectin-3 in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) before and after radiofrequency ablation, and the changes of Galectin-3 before and after an interim treatment with a high dose of atorvastatin on patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI). METHODS: Patients with coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation having normal heart function were selected, among them, the patients with AMI were given a short term treatment of 80mg atorvastatin before PCI, and patients with atrial fibrillation underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation...
December 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276280/examining-the-use-of-sodium-nitroprusside-in-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-is-the-benefit-worth-the-cost
#5
Caitlin M Gibson, Sondra Davis, Darien Bradford
Purpose: Sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator frequently used in the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) setting. However, the price of a 50-mg vial of sodium nitroprusside increased from $5.00 in 2003 to up to $900 in 2016. The purpose of this review is to help health systems balance high-quality patient care with economic responsibility. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search was performed using the search terms "nitroprusside" and "coronary artery bypass." All English-language trials in human subjects assessing the use of sodium nitroprusside in the setting of CABG were evaluated...
July 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250282/use-of-oral-steroid-and-its-effects-on-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-and-inflammatory-cytokines-post-ablation-the-steroid-af-study
#6
Sandia Iskandar, Madhu Reddy, Muhammad R Afzal, Johnson Rajasingh, Moustapha Atoui, Madhav Lavu, Donita Atkins, Sudha Bommana, Linda Umbarger, Misty Jaeger, Rhea Pimentel, Raghuveer Dendi, Martin Emert, Mohit Turagam, Luigi Di Biase, Andrea Natale, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy
Background: Use of corticosteroids before and after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation can decrease acute inflammation and reduce AF recurrence. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of oral prednisone in improving the outcomes of pulmonary vein isolation with radiofrequency ablation and its effect on inflammatory cytokine. Methods: A total of 60 patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing radiofrequency ablation were randomized (1:1) to receive either 3 doses of 60 mg daily of oral prednisone or a placebo...
February 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244059/the-mediterranean-diet-metabolic-and-molecular-mechanisms
#7
Valeria Tosti, Beatrice Bertozzi, Luigi Fontana
Consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in minimally processed plant foods has been associated with a reduced risk of developing multiple chronic diseases and increased life expectancy. Data from several randomized clinic trials have demonstrated a beneficial effect in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation and breast cancer. The exact mechanism by which an increased adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet exerts its favorable effects is not known...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243787/atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-involvement-in-celiac-disease-the-role-of-autoimmunity-and-inflammation
#8
L Santoro, G De Matteis, M Fuorlo, B Giupponi, A M Martone, F Landi, R Landolfi, A Santoliquido
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore the evidence about the association among celiac disease (CD), atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, and the role of inflammation in this connection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for the association among CD, AS and CV diseases. RESULTS: Several studies reported the association of CD with accelerated AS, as evidenced by the alterations of a number of parameters indicative of subclinical AS, as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229678/epitope-mapping-of-serca2a-identifies-an-antigenic-determinant-that-induces-mainly-atrial-myocarditis-in-a-j-mice
#9
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z Afzal, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, You Zhou, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Shyam S Nandi, Paras K Mishra, Raymond A Sobel, Jennifer L Strande, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA)2a, a critical regulator of calcium homeostasis, is known to be decreased in heart failure. Patients with myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy develop autoantibodies to SERCA2a suggesting that they may have pathogenetic significance. In this report, we describe epitope mapping analysis of SERCA2a in A/J mice that leads us to make five observations: 1) SERCA2a contains multiple T cell epitopes that induce varying degrees of myocarditis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211124/association-of-oral-lichen-planus-and-electrocardiographic-p-wave-dispersion-an-original-research
#10
R Aditi, S Sathasivasubramanian, M Emmanuel Bhaskar
Lichen planus (LP) is considered to be a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder. Inflammation is considered to produce disturbances of lipid metabolism which may affect the myocardium. Increased P-Wave Dispersion (PWD) is demonstrated as an independent risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Hence the present study has been conducted to explore the possible relationship of oral lichen planus (OLP) with AF by the evaluation of PWD. Twelve-lead electrocardiographs (ECG) were obtained from 45 OLP patients and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174782/pericardial-blood-as-a-trigger-for-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-after-cardiac-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Samuel St-Onge, Louis P Perrault, Philippe Demers, Edward M Boyle, A Marc Gillinov, James Cox, Spencer Melby
BACKGROUND: Prevention strategies have long been sought to reduce the incidence and burden of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after heart surgery. However, none has emerged as a dominant and widely applicable prophylactic measure. The purpose of this review is to consider the biological mechanisms by which shed mediastinal blood leads to oxidation and inflammation within the postoperative pericardial environment and how this might trigger POAF in susceptible persons, as well as how it could represent a new target for prevention of POAF...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173598/mechanisms-clinical-significance-and-prevention-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#12
REVIEW
Lena Rivard, Paul Khairy
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are major health issues, with growing evidence suggesting a consistent association between AF and all forms of dementia. Although dementia and AF share several risk factors, the association appears to be independent of a history of clinical stroke and other comorbidities such as hypertension, heart failure, and diabetes. Proposed mechanisms linking AF to cognitive decline include altered hemodynamics resulting in cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, genetic factors, and silent cerebral ischemia due to subclinical microemboli...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151509/in-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-patients-the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-related-to-thrombogenesis-and-more-closely-associated-with-left-atrial-appendage-contraction-than-with-the-left-atrial-body-function
#13
Yukihiro Fukuda, Mitsunori Okamoto, Shunsuke Tomomori, Hiroya Matsumura, Takehito Tokuyama, Yukiko Nakano, Yasuki Kihara
Objective The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation marker that can be used to detect atrial inflammatory changes, which may contribute to a reduced left atrial (LA) function and thrombosis. Our study aimed to determine whether or not the association of NLR with the LA appendage (LAA) function in relation to thrombogenesis differs from the association with the LA body function in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) patients. Methods A total of 183 PAF patients were studied. The LA volume index, mitral flow velocity (A), and mitral annular motion velocity (A') were examined using transthoracic echocardiography...
November 20, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149823/olive-oil-related-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-atherosclerosis-potential-clinical-implications
#14
Tanakal Wongwarawipat, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Bertsias, Gerasimos Siasos, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory process which can result in atherothrombosis and a number of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is believed to be caused by multiple processes that involve inflammation and immunity. Mediterranean Diet (MedD) has been discovered to possess anti-inflammatory properties and associated with a reduction in the CVD risk and mortality. Its main component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), is believed to be largely responsible for these effects and therefore, has been investigated in various studies...
2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126922/the-unrecognized-role-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-atrial-fibrillation
#15
REVIEW
Liang Mao, Wenjun Huang, Ping Zou, Xitong Dang, Xiaorong Zeng
Epidemiogical evidence has shown that the incidence of atrial fibrillation in tumor patients is higher than non-tumor patients and general population. The potential risk factors predisposing tumor patients to atrial fibrillation include advanced age, comorbidities, direct anatomic local occupying effect of tumors in the heart or adjacent organs, paraneoplastic manifestations of some tumors, tumor-induced dys-regulation of metabolism, radio-, bio- and chemo-therapeutics, disturbance of autonomous nerve system because of physical pain and psychological sufferings, chronic inflammation typical of most tumors, and surgical interventions among others...
November 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075499/metformin-therapy-and-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-in-diabetic-patients-after-cardiac-surgery
#16
Suresh Basnet, Andrzej Kozikowski, Haiyan Sun, Melissa Troup, Luis E Urrutia, Renee Pekmezaris
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly occurs in cardiac surgery patients. Studies suggest inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to postoperative AF development in this patient population. Metformin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces oxidative stress and thus may play a role in preventing postoperative AF. METHODS: We conducted a matched, retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients' age ≥18 undergoing a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or cardiac valve surgery from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2014...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074341/the-clinical-significance-of-endocardial-endothelial-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Sonja Smiljic
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is essential in the embryonic development of the heart, the optimal contractility and rhythm as well as the remodeling of the heart. Endocardial endothelium affect the contractility of cardiomyocytes through paracrine signaling substances such as nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), prostaglandins (PGI2, PGF2, PGE2) and angiotensin II (ANG II). Typical lesions of endocardial endothelium have been described in atrial fibrillation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, sepsis, myocardial infarction, inflammation and thrombosis...
September 21, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050786/homocysteine-in-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-role-and-clinical-implications
#18
REVIEW
Yan Yao, Mei-Sheng Shang, Jian-Zeng Dong, Chang-Sheng Ma
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia, is associated with a series of adverse complications that cause so-called AF socioeconomic burden. Apart from the classical risk factors, it seems to be novel factors that increase the risk of AF and AF-related stroke. Recently, more and more evidence has well documented the close relationships between homocysteine (Hcy) and AF. As a well-known marker for pro-oxidation and pro-inflammation, Hcy plays an important role in a number of vascular diseases having strong association with AF...
October 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045723/acute-administration-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induces-spontaneous-calcium-release-via-the-reactive-oxygen-species-pathway-in-atrial-myocytes
#19
Song Zuo, Lin-Ling Li, Yan-Fei Ruan, Le Jiang, Xin Li, Song-Nan Li, Song-Nan Wen, Rong Bai, Nian Liu, Xin Du, Jian-Zeng Dong, Chang-Sheng Ma
Aims: The arrhythmogenic mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) that are induced by acute inflammation, such as postoperative AF, are not well understood. We investigated the acute effects of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) that mimic acute inflammation on Ca2+ handling in isolated atrial myocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Methods and results: Cytosol Ca2+ handling and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were studied in freshly isolated atrial myocytes of wild-type mice that were exposed to TNF-α (0...
October 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039347/ferritin-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-efficacy-of-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-preliminary-report
#20
Adam Sokal, Sylwia Wójcik, Patrycja Pruszkowska, Oskar Kowalski, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Agnieszka Liberska, Michał Mazurek, Slawomir Pluta, Zbigniew Kalarus
BACKGROUND: Complex mechanisms of responsible for originating and maintaining of atrial fibrillation (AF) are involved in pathophysiology of this arrhythmia. Inflammation substantially contribute to arrhythmic remodelling of atrial tissue.The aim of the present study is to assess an applicability of ferritin and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as biomarkers of atrial fibrillation and their usefulness in evaluation of efficacy of cryoablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 40 patients who underwent first AF cryoablation procedure...
October 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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