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Anthocyanins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786859/synergistic-effects-of-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-a-case-study-of-nitrogen-limitation-and-saturating-light-intensity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Itay Cohen, Tal Rapaport, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Under natural conditions, plants are regularly exposed to combinations of stress factors. A common example is the conjunction between nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess light. The combined effect of stress factors is often ignored in studies using controlled conditions, possibly resulting in misleading conclusions. To address this issue, the current study examined the physiological behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana under the effect of varying nitrogen levels and light intensities. The joint influence of low N and excess light had an adverse effect on plant growth, chlorophyll and anthocyanin concentrations, photochemical capacity, and the abundance of proteins involved in carbon assimilation and anti-oxidative metabolism...
May 22, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786840/spray-drying-of-milk-blackberry-pulp-mixture-effect-of-carrier-agent-on-the-physical-properties-of-powder-water-sorption-and-glass-transition-temperature
#2
Matheus Boeira Braga, Sandra Cristina Dos Santos Rocha, Miriam Dupas Hubinger
Spray dryer was used to produce particles from a milk-blackberry pulp mixture (25%:75% (w/w)). Maltodextrin 10DE and 20DE and gum Arabic were used as adjuvants in order to improve powder quality. The particles were analyzed with emphasis on physical and physicochemical characteristics: moisture content, bulk density, particle size, morphology, water activity, anthocyanins retention, anthocyanins content, hygroscopicity, solubility, water sorption, and glass transition temperature. The best results were obtained for the paste composition of 25% concentrated milk-70% blackberry pulp-5% gum Arabic, yielding high anthocyanins retention (>87...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784377/electronic-eye-for-the-prediction-of-parameters-related-to-grape-ripening
#3
G Orlandi, R Calvini, L Pigani, G Foca, G Vasile Simone, A Antonelli, A Ulrici
An electronic eye (EE) for fast and easy evaluation of grape phenolic ripening has been developed. For this purpose, berries of different grape varieties were collected at different harvest times from veraison to maturity, then an amount of the derived must was deposited on a white sheet of absorbent paper to obtain a sort of paper chromatography. Thus, RGB images of the must spots were collected using a flatbed scanner and converted into one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams, which codify the colour properties of the images...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783783/the-microencapsulation-of-maqui-aristotelia-chilensis-mol-stuntz-juice-by-spray-drying-and-freeze-drying-produces-powders-with-similar-anthocyanin-stability-and-bioaccessibility
#4
Carolina Fredes, Camila Becerra, Javier Parada, Paz Robert
The microencapsulation of maqui juice by spray-drying and freeze-drying was studied as a strategy to protect anthocyanins in new food formulations in order to improve the anthocyanin retention before consumption and the bioaccessibility. It is well known that the encapsulation method affects both the shape and size of powders, being assumed that undefined forms of freeze-drying powders might affect their stability due to the high permeability to oxygen. The objective of this study was to compare the microencapsulation of maqui juice by spray-drying and freeze-drying, evaluating the stability of specific anthocyanins in yogurt and after in vitro digestion...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779175/anthocyanins-improve-hippocampus-dependent-memory-function-and-prevent-neurodegeneration-via-jnk-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-in-lps-treated-adult-mice
#5
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Tahir Ali, Min Woo Kim, Myeung Hoon Jo, Jong Il Chung, Myeong Ok Kim
Microglia plays a critical role in the brain and protects neuronal cells from toxins. However, over-activation of microglia leads to deleterious effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to affect neuronal cells via activation of microglia as well as directly to initiate neuroinflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of anthocyanins against LPS-induced neurotoxicity in an animal model and in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injections of LPS (250 μg/kg/day for 1 week) induce ROS production and promote neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration which ultimately leads to memory impairment...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775294/management-zone-delineation-for-winegrape-selective-harvesting-based-on-fluorescence-sensor-mapping-of-grape-skin-anthocyanins
#6
Giovanni Agati, Kamel Soudani, Lorenza Tuccio, Elisa Fierini, Naima Ben Ghozlen, El Mostafa Fadaili, Annalisa Romani, Zoran G Cerovic
We analyzed the potential of non-destructive optical sensing of grape skin anthocyanins for selective harvesting in precision viticulture. We measured anthocyanins by a hand-held fluorescence optical sensor on a 7-ha Sangiovese vineyard plot in central Italy. Optical indices obtained by the sensor were calibrated for the transformation in units of anthocyanins per berry mass, i.e. mg g-1 berry fresh weight. A full protocol for optimal data filtration, interpolation and homogenous zones delineation based on a very large number of optical measurements was proposed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774337/fermentation-alters-the-bioaccessible-phenolic-compounds-and-increases-the-alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory-effects-of-aronia-juice-in-a-dairy-matrix-following-in-vitro-digestion
#7
Xue Du, Angela D Myracle
The prevalence of diabetes reached 415 million worldwide in 2015. Polyphenol-rich food intake can benefit the glycemic control for individuals with diabetes. Fermentation may increase the bioavailability of polyphenols, which is generally low. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) is a polyphenol-rich berry that is native to North America. Proanthocyanins and anthocyanins are the major phenolic compounds in aronia. In this study, aronia kefir was made by fermenting cow's milk with added aronia juice. The changes in bioaccessible polyphenols of aronia kefir during digestion were assessed using an in vitro model...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771352/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-anthocyanins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Michael Eichenberger, Anders Hansson, David Fischer, Lara Dürr, Michael Naesby
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769704/effect-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-insulin-responsiveness-and-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-obese-individuals-possible-role-for-ptp1b
#9
Paulina Ormazabal, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Carmela Santangelo, Massimo D'Archivio, Gianfranco Silecchia, Annunziata Iacovelli, Claudio Giovannini, Roberta Masella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects precipitates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Anthocyanins and their main metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin signaling in human adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCA is able to modulate insulin responsiveness and inflammation in VAT from obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) subjects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767238/red-mulberry-fruit-aqueous-extract-and-silk-proteins-accelerate-acute-ethanol-metabolism-and-promote-the-anti%C3%A2-oxidant-enzyme-systems-in-rats
#10
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Sol Kim, Sunmin Park
Red mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is rich in anthocyanins, and mulberry leaves are used by silk worms to make silk protein. We determined that the water and ethanol extract of mulberry fruit and silk amino acids accelerated ethanol degradation and suppressed temporal cognitive dysfunction in acute alcohol administered rats. The mechanism was explored in rats with acute oral administration of silk protein and mulberry fruit extracts. Rats were given 0.3 g of dextrin (control) and water extract (WMB) and ethanol extract of mulberry (EMB), silk protein hydrolysates (SKA), and a commercial product (positive‑control) based on body weight...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766782/role-of-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-the-beneficial-effects-of-flavonoids
#11
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Dalia Al-Dosari, Abdullah S Alhomida
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. Diabetes-induced metabolic disorder is believed to increase oxidative stress in the retina. This results in deleterious changes through dysregulation of cellular physiology that damages both neuronal and vascular cells. Here in this review, we first highlight the evidence of potential metabolic sources and pathways which increase oxidative stress that contributes to retinal pathology in diabetes...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766690/garden-nasturtium-tropaeolum-majus-l-a-source-of-mineral-elements-and-bioactive-compounds
#12
Karolina Jakubczyk, Katarzyna Janda, Katarzyna Watychowicz, Jagoda Łukasiak, Jolanta Wolska
The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medicinal plants such as the garden nasturtium contain trace elements and bioactive compounds which can be easily absorbed by the human body. The flowers and other parts of the garden nasturtium are a good source of micro elements such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, and macro elements, especially of zinc, copper and iron...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765504/polyphenolic-compounds-antioxidant-and-cardioprotective-effects-of-pomace-extracts-from-feteasc%C3%A4-neagr%C3%A4-cultivar
#13
Ştefania Silvia Balea, Alina Elena Pârvu, Nastasia Pop, Fernando Zamora Marín, Marcel Pârvu
Grape pomace is a potential source of natural antioxidant agents. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of fresh and fermented pomace extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera L. red variety Fetească neagră grown in Romania in 2015 were investigated. Grape pomace extracts total phenolic index, total tannins, total anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ol monomers, stilbenes, and DPPH free radical scavenger were measured. The effect of a seven-day pretreatment with grape pomace extracts on the isoprenaline-induced infarct-like lesion in rats was assessed by ECG monitoring, serum levels of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759310/flavanols-are-potential-anti-obesity-agents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-clinical-trials
#14
M Akhlaghi, S Ghobadi, M Mohammad Hosseini, Z Gholami, F Mohammadian
BACKGROUND: The anti-obesity potential of flavonoids has been shown by animal and human studies. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials and quantified the effects of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on obesity-related anthropometric measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest databases were searched to identify trials examining the effect of flavonoids on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage...
April 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758982/melatonin-antagonizes-jasmonate-triggered-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Yu Ai, Ziqiang Zhu
As a plant-specific flavonoid type metabolite, anthocyanin is an important plant-sourced nutrition. Although anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway has been revealed, how to modulate anthocyanin production by endogenous molecules is still elusive. Here, we investigated the role of melatonin in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin suppresses anthocyanin synthesis. Moreover, melatonin was able to significantly inhibit jasmonate-stimulated anthocyanin production...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755991/drying-rate-and-product-quality-evaluation-of-roselle-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-calyces-extract-dried-with-foaming-agent-under-different-temperatures
#16
Mohamad Djaeni, Andri Cahyo Kumoro, Setia Budi Sasongko, Febiani Dwi Utari
The utilisation of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx as a source of anthocyanins has been explored through intensive investigations. Due to its perishable property, the transformation of roselle calyces into dried extract without reducing their quality is highly challenging. The aim of this work was to study the effect of air temperatures and relative humidity on the kinetics and product quality during drying of roselle extract foamed with ovalbumin and glycerol monostearate (GMS). The results showed that foam mat drying increased the drying rate significantly and retained the antioxidant activity and colour of roselle calyces extract...
2018: International Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755971/impact-of-increasing-levels-of-oxygen-consumption-on-the-evolution-of-color-phenolic-and-volatile-compounds-of-nebbiolo-wines
#17
Maurizio Petrozziello, Fabrizio Torchio, Federico Piano, Simone Giacosa, Maurizio Ugliano, Antonella Bosso, Luca Rolle
Since the end of the last century, many works have been carried out to verify the effect of controlled oxygen intake on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of red wines. In spite of the large number of studies on this subject, oxygen remains a cutting-edge research topic in oenology. Oxygen consumption leads to complex and not univocal changes in wine composition, sometimes positive such as color stabilization, softening of mouthfeel, increase of aroma complexity. However, the variability of these effects, which depend both on the oxygenation conditions and the composition of the wine, require more efforts in this research field to effectively manage wine oxygen exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751916/phytochemical-and-physical-properties-of-blueberries-tart-cherries-strawberries-and-cranberries-as-affected-by-different-drying-methods
#18
Boris Nemzer, Luis Vargas, Xiaoyan Xia, Marsha Sintara, Hao Feng
The effects of hot-air drying (AD), freeze drying (FD) and Refractance Window drying (RWD) on the retention of anthocyanins, phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and B, and antioxidant capacity (ORAC) in blueberries, tart cherries, strawberries, and cranberries, as well as organic acids and proanthocyanins in cranberries and chlorogenic acid and catchins in blueberries were evaluated. Changes in color, glass transition, specific heat, and surface morphology of the dried fruits were also evaluated. The quality retention in the dried fruits was found to be product and drying method specific...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751487/preparation-and-antioxidant-activity-of-ethyl-linked-anthocyanin-flavanol-pigments-from-model-wine-solutions
#19
Lingxi Li, Minna Zhang, Shuting Zhang, Yan Cui, Baoshan Sun
Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749527/purple-sweet-potato-anthocyanin-exerts-antitumor-effect-in-bladder-cancer
#20
Wei-Lin Li, Hong-Yuan Yu, Xian-Jun Zhang, Mang Ke, Tao Hong
Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common malignant disease. The developing of economically sustainable and available agents for the treatment of BC is required. Purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) has been shown to have antitumor abilities. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of PSPA in BC treatment. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the viability of BC cells. Flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution...
May 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
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