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Anthocyanins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338881/mdhb1-down-regulation-activates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-white-fleshed-apple-cultivar-granny-smith
#1
Yonghua Jiang, Cuihua Liu, Dan Yan, Xiaohong Wen, Yanli Liu, Haojie Wang, Jieyu Dai, Yujie Zhang, Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Xiaolin Ren
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335727/overexpression-of-snapdragon-delila-del-gene-in-tobacco-enhances-anthocyanin-accumulation-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#2
Aung Htay Naing, Kyeung Il Park, Trinh Ngoc Ai, Mi Young Chung, Jeung Sul Han, Young-Wha Kang, Ki Byung Lim, Chang Kil Kim
BACKGROUND: Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. RESULTS: In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi'), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels...
March 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335581/biosynthesis-of-oligomeric-anthocyanins-from-grape-skin-extracts
#3
Jin-Woo Hwang, Sithranga Boopathy Natarajan, Yon-Suk Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jae Woong Lee, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
We synthesized oligomeric anthocyanins from grape skin-derived monomeric anthocyanins such as anthocyanidin and proanthocyanidin by a fermentation technique using Aspergillus niger, crude enzymes and glucosidase. The biosyntheses of the oligomeric anthocyanins carried out by the conventional method using Aspergillus niger and crude enzymes were confirmed by ESI-MS. The molecular weight of the synthesized anthocyanin oligomers was determined using MALDI-MS. The yield of anthocyanin oligomers using crude enzymes was higher than that of the synthesis using Aspergillus fermentation...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330557/loss-of-anthocyanins-and-modification-of-the-anthocyanin-profiles-in-grape-berries-of-malbec-and-bonarda-grown-under-high-temperature-conditions
#4
Inés de Rosas, María Teresa Ponce, Emiliano Malovini, Leonor Deis, Bruno Cavagnaro, Pablo Cavagnaro
Malbec and Bonarda are the two most widely cultivated grape varieties in Argentina, and their derived red wines are recognized worldwide, being their intense color a major quality trait. The temperature during fruit ripening conditions berries color intensity. In the main viticulture region of Malbec and Bonarda a 2-3°C increase in temperature has been predicted for the upcoming years as consequence of the global climate change. In the present study, this predicted temperature raise was simulated under field-crop conditions, and its effect on anthocyanin pigmentation in berries of Malbec and Bonarda was monitored by HPLC analysis throughout the ripening process, in two growing seasons...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330149/myb-transcription-factor-isolated-from-raphanus-sativus-enhances-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-chrysanthemum-cultivars
#5
Eun Sun Kee, Aung Htay Naing, Sun Hyung Lim, Jeung Sul Han, Chang Kil Kim
A MYB transcription factor gene, RsMYB1, from radish was introduced into the chrysanthemum cultivars 'Peach ND', 'Peach Red', and 'Vivid Scarlet' under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Presence of RsMYB1 in transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of reverse-transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of RsMYB1 was stable in all transgenic lines and could enhance the expression levels of three key biosynthetic genes (F3H, DFR, and ANS) involved in anthocyanin production...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329021/comparison-of-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-an-anthocyanin-rich-fraction-from-portuguese-blueberries-vaccinium-corymbosum-l-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-in-a-tnbs-induced-colitis-rat-model
#6
Sónia R Pereira, Rita Pereira, Isabel Figueiredo, Victor Freitas, Teresa C P Dinis, Leonor M Almeida
Despite the actual therapeutic approaches for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), efficient and secure alternative options remain a research focus. In this context, anthocyanins seem promising natural anti-inflammatory agents, but their action mechanisms and efficacy as compared with established drugs still require more clarification. The main aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory action of a chemically characterized anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), obtained from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327625/early-metabolic-and-transcriptional-variations-in-fruit-of-natural-white-fruited-fragaria-vesca-genotypes
#7
Katja Härtl, Alisandra Denton, Katrin Franz-Oberdorf, Thomas Hoffmann, Melanie Spornraft, Björn Usadel, Wilfried Schwab
Strawberry fruits (Fragaria vesca) are valued for their sweet fruity flavor, juicy texture, and characteristic red color caused by anthocyanin pigments. To gain a deeper insight into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we performed comparative metabolite profiling and transcriptome analyses of one red-fruited and two natural white-fruited strawberry varieties in two tissues and three ripening stages. Developing fruit of the three genotypes showed a distinctive pattern of polyphenol accumulation already in green receptacle and achenes...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327127/effects-of-vitellaria-paradoxa-c-f-gaertn-aqueous-leaf-extract-administration-on-salmonella-typhimurium-infected-rats
#8
Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Sedric Donald Tala, Lunga Paul Keilah, Norbert Kodjio, Mefokou Didiane Yemele, Armel Herve Kamdje Nwabo, Bridget Nji-Kah, Joseph Tchoumboue, Donatien Gatsing
BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the effects of Vitellaria paradoxa crude extract administration on Salmonella typhimurium infected Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were infected by single dose oral administration of Salmonella typhimurium (1.5×10(8) CFU). Negative control groups were infected and treated orally with distilled water (vehicle), neutral control group were not infected, while the four test groups were treated up to 18 days with 55 mg/kg, 110 mg/kg, 220 mg/kg and 440 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of V...
March 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318977/aromatic-decoration-determines-the-formation-of-anthocyanic-vacuolar-inclusions
#9
Kalyani Kallam, Ingo Appelhagen, Jie Luo, Nick Albert, Huaibi Zhang, Simon Deroles, Lionel Hill, Kim Findlay, Øyvind M Andersen, Kevin Davies, Cathie Martin
Anthocyanins are some of the most widely occurring secondary metabolites in plants, responsible for the orange, red, purple, and blue colors of flowers and fruits and red colors of autumn leaves. These pigments accumulate in vacuoles, and their color is influenced by chemical decorations, vacuolar pH, the presence of copigments, and metal ions. Anthocyanins are usually soluble in the vacuole, but in some plants, they accumulate as discrete sub-vacuolar structures. Studies have distinguished intensely colored intra-vacuolar bodies observed in the cells of highly colored tissues, termed anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs), from more globular, membrane-bound anthocyanoplasts...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317851/mdhir-proteins-repress-anthocyanin-accumulation-by-interacting-with-the-mdjaz2-protein-to-inhibit-its-degradation-in-apples
#10
Ke-Qin Chen, Xian-Yan Zhao, Xiu-Hong An, Yi Tian, Dan-Dan Liu, Chun-Xiang You, Yu-Jin Hao
In higher plants, jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins negatively regulate the biosynthesis of anthocyanins by interacting with bHLH transcription factors. However, it is largely unknown if and how other regulators are involved in this process. In this study, the apple MdJAZ2 protein was characterized in regards to its function in the negative regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and peel coloration. MdJAZ2 was used as a bait to screen a cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid method. The hypersensitive induced reaction (HIR) proteins, MdHIR2 and MdHIR4, were obtained from this yeast two-hybrid...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317780/structural-physicochemical-and-biological-properties-of-spray-dried-wine-powders
#11
Agnieszka Wilkowska, Agata Czyżowska, Wojciech Ambroziak, Janusz Adamiec
Different fruit wines, chokeberry, blackcurrant and blueberry, were spray-dried using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and inulin (IN). The structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of the spray-dried wine powders were studied over 12months of storage in darkness at 8°C. Identification and quantification of single phenolic compounds before and after storage revealed that HP-β-CD had a positive effect on anthocyanin retention during storage for all microcapsules tested. Similar decreases in anthocyanin were found for blackcurrant and chokeberry powders, ranging from 7...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317759/the-effects-of-gallic-ferulic-caffeic-acids-on-colour-intensification-and-anthocyanin-stability
#12
Bing-Jun Qian, Jian-Hua Liu, Shu-Juan Zhao, Jian-Xiong Cai, Pu Jing
The mechanism by which copigments stabilize colour, by protecting anthocyanin chromophores from nucleophilic attack, seems well accepted. This study was to determine effects of gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids on colour intensification and anthocyanin stability. Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to explore molecular interactions. Phenolic acids intensified the colour by 19%∼27%. Colour fading during heating followed first-order reactions with half-lives of 3.66, 9.64, 3.50, and 3.39h, whereas anthocyanin degradation, determined by the pH differential method (or HPLC-PDA), followed second-order reactions with half-lives of 3...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317753/bioactive-amines-and-phenolic-compounds-in-cocoa-beans-are-affected-by-fermentation
#13
Brenda de Nazaré do Carmo Brito, Renan Campos Chisté, Rosinelson da Silva Pena, Maria Beatriz Abreu Gloria, Alessandra Santos Lopes
Cocoa is the target of increased scientific research as it is one of the richest source of bioactive compounds. The formation of bioactive amines and their changes in cocoa beans during seven days of traditional fermentation was investigated for the first time. In addition, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins contents and the scavenging capacity against ABTS radical were determined to monitor the fermentation process. Only two biogenic amines (tryptamine and tyramine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were detected in cocoa beans during fermentation...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317736/evaluation-of-phenolic-profile-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-gluten-free-flours
#14
Gabriele Rocchetti, Giulia Chiodelli, Gianluca Giuberti, Francesco Masoero, Marco Trevisan, Luigi Lucini
The characterization of phenolic fingerprints in common gluten-free flours is still scarce. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity and the entire phenolic profile were investigated for extracts from chickpea, sorghum, quinoa, black rice, lentil, amaranth, brown rice, oat and white rice flours, using soft wheat flour as a comparison. The highest phenolic content was found in black rice, followed by quinoa extracts (147.9 and 87.2mg gallic acid equivalents 100g(-1), respectively). Consistently, antioxidant capacity was highest in black rice and quinoa flours (34mmol trolox equivalents 100g(-1)), while anthocyanins were highest in black rice flour...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317281/comparison-of-dietary-polyphenols-for-protection-against-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-cell-model-of-steatosis
#15
Hossein Rafiei, Kosar Omidian, Brian Bandy
SCOPE: Dietary polyphenols have shown promise in protecting the liver against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The relative effectiveness and mechanisms of different polyphenols however is mostly unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a model of steatosis using HepG2 hepatocytes, we evaluated the protective effects of different classes of polyphenols and the contributing mechanisms. Treatment of the cells with oleic acid increased ROS generation and expression of TNFα, decreased expression of UCP2 and decreased mitochondrial content and markers of biogenesis...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315776/cleistocalyx-nervosum-var-paniala-berry-fruit-protects-neurotoxicity-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis
#16
Monruedee Sukprasansap, Pithi Chanvorachote, Tewin Tencomnao
Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses cause neuronal damage leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala (CNP) berry fruit has been shown to possess powerful antioxidant properties. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of CNP extract against glutamate-mediated oxidative/ER stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. CNP extract was clarified for its radical scavenging activities, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents. The key anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside was used as a marker to standardize the extract used in the study...
March 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315000/polyphenol-metabolism-in-differently-colored-cultivars-of-red-currant-ribes-rubrum-l-through-fruit-ripening
#17
Zala Zorenc, Robert Veberic, Darinka Koron, Silvija Miosic, Olly Sanny Hutabarat, Heidi Halbwirth, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Rare red currants colors caused by low anthocyanin content in the pink and a lack of anthocyanins in the white cultivar correlated with low ANS gene expression, enzyme activity, and increased sugar/acid ratios. Changes in the contents of polyphenols, sugars, and organic acids in berries of the three differently colored Ribes rubrum L. cultivars ('Jonkheer van Tets', 'Pink Champagne', and 'Zitavia') were determined by LC-MS and HPLC at 4 sampling times during the last month of fruit ripening. The activities of the main flavonoid enzymes, chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase (CHS/CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and the expression of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were additionally measured...
March 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304234/antimutagenic-evaluation-of-traditional-medicinal-plants-from-south-america-peumus-boldus-and-cryptocarya-alba-using-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Erico R Carmona, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Jorge Parodi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau
Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303711/phenolic-elderberry-extracts-anthocyanins-procyanidins-and-metabolites-influence-glucose-and-fatty-acid-uptake-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#19
Giang Thanh Thi Ho, Eili Tranheim Kase, Helle Wangensteen, Hilde Barsett
Uptake of glucose and fatty acids in skeletal muscle is of interest for type 2 diabetes treatment. The aim was to study glucose and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle cells, antioxidant effects, and inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes by elderberries. Enhanced glucose and oleic acid uptake in human skeletal muscle cells were observed after treatment with phenolic elderberry extracts, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and their metabolites. The 96% EtOH and the acidified MeOH extracts were highly active...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303392/lettuce-flavonoids-screening-and-phenotyping-by-chlorophyll-fluorescence-excitation-ratio
#20
Marek Zivcak, Klaudia Brückova, Oksana Sytar, Marian Brestic, Katarina Olsovska, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev
Environmentally induced variation and the genotypic differences in flavonoid and phenolic content in lettuce can be reliably detected using the appropriate parameters derived from the records of rapid non-invasive fluorescence technique. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio method was designed as a rapid and non-invasive tool to estimate the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in plants. Using this technique, we have assessed the dynamics of accumulation of flavonoids related to developmental changes and environmental effects...
March 16, 2017: Planta
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