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Geeta Yadav, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Parul Parihar, Sanjesh Tiwari, Sheo Mohan Prasad
In order to know the impact of elevated level of UV-B on arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 plants, certain physiological (growth - root and shoot lengths, their fresh masses and leaf area; photosynthetic competence and respiration) and biochemical parameters (pigments - Chl a and b, Car, anthocyanin and flavonoids; reactive oxygen species - superoxide radicals, H2O2; reactive carbonyl group, electrolyte leakage; antioxidants - superoxide dismutase, peroxidise, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, proline) of their seedlings were analysed under the simultaneous exposures of two arsenic doses (6mgkg(-1) soil, As1; and 12mgkg(-1) soil, As2) and two UV-B doses (1...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Antonio Di Matteo, Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
BACKGROUND: Characterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Cheng-Yong Feng, Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Fei Ye, Shan-Shan Li, Qian Wu, Dan-Dan Yin, Bing Li, Yan-Jun Xu, Liang-Sheng Wang
Vaccinium glaucoalbum, a perennial evergreen shrub, is naturally distributed in high-altitude areas. In this study, the composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit and leaf of V. glaucoalbum were characterized. In total, 24 chemical compounds were detected and identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). Among all the compounds determined, 15 were anthocyanins and detected in fruit, 5 were flavonols and monitored in leaf, and 4 were chlorogenic acids and found in both fruit and leaf. The total anthocyanin content (TAC) of fruit (682mg/100gFW) was the highest among wild Vaccinium berries in China which have been investigated for now, and the total flavonol content of leaf was 2764mg/100gFW...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Estrella Espada-Bellido, Marta Ferreiro-González, Ceferino Carrera, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso, Gerardo F Barbero
New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Nafiye Adak, Nursel Heybeli, Can Ertekin
The effects of different drying conditions, such as infrared power, drying air temperature and velocity, on quality of strawberry were evaluated. Drying time decreased with increased infrared power, air temperature and velocity. An increase in power from 100W to 300W, temperature from 60 to 80°C and velocity from 1.0m.s(-1) to 2.0m.s(-1) decreased fruit color quality index. For total phenol and anthocyanin content, 300W, 60°C, and 1.0m.s(-1) were superior to the other experimental conditions. The drying processes increased N, P and K and decreased Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Leanne Smith, Rosalind J Miller, Danielle I McCarthy, Jonathan A Farrimond, Wendy L Hall
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yancui Huang, Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt M Burton-Freeman
Strawberries, rich in anthocyanins, attenuate meal-induced postprandial increases in inflammation and oxidative stress as well as improved post-meal insulin responses. While previous studies have focused on the health effects of strawberry consumption ingested with a meal, this study aimed to determine if consuming strawberries at alternative times near a meal would influence meal-induced oxidative-immuno-metabolic outcomes. Fourteen overweight healthy adults participated in a 3-arm, single-blinded, crossover clinical trial delivering a strawberry drink at 1 of 3 different time points: 2 hours before a standard meal, with the meal, or 2 hours after the meal...
October 20, 2016: Food & Function
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shuxun Liu, Shaoyang Wang, Guanshen Yuan, Xiaoyu Ouyang, Yaran Liu, Baoqing Zhu, Bolin Zhang
This study investigated the evolution of phenolic compounds of bog bilberry syrup wine during a bottle-aging process, and further estimated the oak chip treatment on the wine color alteration. The wine was macerated with oak chips (2 or 5 g/L under light or medium toasting level) for 20 d and then bottle-aged for 6 mo. Results showed that the oak chip treatment significantly increased the content of phenolic compounds and enhanced the copigmented anthocyanin level before aging. It also resulted in an increase on a(*) and C(*) but a decrease on L(*) , b(*) , and H(*) of the wine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Hui Zhao, Jiang-Fei Meng, Yu-Lin Fang
The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Oon Ha Shin, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
BACKGROUND: The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. RESULTS: The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Eun-Sun Hwang, Nhuan Do Thi
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Urtzi Leibar, Inmaculada Pascual, Fermín Morales, Ana Aizpurua, Olatz Unamunzaga
BACKGROUND: Global warming influence on grape quality is a great concern among grapegrowers and enologists. The effects of simulated year 2100 expected CO2 , T and RH conditions (FCC; 700 µmol CO2 /mol air, 28/18 °C day/night and 33/53% RH, day/night) vs. the current condition situation (Curr; 390 µmol CO2 /mol air, 24/14 °C and 45/65% RH); well-irrigated vs. expected future water deficits and three soils with different clay contents (41, 19 and 8%) on yield and berry quality of grapevine cv...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Carmen Crespo, Francesco Visioli
Some epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension. Also, high consumption of anthocyanin-rich fruit, such as berries, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this review, we briefly yet critically assess the available evidence in support of an anti-diabetic role of anthocyanins derived from berries, especially bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry and blaeberry) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, native to the United States)...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hubert Antolak, Agata Czyzowska, Dorota Kregiel
The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V...
2016: BioMed Research International
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Nicole Regier, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Vera I Slaveykova, Claudia Cosio
The hypothesis that increased UV radiation result in co-tolerance to Hg toxicity in aquatic plants was studied at the physiological and transcriptomic level in Elodea nuttallii. At the transcriptomic level, combined exposure to UV+Hg enhanced the stress response in comparison with single treatments, affecting the expression level of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, nutrition, and redox homeostasis. Single and combined UV and Hg treatments dysregulated different genes but with similar functions, suggesting a fine regulation of the plant to stresses triggered by Hg, UV and their combination but lack of co-tolerance...
October 6, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Tomasz Sozański, Alicja Z Kucharska, Andrzej Rapak, Dorota Szumny, Małgorzata Trocha, Anna Merwid-Ląd, Stanisław Dzimira, Tomasz Piasecki, Narcyz Piórecki, Jan Magdalan, Adam Szeląg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular benefits of fruits are attributed mainly to their (poly)phenolic constituents, especially anthocyanins. The main aim of our study is to compare effects of iridoids and anthocyanins from one fruit on diet-induced atherosclerosis. The cornelian cherry is a native or cultivated plant that grows in many European countries, used in cuisine and folk medicine. In our previous study, we showed its constituents and proved that oral administration of lyophilized fruits to hypercholesterolemic rabbits had preventive effects on atherosclerosis through the activation of PPARα expression...
October 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Chaoyang Hu, Quanlin Li, Xuefang Shen, Sheng Quan, Hong Lin, Lei Duan, Yifa Wang, Qian Luo, Guorun Qu, Qing Han, Yuan Lu, Dabing Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Jianxin Shi
Elucidation of the metabolic pathways determining pigmentation and their underlying regulatory mechanisms in maize kernels is of high importance in attempts to improve the nutritional composition of our food. In this study, we compared dynamics in the transcriptome and metabolome between colored SW93 and white SW48 by integrating RNA-Seq and non-targeted metabolomics. Our data revealed that expression of enzyme coding genes and levels of primary metabolites decreased gradually from 11 to 21 DAP, corresponding well with the physiological change of developing maize kernels from differentiation through reserve accumulation to maturation, which was cultivar independent...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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