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Skin protection

Junhui Zhang, Dongxia Zhang, Tiantian Yan, Xupin Jiang, Can Zhang, Liping Zhao, Lingfei Li, Di Tang, Qiong Zhang, Jiezhi Jia, Jiaping Zhang, Yuesheng Huang
The migration of keratinocytes from wound margins plays a critical role in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Hypoxia occurs immediately after injury and acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing processes. Although our previous studies have revealed that hypoxia promotes keratinocyte migration, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we found that BNIP3 expression was up-regulated in hypoxic keratinocytes, and BNIP3 silencing suppressed hypoxia-induced cell migration. Additionally, hypoxia activated the FAK pathway through up-regulation of BNIP3, while FAK inhibition attenuated hypoxic keratinocyte migration...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Qing Liu, Dinghong Wu, Ling Han, Jingwen Deng, Li Zhou, Rui He, Chuanjian Lu, Qing-Sheng Mi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by the dysfunction of keratinocytes, with the immune dysregulation. We reviewed the recent studies on the roles of miRNAs in psoriasis, and showed that miRNAs play key roles in psoriasis, including the regulation of hyperproliferation, cytokine and chemokine production in keratinocyte, as well as mediating immune dysfunction in psoriasis...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S Nayak, P K Lenka, A Equebal, A Biswas
Up to now, a cosmetic glove was the most common method for managing transmetacarpal (TMC) and carpometacarpal (CMC) amputations, but it is devoid of markings and body color. At this amputation level, it is very difficult to fit a functional prosthesis because of the short available length, unsightly shape, grafted skin, contracture and lack of functional prosthetic options. A 30-year-old male came to our clinic with amputation at the 1st to 4th carpometacarpal level and a 5th metacarpal that was projected laterally and fused with the carpal bone...
September 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
L Hepburn, D J Hijnen, B R Sellman, T Mustelin, M A Sleeman, R D May, I Strickland
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Naoto Fujii, Brendan D McNeely, Glen P Kenny
β-adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, however, the mechanisms underpinning this response remains unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that 1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and 2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with 1) lactated Ringer's (control), 2) 10 mm L -NNA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor, 3) 10 mM ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or 4) a combination of L -NNA and ketorolac...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Chi-Hung R Or, Hong-Lin Su, Wee-Chyan Lee, Shu-Yi Yang, Cheesang Ho, Chia-Che Chang
Melanoma is the most aggressive skin malignancy with a high rate of mortality and is frequently refractory to many therapeutics, thus demanding the discovery of novel effective anti-melanoma agents. Diphenhydramine (DPH) is an H1 histamine receptor antagonist and a relatively safe drug. Previous studies have revealed the in vitro cytotoxicity of DPH against melanoma cells, but the mechanisms involved concerning its cytotoxicity and the in vivo anti-melanoma effect remain unknown. We herein present the first evidence supporting that DPH is selectively proapoptotic for a panel of melanoma cell lines irrespective of BRAFV600E status while sparing normal melanocytes...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
Petr Handlos, Marek Dokoupil, Marie Staňková, Marek Joukal, Igor Dvořáček, Matěj Uvíra, Margita Smatanová
PURPOSE: In this paper we present a case report of two people who were found dead in a holiday cottage after a fire. The cause of death in these cases was clarified by the presence of blood in the left pleural cavity in both bodies. METHODS: An inspection of the bodies at the scene of the fire and subsequent examination by a medical examiner suggested the deaths were accidental. RESULTS: An autopsy showed that the bodies were those of a man and a woman with severe carbonization of the skin, soft tissues, brain, and some organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities...
October 25, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Heba Alhmidi, Sreelatha Koganti, Myreen E Tomas, Jennifer L Cadnum, Annette Jencson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Simulations using fluorescent tracers can be useful in understanding the spread of pathogens and in devising effective infection control strategies. METHODS: During simulated patient care interactions in which providers wore gloves and gowns, we evaluated environmental and personnel dissemination of fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 from a contaminated mannequin. The frequency of skin and clothing contamination after removal of personal protective equipment (PPE) was compared before versus after an intervention that included education and practice in PPE donning and doffing...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mantas Grigalavicius, Marina Juraleviciute, Mateusz Kwitniewski, A Juzeniene
BACKGROUND: Senescent cells, which are resistant to apoptosis, accumulate with age and after ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Preventing or eliminating senescent cells may be crucial for protection against skin cancer development and improving tumour treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce senescence in skin cancer cells and to eliminate senescent cells induced by chemotherapy (bleomycin) or UVA (315-400nm) exposure...
October 21, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Simona De Summa, Michele Guida, Stefania Tommasi, Sabino Strippoli, Cristina Pellegrini, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Brunella Pilato, Iole Natalicchio, Gabriella Guida, Rosamaria Pinto
Multiple primary melanoma (MPM) is a rare condition, whose genetic basis has not yet been clarified. Only 8-12% of MPM are due to germline mutations of CDKN2A. However, other genes (POT1, BRCA1/2, MC1R, MGMT) have been demonstrated to be involved in predisposition to this pathology.To our knowledge, this is the first family study based on two siblings with the rare coexistence of MPM and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the absence or decrease in pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Jörg Fischer, Bernadette Eberlein, Christiane Hilger, Florian Eyer, Stephanie Eyerich, Markus Ollert, Tilo Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Antivenoms are mammalian immunoglobulins with the ability to neutralize snake venom components and to mitigate the progression of toxic effects. Immediate hypersensitivity to antivenoms often occurs during the first administration of these heterologous antibodies. A comparable clinical situation occurred after introduction of cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human antibody, for cancer treatment. The carbohydrate epitope galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, located on the Fab region of cetuximab, was identified as the target responsible for IgE reactivity...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
F Bath-Hextall, S Nalubega, C Evans
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. This is an update of a previous review published in 2010 that identified only two studies and found that the needs and experiences of individuals with skin cancer were under-researched. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a qualitative systematic review of the needs and experiences of people with a diagnosis of skin cancer. METHODS: As an update of a previous review, the following databases were searched from 2010 to 30/11/15: CINAHL PsycINFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Sanjay K Agarwal, Dipankar Bhowmik, Sandeep Mahajan, Soumita Bagchi
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipient (RTR). Immunosuppressive drugs are one of the most important risk factor for post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB). A paucity of data exists about the impact of the type of calcineurin inhibitor on PTTB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all adult patients on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression were included. Patients receiving TB chemoprophylaxis were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Manickam Sugumaran, Hanine Barek
Animals synthesize melanin pigments for the coloration of their skin and use it for their protection from harmful solar radiation. Insects use melanins even more ingeniously than mammals and employ them for exoskeletal pigmentation, cuticular hardening, wound healing and innate immune responses. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of melanogenesis process occurring in higher animals and insects. A special attention is given to number of aspects that are not previously brought to light: (1) the molecular mechanism of dopachrome conversion that leads to the production of two different dihydroxyindoles; (2) the role of catecholamine derivatives other than dopa in melanin production in animals; (3) the critical parts played by various biosynthetic enzymes associated with insect melanogenesis; and (4) the presence of a number of important gaps in both melanogenic and sclerotinogenic pathways...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Tiejun Chen, Hu Hou, Yan Fan, Shikai Wang, Qianru Chen, Leilei Si, Bafang Li
Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes skin photoaging. This study was undertaken to identify the anti-photoaging mechanisms of gelatin hydrolysate (CH) derived from pacific cod skin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA assays were used to investigate the effects of CH on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the signaling pathways after UV irradiation by using a mice skin photoaging model. The average molecular weight of CH was 1200Da, and 273/1000 residues were hydrophobic, Gly-Pro and Gly-Leu sequences and Arg at C-terminus appeared frequently in CH...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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