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HPV treatment

Sarikapan Wilailak, Nuttapong Lertchaipattanakul
Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
L-C Horn, C E Brambs, R Handzel, S Lax, I Sändig, D Schmidt, K Schierle
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2014 differentiates between different subtypes of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A gastric subtype was recently described that showed no association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, has a poor prognosis, is mainly diagnosed in women of Asian origin and can occur in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although no clear grading system has been recommended in the WHO classification, it is likely that grading of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix will partly be based on the different patterns of invasion...
October 20, 2016: Der Pathologe
Anil Prasad, Nagina Khudaynazar, Ramana V Tantravahi, Amanda M Gillum, Benjamin S Hoffman
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Treatment failure, drug resistance and chemoradiation toxicity have necessitated the development of alternative treatment strategies. Styryl benzyl sulfones, a family of novel small molecule inhibitors, are being evaluated as anti-neoplastic agents in multiple clinical trials. The activity of these compounds has been well characterized in several preclinical tumor studies, but their activity has yet to be fully examined in HNSCC...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Adriana Tarlá Lorenzi, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Maíra Degiovani Stein, Julio Cesar Possati Resende, Márcio Antoniazzi, Luisa Lina Villa, José Eduardo Levi, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of the HPV16/18-E6 test. METHODS: The study population was comprised of 448 women with a previously abnormal Pap who were referred to the Barretos Cancer Hospital (Brazil) for diagnosis and treatment. Two cervical samples were collected immediately before colposcopy, one for the hr-HPV-DNA test and cytology and the other for the HPV16/18-E6 test using high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Women with a histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 were considered to be positive cases...
2016: PloS One
Shokrollah Zandi, Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh, Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi, Fardin Gharibi
BACKGROUND: Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells' infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Jacqueline R Kelly, Zain A Husain, Barbara Burtness
Increasingly, squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC) is attributable to transformation resulting from high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Such cancers are significantly more responsive to treatment than traditional tobacco- and alcohol-associated squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Conventional management with definitive chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant radiation, or radiation given with altered fractionation schemes, while effective, incurs long-term morbidity that escalates with treatment intensity and significantly impairs quality of life...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Jessica Meshman, Pin-Chieh Wang, Robert Chin, Maie St John, Elliot Abemayor, Sunita Bhuta, Allen M Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of p16 expression among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (LSCC) and hypopharynx (HSCC). METHODS: The medical records of all patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic LSCC/HSCC were reviewed. p16(INK4A) (p16) protein expression was evaluated on pathological specimens by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC)...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) remains a less common gastrointestinal malignancy despite a continued increase in the annual incidence in the United States and globally. The vast majority of all cases are attributed to persistent infection and integration into host cell DNA by human papillomavirus (HPV). For patients with metastatic anal cancer, there is currently no accepted consensus standard of care. Given the viral etiology associated with the oncogenesis of this tumor, great interest exists for the development of immunotherapy as a novel approach to improving clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with this disease...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Kathrin Günther, Ronja Foraita, Juliane Friemel, Frauke Günther, Jörn Bullerdiek, Rolf Nimzyk, Dominique Nadine Markowski, Thomas Behrens, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is involved in stem cell renewal and is expressed in many tumor tissues. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) comprise tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and are characterized by high recurrence rates that represent a challenge to patient management. The study addresses the potential of HMGA2 as a molecular biomarker for HNSCC patient survival. METHODS: Patients with HNSCC of the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, or oral cavity were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study (n=202)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ester Miralpeix, Jordi Genovés, Josep Maria Solé-Sedeño, Gemma Mancebo, Belen Lloveras, Beatriz Bellosillo, Francesc Alameda, Ramon Carreras
p16(INK4a) (p16) tumor-suppressor protein is a biomarker of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic activity that has revealed a high rate of positivity in histological high-gade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (HSIL/CIN2) lesions. However, there is a paucity of data regarding p16 status as a surrogate marker of HSIL/CIN2 evolution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of HSIL/CIN2 patients followed up without treatment for 12 months according to p16 immunohistochemical staining...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
R L Ferris, J L Geiger, S Trivedi, N C Schmitt, D E Heron, J T Johnson, S Kim, U Duvvuri, D A Clump, J E Bauman, J P Ohr, W E Gooding, A Argiris
BACKGROUND: Treatment intensification for resected, high-risk, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an area of active investigation with novel adjuvant regimens under study. In this trial, the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) pathway was targeted using the IgG2 monoclonal antibody panitumumab in combination with cisplatin chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in high-risk, resected HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients included resected pathologic stage III or IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, or human-papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharynx, without gross residual tumor, featuring high-risk factors (margins <1 mm, extracapsular extension, perineural or angiolymphatic invasion, or ≥2 positive lymph nodes)...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Devinder M Thappa, Minu J Chiramel
Cutaneous and genital warts are common dermatological conditions caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Although it is a benign condition, it causes disfigurement, has a tendency to koebnerize, and can be transmitted to others. This makes adequate and timely treatment important. There are several conventional treatments available with variable response. Topical and systemic immunotherapy has now found a significant place in the treatment of warts because of its nondestructive action, ease of use, and promising results...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Gregory J Diorio, Anna R Giuliano
Penile cancer is a rare and devastating disease, especially at advanced stages. The etiology of penile cancer is multifactorial with multiple established risk factors including infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Approximately 40% of penile cancers are attributable to HPV, although the literature describing HPV as a prognostic factor is mixed. The pathogenesis of HPV infection as well as vaccination practices may provide valuable therapeutic agents to treat this rare and difficult disease.
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Nicole G Campos, Monisha Sharma, Andrew Clark, Jane J Kim, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: PloS One
Hazem Mahmoud Al-Mandeel, Emad Sagr, Khalid Sait, Hassan Mohamed Latifah, Abdulaziz Al-Obaid, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Abdulmohsen O Alkushi, Hany Salem, Nada S Massoudi, Holger Schunemann, Reem A Mustafa, Romina Brignardello-Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecological malignancy in Saudi women with an estimated incidence rate of 1.9 cases per 100 000 women-years. More than 40% of cervical cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages due to lack of a routine screening program in Saudi Arabia. Thus, national guidelines for routine screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are needed. METHODS: The Saudi Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare invited a panel of local experts and partnered them with a team from McMaster University in Canada for methodological support, to develop national clinical practice guidelines on the screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer...
September 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
Ekaterina Dimitrova Bojilova, Christine Weyn, Marie-Hélène Antoine, Véronique Fontaine
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to render HPV-carrying cells susceptible to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals. As such, these epigenetic drugs have entered clinical trials in the effort to treat cervical cancer. Here, we studied the effect of common HDACi, with an emphasis on Trichostatin A (TSA), on the transcriptional activity of the HPV-16 Long Control Region (LCR) in order to better understand the impact of these agents in the context of the HPV life cycle and infection. HDACi strongly induced transcription of the firefly luciferase reporter gene under the control of the HPV-16 LCR in a variety of cell lines...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Hisham Mehanna
In this chapter, we discuss de-esclation of treatment for patients with HPV-positive disease. We discuss the rationale for de-escalation (why de-escalate?), patient selection criteria (who to de-esclate?) and what the treatment options for de-esclation are and the studies that are currently being run in those areas (how to de-escalate?). We stress the importance of clinicians NOT changing the management of oropharyngeal cancer patients outside clinical trials, and encourage them to recruit to the ongoing studies...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
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