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Hepatitis A

D Vardakostas, C Damaskos, N Garmpis, E A Antoniou, K Kontzoglou, G Kouraklis, D Dimitroulis
OBJECTIVE: Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hyuck Jun Jung, Myoung Jin Ho, Sungwan Ahn, Young Taek Han, Myung Joo Kang
The oral bioavailability of entecavir (EV), an anti-viral agent commonly prescribed to treat hepatitis B infections, is drastically reduced under a post-prandial state. This is primarily due to its low permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. To reduce the food effect on the intestinal absorption of the nucleotide analogue, four lipidic prodrugs were synthesized via the esterification of the primary alcohol of EV with fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, and dodecanoic acid). EV-3-dodecanoate (or EV-C12) exhibited high solubility in a fed state simulated intestinal fluid (78...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yi Jhen Wu, Yu Chiuan Wu, I-Fen Chen, Yi-Lung Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Han Hsiang Huang, Shyh Ming Kuo
Astaxanthin (Asta), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been reported to be a strong antioxidative agent and has anti-inflammatory, antitumor and free radical-scavenging activities. However, inadequate stability and water solubility results in its low bioavailability. This study incorporated Asta into hydrophilic hyaluronan nanoparticles (HAn) to produce Asta-HAn aggregates (AHAna) using an electrostatic field system and investigated the restorative effects of AHAna on retrorsine-CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis in rats in vivo...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Na Huang, Fanpu Ji, Shu Zhang, Yansong Pu, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yuanyuan Ji, Wei Wei, Jun Yang, Zongfang Li
Emerging evidences showed the promoting role of spleen in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the context of portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In this study, we tried to explore the precise mechanism of how spleen regulates this process from the serum cytokines profile level. Compared with the 16 healthy subjects, the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array identified 136 cytokines differentially expressed in 36 cirrhotic patients. Splenectomy resulted in significant changes in 28 cytokines...
March 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
Preeti Pandey, Mahfoozur Rahman, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Sarwar Beg, Basudev Paul, Abdul Hafeez, Fahad A Al-Abbasi, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Othman Baothman, Firoz Anwar, Vikas Kumar
AIM: The present work describes the development of poly(lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) of rutin (RT) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: RT-loaded PLGA NPs (RT-PLGA-NPs) were prepared by double emulsion evaporation method. Further these are optimized by Box-Behnken design. PLGA NPs were evaluated for size, polydispersity index, drug-loading capacity, entrapment, gastric stability, in vitro drug release, in vivo preclinical studies and biochemical studies...
March 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
Zahra Fakhroueian, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mehdi Assmar, Alireza Massiha, Afshin Zahedi, Pegah Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh Katouzian, Sara Rezaei, Peyman Keyhanvar, Alireza Mozafari Dehshiri
Nanoformulations derived from fine porous ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) can offer strong potential medical applications; especially in cancer therapy. ZnO QD NPs was synthesized by sol-gel hydrothermal process, fast cold quenching and further smart surface functionalization methods to obtain ultrasmall size (1-4 nm) NPs. ZnO nanopolymer, a wetting agent, PEG co-solvent and water/oil emulsion stabilizer were considered in our nanofluid formulation. The resulting nanofluid was characterized by SEM, FTIR, photoluminescence, band gap energy, zeta potential and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
March 22, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Juliana Paula Bruch Bertani, Bruna Cherubini Alves, Laura Alencastro de Azevedo, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Valesca Dall'Alba
INTRODUCTION: Occidental diet and metabolic profile seems to increase hepatic fibrosis (HF) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is scarce information about the diet components and their role in this setting. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the dietary intake, metabolic profile, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic HCV infection according to the presence of fibrosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study which 58 patients with HCV infection without active antiviral therapy and non-cirrhotic were assessed...
January 11, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
José Luis Martínez-Rodríguez, Rosalinda Gutiérrez-Hernández, Claudia Araceli Reyes-Estrada, Angelica Judith Granados-López, Tatiana Arcos-Ortega, Jesús Adrián López
The metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the organism forms products that cause cell death depending on the type of exposure. Benzene exposure has been linked to oxidative stress, hepatic damage, aplastic anemia and hematopoietic cancer as lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. However, there are not fast methods to evaluate chronically benzene exposure in human blood. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the correlation between oxidative damage with benzene exposure and the level of Cellular Plasma Membrane Stability (CPMS) in erythrocytes to use it as a future indicator to determine the grade of benzene intoxications...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Anselm Wong, Benjamin Cheung, Charlotte Nejad, Michael Gantier, Andis Graudins
CASE DETAILS: A 19-year-old girl presented to the emergency department following overdose of 10 g of paracetamol on a background history of cystic fibrosis. Paracetamol concentration was below the nomogram line, but was treated with acetylcysteine seven hours post-overdose given her symptomatology. Nineteen hours following her overdose she developed hepatotoxicity, despite early initiation of acetylcysteine. She was discharged well six days post-ingestion. On presentation, delta miRNA-122-miR483 was 20 times that of control patients, however, alanine aminotransferase was normal...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
M Fernández-Prada, O D Rodríguez-Fonseca, A M Brandy-García, P Alonso-Penanes, I Huerta-González, F Fernández-Noval
OBJECTIVE: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases associated morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HBV has been shown to be the most effective method to prevent this situation. Standard vaccination schemes used in this population do not appear to be effective enough. The objective is to identify the response rate following the use of AS04C-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in HIV patients as well as the possible associated adverse reactions...
March 19, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Xinxin Tian, Hui Zhang, Yali Zhao, Khalid Mehmood, Xiaoxing Wu, Zhenyu Chang, Min Luo, Xueting Liu, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Donghai Zhou
Chromium (Cr) is one of the most important environmental pollutants which are released into the environment due to their wide usage in numerous industries. The excess of Cr (VI) can induce hepatotoxicity, while the molecular mechanism that is involved in Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. We demonstrated the induction of chromium poisoning model in chickens to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and their functions were analyzed under different physiological and pathological conditions...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dyre Kleive, Mushegh A Sahakyan, Ammar Khan, Bjarte Fosby, Pål-Dag Line, Knut Jørgen Labori
PURPOSE: The incidence of intraoperative arterial injury during pancreatectomy is not well described. This study aims to evaluate the incidence, management, and outcome of arterial injuries during pancreatectomy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 1535 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatectomy between 2006 and 2016 at Oslo University Hospital. The type of arterial injury and potential contributing factors were analyzed. Short-term outcomes were compared between patients with arterial injury and patients undergoing a planned arterial resection due to tumor involvement...
March 21, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
S Rajesh, Amar Mukund, Binit Sureka, Kalpana Bansal, Maxime Ronot, Ankur Arora
Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) comprises a group of diseases that are characterized by increased portal pressure in the absence of cirrhosis of the liver. It may arise as a result of either primary hepatic disease or the effects of systemic disorders on liver. The natural course of NCPH is largely indolent and benign with an overall better outcome than cirrhosis, as long as the complications of portal hypertension are properly managed and regular surveillance is carried out. However, due to the numerous and variable etiological factors and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, this entity is under-recognized clinically as well as pathologically and often gets mislabeled as cryptogenic cirrhosis...
March 21, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Sarah Boudova, Katrina Mark, Samer S El-Kamary
Current guidelines recommend only hepatitis C virus (HCV) risk-based screening during pregnancy. We examined screening practices at a major medical center and found inconsistent risk-based screening and the presence of HCV among women with no known risk factors. We make a case for the implementation of universal HCV screening during pregnancy.
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Claudia J Harrison, Rachna Patel, Clint Gray, Clare M Reynolds
Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl), high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl) or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl) diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sunyoung Lee, Matthew Loecher, Renuka Iyer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fastest growing malignancy in the United States in relation to mortality. HCC relies on a complex immunosuppressive network to modify the host immune system and evade destruction. Intrinsic to the liver's function and anatomy, native hepatic and immune cells produce many inhibitory cytokines that promote tolerogenicity and limit immune response. Since the introduction of sorafenib in 2008, no treatment has been able to demonstrate improved survival in patients with advanced HCC post disease progression treated with sorafenib...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Madalyn G Neuwirth, Andrew J Epstein, Giorgos C Karakousis, Ronac Mamtani, E Carter Paulson
Background: Evidence suggests that resection of synchronous hepatic metastases (SHM) in stage IV colon cancer is safe and can improve survival in select patients. Little is known, however, about the use of hepatic resection in this setting on a population level. The aim of this study was to describe trends in resection rates of SHM in patients with stage IV colon cancer using a large national cohort database. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed of stage IV colon cancer patients during 2000-2011 in Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare data who had diagnosis codes confirming SHM...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Inamullah Khan Achakzai, Zain Majid, Muhammad Ali Khalid, Shoaib Ahmed Khan, Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Nasir Hassan Luck
A 13-year-old boy, known case renal stone disease came with the complaints of abdominal pain along with low grade fever. On examination, hepatosplenomegaly was noted while his lab reports showed a low hemoglobulin with a raised ESR. His blood and urine cultures showed no growth. Viral markers, autoimmune profile, C and p ANCA were all negative apart from a raised serum IgG level. Ultrasound abdomen showed a hyperechoic liver with an enlarged spleen along with splenic varices and minimum ascites. Ultrasound hepatic doppler was normal...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Maryam Karkhane, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Pedram Azimzadeh, Hasti Avarandeh, Shabnam Kazemian, Afsaneh Sharifian, Behzad Hatami, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei
Aim: Our goal was to identify the putative association of rs4072111 variant in IL-16 gene and HCV susceptibility in an Iranian population. Background: Interleukin 16 (IL-16), a multifunctional cytokine, plays a vital role in modulation of immune system. Methods: In present case control and cross sectional study, IL-16 gene variant in 300 patients with hepatitis C (HCV) infection and 300 healthy individuals were analyzed. To evaluate this possible association, genomic DNA from venous blood was extracted and genotypes of IL-16 rs4072111 variant were determined by polymerase chain reaction- Fragments Length Polymorphism Technique (PCR-RFLP)...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
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