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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449129/phenotypic-differences-determine-drought-stress-responses-in-ecotypes-of-arundo-donax-adapted-to-different-environments
#1
Mastaneh Ahrar, Dilyana Doneva, Massimiliano Tattini, Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Mirco Rodeghiero, Georg Wohlfahrt, Franco Biasioli, Claudio Varotto, Francesco Loreto, Violeta Velikova
Arundo donax has been identified as an important biomass and biofuel crop. Yet, there has been little research on photosynthetic and metabolic traits, which sustain the high productivity of A. donax under drought conditions. This study determined phenotypic differences between two A. donax ecotypes coming from stands with contrasting adaptation to dry climate. We hypothesized that the Bulgarian (BG) ecotype, adapted to drier conditions, exhibits greater drought tolerance than the Italian (IT) ecotype, adapted to a more mesic environment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448568/inhibitory-effects-of-fenretinide-metabolites-n-4-methoxyphenyl-retinamide-mpr-and-4-oxo-n-4-hydroxyphenyl-retinamide-3-keto-hpr-on-fenretinide-molecular-targets-%C3%AE-carotene-oxygenase-1-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-and-dihydroceramide-%C3%AE-4-desaturase-1
#2
Eugenia Poliakov, William Samuel, Todd Duncan, Danielle B Gutierrez, Nathan L Mata, T Michael Redmond
The therapeutic capacity of fenretinide (N-[4-hydroxyphenyl] retinamide; 4-HPR) has been demonstrated for several conditions, including cancer, obesity, diabetes, and ocular disease. Yet, the mechanisms of action for its pleiotropic effects are still undefined. We hypothesized that investigation of two of the major physiological metabolites of fenretinide, N-[4-methoxyphenyl]retinamide (MPR) and 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (3-keto-HPR), might begin to resolve the multifaceted effects of this synthetic retinoid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447344/short-term-treatments-with-high-co2-and-low-o2-concentrations-on-quality-of-fresh-goji-berries-lycium-barbarum-l-during-cold-storage
#3
Mina Kafkaletou, Miltiadis V Christopoulos, Eleni Tsantili
BACKGROUND: Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) are functional fruits, but usually disposed to markets as dried. The aim, here, was to investigate the storability of fresh goji berries treated with high CO2 and low O2 concentrations before air storage at 1 °C for 21 d. RESULTS: Berries harvested without stems were exposed to air (controls) or treated for 2 d at 1 °C with the following controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments: 21% O2 + 0% CO2 (21 + 0), 5% O2 + 15% CO2 (5 + 15), 10% O2 + 10% CO2 (10 + 10) and 20% O2 + 20% CO2 (20 + 20)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445831/carotenoids-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-complications-a-mechanistic-review
#4
REVIEW
Ali Roohbakhsh, Gholamreza Karimi, Mehrdad Iranshahi
Carotenoids are a large class of natural antioxidants that occur in many vegetables, foods and other natural sources. To date, a large number of biological properties have been reported from carotenoids, particularly protective effects against diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, and neurodegenerative, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies including clinical evidences, have shown that carotenoids play a role in the treatment of diabetes via enhancing insulin sensitivity. They are also able to protect the body from long-term consequences of diabetes including infectious diseases, nephropathy, neuronal and eye abnormalities...
April 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445599/growth-engineering-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-for-mixotrophy-under-natural-light-conditions-for-improved-feedstock-production
#5
Aditya Sarnaik, Reena Pandit, Arvind Lali
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has been widely explored as cyanobacterial cell factory through genetic modifications for production of various value-added compounds. However, successful industrial scale-ups have not been reported for the system predominantly due to its obligate photoautotrophic metabolism and use of artificial light in photobioreactors. Hence, engineering the organism to perform mixotrophy under natural light could serve as an effective solution. Thus, we applied a genetically engineered strain of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 expressing heterologous hexose transporter gene (galP) to perform mixotrophy under natural light in a temperature controlled environmental chamber (EC)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444589/ripening-improves-the-content-of-carotenoid-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-fruits
#6
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Ahmad Jawid Zamany, Young-Soo Keum
The tomato fruits during different stages of ripening have been extensively characterized for nutritionally important bioactives; however, changes in fatty acid composition are not available. Thus, in the present study, changes in fatty acid, along with carotenoid and α-tocopherol, were studied during the six stages of ripening. Fruits were harvested at the green, breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages, which occurred at means of 30, 35, 40, 46, 50, and 55 days after anthesis (DAE), respectively...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444444/bioinformatic-and-expression-analyses-on-carotenoid-dioxygenase-genes-in-fruit-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses-in-fragaria-vesca
#7
Yong Wang, Guanqun Ding, Tingting Gu, Jing Ding, Yi Li
Carotenoid dioxygenases, including 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), can selectively cleave carotenoids into various apocarotenoid products that play important roles in fleshy fruit development and abiotic stress response. In this study, we identified 12 carotenoid dioxygenase genes in diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca, and explored their evolution with orthologous genes from nine other species. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the NCED and CCDL groups moderately expanded during their evolution, whereas gene numbers of the CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8 groups maintained conserved...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443112/transcriptome-guided-mining-of-genes-involved-in-crocin-biosynthesis
#8
Aijia Ji, Jing Jia, Zhichao Xu, Ying Li, Wu Bi, Fengming Ren, Chunnian He, Jie Liu, Kaizhi Hu, Jingyuan Song
Gardenia jasminoides is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has drawn attention as a rich source of crocin, a compound with reported activity against various cancers, depression and cardiovascular disease. However, genetic information on the crocin biosynthetic pathway of G. jasminoides is scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the leaves, green fruits, and red fruits of G. jasminoides to identify and predict the genes that encode key enzymes responsible for crocin production, compared with Crocus sativus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440717/serum-carotenoid-interactions-in-premenopausal-women-reveal-%C3%AE-carotene-is-negatively-impacted-by-body-fat
#9
Emily Taylor Nuss, Ashley R Valentine, Zhumin Zhang, HuiChuan Jennifer Lai, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Increasing body mass indices (BMIs) across the globe reflect pandemic shifts towards habitual positive energy imbalances. Excess body fat in individuals is often associated with high-energy and high-fat diets scanty in fresh produce. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. They are well-known for provitamin A and antioxidant functions, but little research has been done related to carotenoid-body mass interactions. Serum carotenoids were analyzed relative to body fat to determine correlations between major serum carotenoids, retinol, BMI, fat mass, and lean mass...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440398/lycopene-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-adhesion-molecule-expression-through-nrf2-mediated-heme-oxygenase-1-in-endothelial-cells
#10
Po-Min Yang, Huang-Zhi Chen, Yu-Ting Huang, Chia-Wen Hsieh, Being-Sun Wung
The endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules plays a leading role in atherosclerosis. Lycopene, a carotenoid with 11 conjugated double bonds, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we demonstrate a putative mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. We demonstrate that lycopene inhibits the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppresses the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) at the transcriptional level...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436168/effects-of-nitrogen-fertilizer-and-harvesting-stage-on-photosynthetic-pigments-and-phytol-contents-of-italian-ryegrass-silage
#11
Renlong Lv, Mabrouk El-Sabagh, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino, Yuzo Kurokawa, Kensuke Kawamura
This study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and harvesting stage on the contents of chlorophyll, phytol and carotenoids (β-carotene and lutein) in Italian ryegrass herbage before and after ensiling, and the extent of phytol preservation after ensiling. Three rates of N fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha) were applied by top-dressing as an additional fertilizer. The herbage harvested at booting stage (27 weeks of age) or heading stage (29 weeks of age) were wilted for 1 day, then ensiled for 60 days using a small-scale pouch system...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433904/biodegradation-of-naproxen-by-freshwater-algae-cymbella-sp-and-scenedesmus-quadricauda-and-the-comparative-toxicity
#12
Tengda Ding, Kunde Lin, Bo Yang, Mengting Yang, Juying Li, Wenying Li, Jay Gan
Naproxen is one of the most prevalent pharmaceuticals and of great environment concern. Information about bioremediation of naproxen by algae remains limited and no study has been reported on the degradation mechanism and the toxicity of NPX on algae. In this study, both Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed complete growth inhibition (100%) at 100mgL(-1) within 24h. Biochemical characteristics including chlorophyll a, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities for these two microalgae were affected by NPX at relatively high concentrations after 4d of exposure...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431432/contrast-sensitivity-and-lateral-inhibition-are-enhanced-with-macular-carotenoid-supplementation
#13
James M Stringham, Kevin J O'Brien, Nicole T Stringham
Purpose: Once deposited in the retina, the so-called macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and mesozeaxanthin (MZ) have been shown to enhance visual performance. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether increasing macular pigment optical density (MPOD) could enhance lateral inhibitory processes, and thereby improve contrast sensitivity (CS). Methods: A total of 59 young (18-25 years), healthy individuals participated in this 1-year, double-masked, placebo-controlled study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431132/revealing-the-biochemical-and-genetic-basis-of-colour-variation-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#14
Claire A McLean, Adrian Lutz, Katrina J Rankin, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adnan Moussalli
Determining the mechanistic and genetic basis of animal coloration is essential to understand the costs and constraints on colour production, and the evolution and maintenance of phenotypic variation. However, genes underlying structural colour and widespread pigment classes apart from melanin remain largely uncharacterised, in part due to restricted taxonomic focus. We combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq gene expression analyses to characterise the pigments and genes associated with skin colour in the polymorphic lizard, Ctenophorus decresii...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429324/photomovement-in-euglena
#15
Donat-P Häder, Mineo Iseki
Motile microorganisms such as the green Euglena gracilis use a number of external stimuli to orient in their environment. They respond to light with photophobic responses, photokinesis and phototaxis, all of which can result in accumulations of the organisms in suitable habitats. The light responses operate synergistically with gravitaxis, aerotaxis and other responses. Originally the microscopically obvious stigma was thought to be the photoreceptor, but later the paraxonemal body (PAB, paraflagellar body) has been identified as the light responsive organelle, located in the trailing flagellum inside the reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428855/conditions-on-the-mexican-moulting-grounds-influence-feather-colour-and-carotenoids-in-bullock-s-orioles-icterus-bullockii
#16
Kaitlin L Sparrow, Kingsley K Donkor, Nancy J Flood, Peter P Marra, Andrew G Pillar, Matthew W Reudink
Carotenoid-based plumage coloration plays a critical role for both inter- and intrasexual communication. Habitat and diet during molt can have important consequences for the development of the ornamental signals used in these contexts. When molt occurs away from the breeding grounds (e.g., pre-alternate molt on the wintering grounds, or stopover molt), discerning the influence of habitat and diet can be particularly important, as these effects may result in important carryover effects that influence territory acquisition or mate choice in subsequent seasons...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428797/silicon-regulates-antioxidant-activities-of-crop-plants-under-abiotic-induced-oxidative-stress-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad Waqas, In-Jung Lee
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil, where its availability to plants can exhilarate to 10% of total dry weight of the plant. Si accumulation/transport occurs in the upward direction, and has been identified in several crop plants. Si application has been known to ameliorate plant growth and development during normal and stressful conditions over past two-decades. During abiotic (salinity, drought, thermal, and heavy metal etc) stress, one of the immediate responses by plant is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1)O2), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause severe damage to the cell structure, organelles, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426167/characterization-the-carotenoid-productions-and-profiles-of-three-rhodosporidium-toruloides-mutants-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation
#18
Xinping Lin, Ning Gao, Sasa Liu, Sufang Zhang, Shuang Song, Chaofan Ji, Xiuping Dong, Yichen Su, Zongbao Kent Zhao, Beiwei Zhu
The red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is a known lipid producer capable of accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols and carotenoids. However, it remains challenging to study its carotenoid production profiles due to limited biochemical information and inefficient genetic tools. Here we used an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to change its carotenoid production and profiles. We constructed R. toruloides NP11 mutant libraries with ATMT, selected 3 mutants with different colors, characterized their carotenoid products by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis, and assured differences among those strains in terms of carotenoid production and its composition profiles...
April 20, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425969/the-pharmacological-effects-of-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-on-visual-disorders-and-cognition-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Yu-Ping Jia, Lei Sun, He-Shui Yu, Li-Peng Liang, Wei Li, Hui Ding, Xin-Bo Song, Li-Juan Zhang
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are dietary carotenoids derived from dark green leafy vegetables, orange and yellow fruits that form the macular pigment of the human eyes. It was hypothesized that they protect against visual disorders and cognition diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), age-related cataract (ARC), cognition diseases, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanism by which they are involved in the prevention of eye diseases may be due their physical blue light filtration properties and local antioxidant activity...
April 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425836/development-and-validation-of-a-multi-analyte-method-for-the-regulatory-control-of-carotenoids-used-as-feed-additives-in-fish-and-poultry-feed
#20
Ursula Vincent, Federica Serano, Christoph von Holst
Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method was developed that can be applied to the determination of all 10 carotenoids currently authorised within the European Union for compound feedingstuffs...
April 24, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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