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Carotenoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333389/influence-of-cooking-methods-on-bioactive-compound-content-and-antioxidant-activity-of-brussels-sprouts
#1
Eun-Sun Hwang
The effects of different cooking methods on total bioactive compound content were determined, and in vitro antioxidant activity in 80% ethanolic extracts of Brussels sprouts was evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. Compared to uncooked, steamed, and microwaved Brussels sprouts extracted with 80% ethanol contained higher amounts of total polyphenols. Uncooked Brussels sprouts contained the highest amounts of total flavonoids. Microwaved Brussels sprouts contained the highest amounts of total carotenoids (0...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333048/astaxanthin-ameliorates-hepatic-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-carbon-tetrachloride-administered-rats
#2
Md Ariful Islam, Md Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Faruk, Md Tauhid Ul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, A F M Towheedur Rahman, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Ashraful Alam
Background: Astaxanthin is of carotenoids group which possess strong antioxidant properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of astaxanthin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: Female Long-Evans rats were administered with CCl4 orally (1 ml/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were treated with astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) every day for 2 weeks. Blood plasma samples were isolated from each group and were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329851/chemical-characterization-of-myrciaria-floribunda-h-west-ex-willd-fruit
#4
Luciana Mouta de Oliveira, Alexandre Porte, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy, Marcelo da Costa Souza, Sidney Pacheco, Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araujo Santiago, Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa, Luzimar da Silva de Mattos do Nascimento, Renata Galhardo Borguini
M. floribunda fruit was studied to characterize its chemical composition. The chemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and volatiles of the fruit were determined. The chemical composition was determined according to AOAC and AOCS, the bioactive compounds by HPLC, the volatiles by GCMS and the antioxidant activity by ABTS+ and DPPH methods. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried fruit was 1.89 g·100 g-1, 2.43 g·100 g-1, 4.78 g·100 g-1 and 90.89 g·100 g-1 of ashes, lipids, proteins and total carbohydrates on a dry base, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329235/a-review-of-the-biological-activities-of-microalgal-carotenoids-and-their-potential-use-in-healthcare-and-cosmetic-industries
#5
REVIEW
Ramaraj Sathasivam, Jang-Seu Ki
Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits...
January 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328999/discovery-of-novel-piperonyl-derivatives-as-diapophytoene-desaturase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#6
Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Shuaishuai Ni, Feifei Chen, Baoli Li, Xiaoxia Qiu, Linghao Hu, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Inhibition of S. aureus diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) could serve as an alternative approach for addressing the tricky antibiotic resistance by blocking the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment which shields the bacterium from host oxidant killing. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 derivatives with piperonyl scaffold targeting CrtN and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were examined extensively to bring out the discovery of 21b with potent efficacy and better hERG safety profile compared to the first class CrtN inhibitor benzocycloalkane derivative 2...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325120/strigolactone-biosynthesis-genes-of-rice-is-required-for-the-punctual-entry-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-into-the-roots
#7
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324670/dietary-carotenoid-intakes-and-prostate-cancer-risk-a-case-control-study-from-vietnam
#8
Dong Van Hoang, Ngoc Minh Pham, Andy H Lee, Duong Nhu Tran, Colin W Binns
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk. A sample of 652 participants (244 incident prostate cancer patients, aged 64-75 years, and 408 age frequency-matched controls) were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013-2015. The habitual diet was ascertained with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and other factors including demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed via face-to-face interviews by trained nurses...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321980/transcriptome-sequencing-and-de-novo-assembly-in-arecanut-areca-catechu-l-elucidates-the-secondary-metabolite-pathway-genes
#9
Ramaswamy Manimekalai, Smita Nair, A Naganeeswaran, Anitha Karun, Suresh Malhotra, V Hubbali
Areca catechu L. belongs to the Arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. The palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. The lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. To gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. A total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of 11.343 Gb nucleotides were generated...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321687/impact-of-biofortified-maize-consumption-on-serum-carotenoid-concentrations-in-zambian-children
#10
Amanda C Palmer, Neal E Craft, Kerry J Schulze, Maxwell Barffour, Justin Chileshe, Ward Siamusantu, Keith P West
Biofortified maize, designed as an intervention strategy to prevent vitamin A deficiency, can provide upwards of 15 μg β-carotene per g dry weight. Some varieties also have elevated concentrations of other carotenoids. We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled feeding trial in rural Zambia to test the impact of daily consumption of biofortified maize over a 6-month period on vitamin A status. Serum concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data on circulating carotenoids by intervention group in 679 children are reported here...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319322/role-of-ring-ortho-substituents-on-the-configuration-of-carotenoid-polyene-chains
#11
Minsoo Kim, Hyunuk Jung, Albert C Aragonès, Ismael Díez-Pérez, Kwang-Hyun Ahn, Wook-Jin Chung, Dahye Kim, Sangho Koo
The 9-(Z)-configuration was exclusively obtained in the carotenoid polyene chain irrespective of olefination and disconnection methods for terminal ortho-unsubstituted benzene rings. The 2,6-dimethyl substituents in the terminal rings secure an all-(E)-polyene structure. The single molecular conductance of the pure 9-(Z)-carotene was measured for the first time to be 1.53 × 10-4 ± 6.37 × 10-5G0, whose value was 47% that of the all-(E)-carotene ((3.23 × 10-4) ± (1.23 × 10-4) G0).
January 10, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319312/induced-high-yield-production-of-zeaxanthin-lutein-and-%C3%AE-carotene-by-a-mutant-of-chlorella-zofingiensis
#12
Weiping Huang, Yan Lin, Mingxia He, Yuhao Gong, Junchao Huang
Natural resources of zeaxanthin are extremely limited. A Chlorella zofingiensis mutant (CZ-bkt1), which could accumulate high amounts of zeaxanthin, was generated and characterized. CZ-bkt1 was achieved by treating the algal cells with a chemical mutagen followed by a colour-based colony screening approach. CZ-bkt1 was found to consist of a dysfunctional carotenoid ketolase, leading to the accumulation of zeaxanthin rather than its downstream ketocarotenoid astaxanthin. Light irradiation, glucose, NaCl, and nitrogen deficiency all induced CZ-bkt1 to accumulate zeaxanthin...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318197/metabolic-engineering-for-the-microbial-production-of-isoprenoids-carotenoids-and-isoprenoid-based-biofuels
#13
REVIEW
Fu-Xing Niu, Qian Lu, Yi-Fan Bu, Jian-Zhong Liu
Isoprenoids are the most abundant and highly diverse group of natural products. Many isoprenoids have been used for pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, flavors, cosmetics, food additives and biofuels. Carotenoids and isoprenoid-based biofuels are two classes of important isoprenoids. These isoprenoids have been produced microbially through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts. Herein, we briefly review the engineered biosynthetic pathways in well-characterized microbial systems for the production of carotenoids and several isoprenoid-based biofuels...
September 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317006/secular-trends-in-regional-differences-in-nutritional-biomarkers-and-self-reported-dietary-intakes-among-american-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-1988-1994-to-2009-2010
#14
Ashima K Kant, Barry I Graubard
OBJECTIVE: To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. DESIGN: Observational. SETTING: The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010...
January 10, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316673/transcriptome-analysis-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-astaxanthin-induction-by-high-light-with-acetate-and-fe2
#15
Bangxiang He, Lulu Hou, Manman Dong, Jiawei Shi, Xiaoyun Huang, Yating Ding, Xiaomei Cong, Feng Zhang, Xuecheng Zhang, Xiaonan Zang
Haematococcus pluvialis is a commercial microalga, that produces abundant levels of astaxanthin under stress conditions. Acetate and Fe2+ are reported to be important for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. In order to study the synergistic effects of high light stress and these two factors, we obtained transcriptomes for four groups: high light irradiation (HL), addition of 25 mM acetate under high light (HA), addition of 20 μM Fe2+ under high light (HF) and normal green growing cells (HG). Among the total clean reads of the four groups, 156,992 unigenes were found, of which 48...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316612/association-between-diet-quality-scores-adiposity-total-cholesterol-and-markers-of-nutritional-status-in-european-adults-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#16
Rosalind Fallaize, Katherine M Livingstone, Carlos Celis-Morales, Anna L Macready, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Cyril F M Marsaux, Clare B O'Donovan, Silvia Kolossa, George Moschonis, Marianne C Walsh, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Jildau Bouwman, Yannis Manios, Miroslaw Jarosz, J Alfredo Martinez, Hannelore Daniel, Wim H M Saris, Thomas E Gundersen, Christian A Drevon, Michael J Gibney, John C Mathers, Julie A Lovegrove
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis...
January 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315977/maize-w3-disrupts-homogentisate-solanesyl-transferase%C3%A2-zmhst-and-reveals-a-plastoquinone-9-independent-path-for-phytoene-desaturation-and-tocopherol-accumulation-in-kernels
#17
Charles T Hunter, Jonathan W Saunders, Maria Magallanes-Lundback, Shawn A Christensen, Denis Willett, Philip S Stinard, Qin-Bao Li, Kwanghee Lee, Dean DellaPenna, Karen E Koch
Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has been used to study carotenoid deficiency for almost 100 years, although the molecular basis of the mutation has remained unknown. Here we show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruption of the maize gene for homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), which catalyzes the first and committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis in the plastid. The resulting PQ-9 deficiency prohibits photosynthetic electron transfer and eliminates PQ-9 as an oxidant in the enzymatic desaturation of phytoene during carotenoid synthesis...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313753/compared-to-an-oatmeal-breakfast-two-eggs-day-increased-plasma-carotenoids-and-choline-without-increasing-trimethyl-amine-n-oxide-concentrations
#18
Amanda Missimer, Maria Luz Fernandez, Diana M DiMarco, Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: Habitual consumption of eggs has been hypothesized to positively modify biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk through proposed antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine this relationship, 50 young, healthy men and women were enrolled into a randomized crossover clinical intervention. METHODS: Participants consumed either 2 eggs per day or one packet of oatmeal a day for 4 weeks, followed by a 3-week wash-out and crossed over to the alternate breakfast...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311592/carotenoid-metabolism-strengthens-the-link-between-feather-coloration-and-individual-quality
#19
Ryan J Weaver, Eduardo S A Santos, Anna M Tucker, Alan E Wilson, Geoffrey E Hill
Thirty years of research has made carotenoid coloration a textbook example of an honest signal of individual quality, but tests of this idea are surprisingly inconsistent. Here, to investigate sources of this heterogeneity, we perform meta-analyses of published studies on the relationship between carotenoid-based feather coloration and measures of individual quality. To create color displays, animals use either carotenoids unchanged from dietary components or carotenoids that they biochemically convert before deposition...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310039/accumulation-and-toxicity-of-organochlorines-in-green-microalgae
#20
Jozef Kováčik, Vojtěch Antoš, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Sławomir Dresler, Pavel Hrabák, Luigi Mondello
Toxicity of mine dump effluent containing five hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β, γ, δ and ε-HCH, sum 159.4 μg/L) and two trichlorobenzene (TCB, sum 65.2 μg/L) isomers to two microalgae (Scenedesmus quadricauda and Coccomyxa subellipsoidea) was studied over 24 h exposure and also with 2- and 10-fold diluted stock solution (i.e. 1×, 0.5× and 0.1× strength). Individual isomers revealed rather dose-dependent accumulation typically higher in Scenedesmus than in Coccomyxa (max. sum of HCH 14.99 μg/g DW with bioaccumulation factor 94) and δ-HCH was dominant isomer...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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