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Arts and Health

Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Madhukar Pai, Mark P Nicol, Catharina C Boehme
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Carlos F Cáceres, Annick Borquez, Jeffrey D Klausner, Rachel Baggaley, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Souleymane Sawadogo, Boniface Makumbi, Anne Purfield, Christophine Ndjavera, Gram Mutandi, Andrew Maher, Francina Kaindjee-Tjituka, Jonathan E Kaplan, Benjamin J Park, David W Lowrance
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies...
2016: PloS One
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Martin Kuete, HongFang Yuan, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Emmanuel Ancel Songo, Fan Yang, XiuLan Ma, ChengLiang Xiong, HuiPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Qingyan Ma, Lai Sze Tso, Zachary C Rich, Brian J Hall, Rachel Beanland, Haochu Li, Mellanye Lackey, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. METHODS: We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Abebe Megerso, Sileshi Garoma
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) service scaling up has been practiced in the Ethiopia since 2006. Regardless of increasing number of primary health care centers providing the service, the existing hospitals are still overcrowded with ART service seeking patients may be because of the common belief that treatment outcome is better for hospital patients than those treated at the primary health centers. However, documented evidence comparing the treatment outcome for the two categories of health facilities is scarce in the study setting...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented a national ART scale-up program at public and private health facilities between 2004 and 2009. Little is known about how and why some health facilities have sustained ART programs and why others have not sustained these interventions. The objective of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of ART programs at six health facilities in Uganda which received donor support to commence ART between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: A case-study approach was adopted...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mojtaba Farjam, Hossein Bahrami, Ehsan Bahramali, Javad Jamshidi, Alireza Askari, Habibollah Zakeri, Reza Homayounfar, Hossein Poustchi, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality even in rural areas of many developing countries, including Iran. In view of this increased risk, Fasa Cohort Study (FACS) has been established to assess the risk factors for NCDs with the ultimate goal of providing optimal risk calculators for Iranian population and finding grounds for interventions at the population level. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, at least 10,000 people within the age range of 35 to 70 years old from Sheshdeh, the suburb of Fasa city and its 24 satellite villages are being recruited...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
André S Pupo, J Adolfo García-Sáinz
G protein-coupled receptors are sensors that interact with a large variety of elements, including photons, ions, and large proteins. Not surprisingly, these receptors participate in the numerous normal physiologic processes that we refer to as health and in its perturbations that constitute disease. It has been estimated that a large percentage of drugs currently used in therapeutics target these proteins, and this percentage is larger when illegal drugs are included. The state of the art in this field can be defined with the oxymoron "constant change," and enormous progress has been made in recent years...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Ana Torrens, Patricia Bartholomay, Silvano Silva, Mohammed Khogali, Kristien Verdonck, Karen Bissell
Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB), as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and favorable TB treatment outcomes...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ong-Art Phruetthiphat, Michael Willey, Matthew D Karam, Yubo Gao, Brian O Westerlind, J Lawrence Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To compare patients with acetabular fractures that are isolated (acetabular fracture alone) and acetabular fracture presenting with additional non-acetabular injury using functional outcomes, complications, and readmissions. DESIGN: Retrospective review SETTING:: Level 1 Trauma CenterPatients/Participants: 215 patients underwent open surgical treatment for acetabular fracture between 2003 and 2012 with age ≥18 years and minimum one year follow-up inclusive of functional scores and complications...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Nélia C Mestre, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais, Maria João Bebianno
Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates)...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Anjum Hajat, Miranda R Jones, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Amanda Gassett, Lianne Sheppard, Martha L Daviglus, Sara D Adar
The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information...
September 2016: Global Heart
Edwin Wouters, Frederik le Roux Booysen, Caroline Masquillier
Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority...
2016: PloS One
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