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Medical imaging

Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
M Martínez-García, J Vargas-Barrón, F Bañuelos-Téllez, H González-Pacheco, C Fresno, E Hernández-Lemus, M A Martínez-Ríos, M Vallejo
OBJECTIVE: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has an important economic burden that poised the urgent need to evaluate its catastrophic medical expense. This study evaluates the first 5 years of the national health initiative called Popular Insurance (PI) at the National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: STEMI patients with (n=317) and without (n=260) PI were selected. Analysed variables included socio-economical context, management care, cost evaluation and three outcomes (mortality, hospital readmission and therapeutic adherence)...
March 13, 2018: Public Health
P Stefan, M Pfandler, P Wucherer, S Habert, J Fürmetz, S Weidert, E Euler, U Eck, M Lazarovici, M Weigl, N Navab
Surgical simulators are being increasingly used as an attractive alternative to clinical training in addition to conventional animal models and human specimens. Typically, surgical simulation technology is designed for the purpose of teaching technical surgical skills (so-called task trainers). Simulator training in surgery is therefore in general limited to the individual training of the surgeon and disregards the participation of the rest of the surgical team. The objective of the project Assessment and Training of Medical Experts based on Objective Standards (ATMEOS) is to develop an immersive simulated operating room environment that enables the training and assessment of multidisciplinary surgical teams under various conditions...
March 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Christopher J Rendina
Purpose: To present a case that benefited from utilizing hyperbaric oxygen therapy in conjunction with antibiotics for a non-healing mandibular fracture that was highly suspicious of osteomyelitis. Also, to discuss research set forth by Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society that supports the use hyperbaric oxygen in such cases. Case: A 25-year-old male status post fist to face resulting in bilateral mandibular fracture. He underwent two surgeries in an attempt to plate the fracture with the assistance of a bone graft...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Daisuke Nakashima, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Saki Ito, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Vertebral fractures commonly occur at the thoracolumbar junction. These fractures can be treated with mild residual deformity in many cases, but are reportedly associated with increased risk of secondary vertebral fractures. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3D) whole spine model was constructed using the finite element method to explore the mechanism of development of compression fractures. The 3D model of the whole spine, from the cervical spine to the pelvis, was constructed from computed tomography (CT) images of an adult male...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Filip Čtvrtlík, Pavel Koranda, Jan Schovánek, Jozef Škarda, Igor Hartmann, Zbyněk Tüdös
The topic of pheochromocytomas is becoming increasingly popular as a result of major advances in different medical fields, including laboratory diagnosis, genetics, therapy, and particularly in novel advances in imaging techniques. The present review article discusses current clinical, biochemical, genetic and histopathological aspects of the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and planning of pre-surgical preparation and subsequent surgical treatment options. The main part of the paper is focused on the role of morphological imaging methods (primarily computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional imaging (scintigraphy and positron emission tomography) in the diagnosis and staging of pheochromocytomas...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiangsheng Xie, Huichang Zhuang, Hexiang He, Xiaoqing Xu, Haowen Liang, Yikun Liu, Jianying Zhou
Human ability to visualize an image is usually hindered by optical scattering. Recent extensive studies have promoted imaging technique through turbid materials to a reality where color image can be restored behind scattering media in real time. The big challenge now is to recover objects in a large field of view with depth resolving ability. Based on the existing research results, we systematically study the physical relationship between speckles generated from objects at different planes. By manipulating a given single point spread function, depth-resolved imaging through a thin scattering medium can be extended beyond the original depth of field (DOF)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dezső Ribli, Anna Horváth, Zsuzsa Unger, Péter Pollner, István Csabai
In the last two decades, Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems were developed to help radiologists analyse screening mammograms, however benefits of current CAD technologies appear to be contradictory, therefore they should be improved to be ultimately considered useful. Since 2012, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been a tremendous success in image recognition, reaching human performance. These methods have greatly surpassed the traditional approaches, which are similar to currently used CAD solutions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Z Y Jia, L B Zhao, D H Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA is a feature of PHACE syndrome or a sporadic phenomenon. We evaluated the relationship between intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA and PHACE syndrome and illustrated the characteristic radiologic findings of the lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA was identified in 20 patients at our institution from 2005 to 2016 through a review of diagnostic cerebral angiography results...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Rosanne M Kho, Marina Paula Andres, Giuliano Moysés Borrelli, Joao Siufi Neto, Alan Zanluchi, Mauricio Simões Abrão
Treatment options for patients with different types of endometriosis - superficial, ovarian, or deep - vary depending on the clinical presentation. New findings in the recent years regarding the role of preoperative imaging, efficacy of medical therapy, and effect of surgery on ovarian reserve have changed the way we understand the disease and subsequently the way we treat our patients. Practicing clinicians frequently refer to published recommendations from major societies for treatment guidelines. This paper aims to present and compare the varying major society guidelines on the indications and best surgical treatment approach for the management of the different types of endometriosis...
February 16, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Ryan P Donahue, Andrew W Stamm, Robert P Gibbons, Christopher R Porter, Kathleen C Kobashi, John M Corman, Una J Lee
INTRODUCTION: The ureteral stent is engrained in the fabric of urologic practice. Virginia Mason Medical Center had a unique role in its development through the pioneering work of Dr. Robert Gibbons. Here, we review his contribution to the evolution of the modern ureteral stent. METHODS: We reviewed Dr. Gibbons' extensive work through primary sources, including interviews, projector slides, radiology images, stent prototypes, his personal writings and archived documents...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Ayesha Sohail, O A Bég, Zhiwu Li, Sebahattin Celik
The mathematics of imaging is a growing field of research and is evolving rapidly parallel to evolution in the field of imaging. Imaging, which is a sub-field of biomedical engineering, considers novel approaches to visualize biological tissues with the general goal of improving health. "Medical imaging research provides improved diagnostic tools in clinical settings and supports the development of drugs and other therapies. The data acquisition and diagnostic interpretation with minimum error are the important technical aspects of medical imaging...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
M A Alsalem, A A Zaidan, B B Zaidan, M Hashim, H T Madhloom, N D Azeez, S Alsyisuf
CONTEXT: Acute leukaemia diagnosis is a field requiring automated solutions, tools and methods and the ability to facilitate early detection and even prediction. Many studies have focused on the automatic detection and classification of acute leukaemia and their subtypes to promote enable highly accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review and analyse literature related to the detection and classification of acute leukaemia. The factors that were considered to improve understanding on the field's various contextual aspects in published studies and characteristics were motivation, open challenges that confronted researchers and recommendations presented to researchers to enhance this vital research area...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Sara Moccia, Elena De Momi, Sara El Hadji, Leonardo S Mattos
BACKGROUND: Blood vessel segmentation is a topic of high interest in medical image analysis since the analysis of vessels is crucial for diagnosis, treatment planning and execution, and evaluation of clinical outcomes in different fields, including laryngology, neurosurgery and ophthalmology. Automatic or semi-automatic vessel segmentation can support clinicians in performing these tasks. Different medical imaging techniques are currently used in clinical practice and an appropriate choice of the segmentation algorithm is mandatory to deal with the adopted imaging technique characteristics (e...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Xiaopeng Yang, Jae Do Yang, Hong Pil Hwang, Hee Chul Yu, Sungwoo Ahn, Bong-Wan Kim, Heecheon You
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The present study developed an effective surgical planning method consisting of a liver extraction stage, a vessel extraction stage, and a liver segment classification stage based on abdominal computerized tomography (CT) images. METHODS: An automatic seed point identification method, customized level set methods, and an automated thresholding method were applied in this study to extraction of the liver, portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein (HV) from CT images...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Eli Gibson, Wenqi Li, Carole Sudre, Lucas Fidon, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Guotai Wang, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Robert Gray, Tom Doel, Yipeng Hu, Tom Whyntie, Parashkev Nachev, Marc Modat, Dean C Barratt, Sébastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Tom Vercauteren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical image analysis and computer-assisted intervention problems are increasingly being addressed with deep-learning-based solutions. Established deep-learning platforms are flexible but do not provide specific functionality for medical image analysis and adapting them for this domain of application requires substantial implementation effort. Consequently, there has been substantial duplication of effort and incompatible infrastructure developed across many research groups...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Xiaopeng Yang, Jae Do Yang, Hee Chul Yu, Younggeun Choi, Kwangho Yang, Tae Beom Lee, Hong Pil Hwang, Sungwoo Ahn, Heecheon You
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. METHODS: The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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