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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340350/a-viral-immunoevasin-controls-innate-immunity-by-targeting-the-prototypical-natural-killer-cell-receptor-family
#1
Oscar A Aguilar, Richard Berry, Mir Munir A Rahim, Johanna J Reichel, Branka Popović, Miho Tanaka, Zhihui Fu, Gautham R Balaji, Timothy N H Lau, Megan M Tu, Christina L Kirkham, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Aruz Mesci, Astrid Krmpotić, David S J Allan, Andrew P Makrigiannis, Stipan Jonjić, Jamie Rossjohn, James R Carlyle
Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in innate immunity by detecting alterations in self and non-self ligands via paired NK cell receptors (NKRs). Despite identification of numerous NKR-ligand interactions, physiological ligands for the prototypical NK1.1 orphan receptor remain elusive. Here, we identify a viral ligand for the inhibitory and activating NKR-P1 (NK1.1) receptors. This murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded protein, m12, restrains NK cell effector function by directly engaging the inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339927/characterizing-the-early-inflammatory-contribution-of-the-donor-kidney-following-reperfusion
#2
John P Stone, Muna Mohamud, Kavit Amin, William R Critchley, Rebecca J Edge, Marc J Clancy, Alexandra L Ball, James E Fildes
Background.: Donor kidneys contain a large reservoir of passenger leucocytes that contribute to acute rejection via direct alloantigen presentation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, the early contribution of these cells following revascularization has not previously been described. We performed a secondary, high-volume preservation flush following cold storage to characterize the inflammatory contribution of the donor kidney upon reperfusion. Methods.: Porcine kidneys were retrieved using a protocol analogous to current UK clinical practice...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338101/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-inhibits-nkg2d-expression-in-natural-killer-cells-through-suppression-of-stat3-and-hdac3
#3
Lulu Ni, Lixin Wang, Chao Yao, Zhongya Ni, Fei Liu, Chenyuan Gong, Xiaowen Zhu, Xuewei Yan, Stephanie S Watowich, Dean A Lee, Shiguo Zhu
NKG2D is a major activating receptor of NK cells and plays a critical role in tumor immunosurveillance. NKG2D expression in NK cells is inhibited by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and enhanced by the narrow-spectrum HDAC inhibitor entinostat. We previously demonstrated that entinostat enhanced NKG2D transcription by increasing acetylation of Histones H3 and H4. However, the mechanism by which VPA reduces NKG2D expression in NK cells is not known. We have also shown that NKG2D transcription is regulated by STAT3 phosphorylation...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337749/branched-i%C3%A2-antigens-on-leukemia-cells-enhanced-sensitivity-against-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-through-affecting-the-target-effector-interaction
#4
Yen-Hua Lee, Yi-Jen Liao, Chin-Han Huang, Fu-Ling Chang, Ting-Hsi Fan, Yuh-Ching Twu
BACKGROUND: The aberrant glycosylation on proteins and lipids has been implicated in malignant transformations for promoting the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and evasion from the host immunity. The I-branching β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, converting the straight i to branched I histo-blood group antigens, reportedly could influence the migration, invasion, and metastasis of solid tumors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We first chose the highly cytotoxic natural killer (NK)-92MI cells as effector against leukemia for this cell line has been used in several clinical trials...
March 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337381/hla-e-inhibitor-enhances-the-killing-of-neuroblastoma-stem-cells-by-co-cultured-dendritic-cells-and-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-loaded-with-membrane-based-microparticles
#5
Zijun Zhen, Kaibin Yang, Litong Ye, Zhiyao You, Rirong Chen, Ying Liu, Youjian He
Neuroblastoma stem cells (NSCs) can cause drug resistance and tumor recurrence. This study aimed to enhance the lytic effect of dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. NSCs were obtained by suspension culture, and DC-CIK cells were loaded with extracted NSC membrane-based microparticles (MMPs) before evaluating the lytic effect of DC-CIK cells on NSCs. After inhibiting the function or expression of human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) in NSCs by anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibody or siRNA, the DC-CIK cell lytic effect on NSCs was re-assessed...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337208/natural-killer-cell-development-and-maturation-revisited-possible-implications-of-a-novel-distinct-lin-cd34-dnam-1-bright-cxcr4-cell-progenitor
#6
Federica Bozzano, Francesco Marras, Andrea De Maria
Since the first description of natural killer (NK) cells, the view on their role in innate immunity has evolved considerably. In addition to first-line defense against transformed and pathogen-infected autologous cells, NK cells contribute to modulate adaptive immune responses and in some cases acquire specialized functions, including exhausted, adaptive, and decidual NK cells. NK cells derive from CD34(+) progenitors, in vivo and in vitro; however, it is unclear whether the high phenotype diversity in vivo may be generated from these precursors alone...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337202/murine-cytomegalovirus-disrupts-splenic-dendritic-cell-subsets-via-type-i-interferon-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#7
William T Nash, Alyssa L Gillespie, Michael G Brown
Dendritic cells (DC) are well-known modulators of immunity. This heterogeneous population is composed of defined subsets that exhibit functional specialization and are critical in initiating responses to pathogens. As such, many infectious agents employ strategies to disrupt DC functioning in attempts to evade the immune system. In some instances, this manifests as an outright loss of these cells. Previous work has suggested that, in the absence of an efficient natural killer (NK) cell response, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) induces large amounts of interferon (IFN)-I...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337195/nk-cells-uncertain-allies-against-malaria
#8
REVIEW
Asia-Sophia Wolf, Samuel Sherratt, Eleanor M Riley
Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336729/platelets-killers-of-parasites-or-patients
#9
Craig N Morrell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335781/tailored-design-of-nkt-stimulatory-glycolipids-for-polarization-of-immune-responses
#10
REVIEW
Jung-Tung Hung, Jing-Rong Huang, Alice L Yu
Natural killer T (NKT) cell is a distinct population of T lymphocytes that can rapidly release massive amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon the engagement of their T cell receptor with glycolipids presented by CD1d. The secreted cytokines can promote cell-mediated immunity to kill tumor cells and intracellular pathogens, or suppress autoreactive immune cells in autoimmune diseases. Thus, NKT cell is an attractive target for developing new therapeutics to manipulate immune system. The best-known glycolipid to activate NKT cells is α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which has been used as a prototype for designing new NKT stimulatory glycolipids...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335588/recovery-of-nk-cd56-cd3-cells-after-1-year-of-tenofovir-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#11
Hwan Hee Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be dysfunctional in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. However, the functional recovery of NK cells was not clearly understood under anti-viral therapeutic agents in CHB. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic changes of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in terms of their functional markers (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2D) during tenofovir therapy in CHB. The frequency of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in CHB patients was significantly increased after 12 months of tenofovir therapy when compared to baseline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334733/mhc-class-i-chain-related-protein-a-and-b-mica-and-micb-are-predominantly-expressed-intracellularly-in-tumour-and-normal-tissue
#12
Hormas Ghadially, Lee Brown, Chris Lloyd, Leeanne Lewis, Arthur Lewis, Janette Dillon, Richard Sainson, Jelena Jovanovic, Natalie J Tigue, David Bannister, Lisa Bamber, Viia Valge-Archer, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MHC class I chain-related protein B (MICB) are polymorphic proteins that are induced upon stress, damage or transformation of cells which act as a 'kill me' signal through the natural-killer group 2, member D receptor expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes. MICA/B are not thought to be constitutively expressed by healthy normal cells but expression has been reported for most tumour types. However, it is not clear how much of this protein is expressed on the cell surface...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#13
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#14
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#15
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331999/the-acidic-microenvironment-as-a-possible-niche-of-dormant-tumor-cells
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Jessica Ruzzolini, Anna Laurenzana, Francesca Margheri, Gabriella Fibbi, Mario Del Rosso, Francesca Bianchini, Lido Calorini
Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called "minimal residual disease". Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as "cancer dormancy". Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331307/current-applications-and-future-prospects-of-nanomaterials-in-tumor-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Yu Huang, Chao-Qiang Fan, Hui Dong, Su-Min Wang, Xiao-Chao Yang, Shi-Ming Yang
Tumors are one of the most serious human diseases and cause numerous global deaths per year. In spite of many strategies applied in tumor therapy, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and a combination of these treatments, tumors are still the foremost killer worldwide among human diseases, due to their specific limitations, such as multidrug resistance and side effects. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to develop new strategies for tumor therapy. Recently, the fast development of nanoscience has paved the way for designing new strategies to treat tumors...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331190/natural-killer-cell-activation-contributes-to-hepatitis-b-viral-control-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Shiwen Tong, Guangze Liu, Minghong Li, Xiumei Li, Qian Liu, Hong Peng, Shiying Li, Hong Ren, Wenwei Yin
The roles of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been well documented. However, the role of innate immunity in HBV infection remains obscure. Here we examined the effect of activation of innate immunity by polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) on HBV infection. A chronic HBV replication mouse model was established by hydrodynamical injection of pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid into C57BL/6 mice. We found that HBV did not seem to induce an active NK-cell response in the mouse model...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330461/impaired-liver-regeneration-is-associated-with-reduced-cyclin-b1-in-natural-killer-t-cell-deficient-mice
#19
Ami Ben Ya'acov, Hadar Meir, Lydia Zolotaryova, Yaron Ilan, Eyal Shteyer
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the proportion of natural killer T cells is markedly elevated during liver regeneration and their activation under different conditions can modulate this process. As natural killer T cells and liver injury are central in liver regeneration, elucidating their role is important. METHODS: The aim of the current study is to explore the role of natural killer T cells in impaired liver regeneration. Concanvalin A was injected 4 days before partial hepatectomy to natural killer T cells- deficient mice or to anti CD1d1-treated mice...
March 23, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329698/disarming-the-killers-brain-strikes-on-nk-cells
#20
Linda Quatrini, Sophie Ugolini
Brain ischemia induces profound systemic immunosuppression, leading to infectious complications. In this issue of Immunity, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that distinct neuroendocrine pathways differentially inhibit natural killer (NK) cell responses in the central nervous system and the periphery after cerebral infarction.
March 21, 2017: Immunity
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