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Parkinson's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#1
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#2
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087443/an-update-on-the-physiological-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-gpcr-oligomers
#3
REVIEW
Batoul Farran
The traditional view on GPCRs held that they function as single monomeric units composed of identical subunits. This notion was overturned by the discovery that GPCRs can form homo- and hetero-oligomers, some of which are obligatory, and can further assemble into receptor mosaics consisting of three or more protomers. Oligomerisation exerts significant impacts on receptor function and physiology, offering a platform for the diversification of receptor signalling, pharmacology, regulation, crosstalk, internalization and trafficking...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087438/dopa-responsive-dystonia-in-chinese-patients-including-a-novel-heterozygous-mutation-in-the-gch1-gene-with-an-intermediate-phenotype-and-one-case-of-prenatal-diagnosis
#4
Wen Zhang, Zhizi Zhou, Xiuzhen Li, Yonglan Huang, Taolin Li, Yunting Lin, Yongxian Shao, Hao Hu, Hongsheng Liu, Li Liu
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by childhood-onset dystonia with diurnal fluctuation and dramatic response to levodopa. DRD is caused by the mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the dopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis, including the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. In order to improve the diagnosis and expand the knowledge of the disease, we collected and analyzed relevant data of clinical diagnosis and molecular mutational analysis in five Chinese patients with DRD...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#5
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087304/sleep-and-neurodegeneration-a-critical-appraisal
#6
REVIEW
Jagan A Pillai, James B Leverenz
Sleep abnormalities are clearly recognized as distinct clinical symptom of concern in neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate management of sleep related symptoms has a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. This review provides an overview of mechanisms that are currently being considered that tie sleep with neurodegeneration. It appraises the literature regarding specific sleep changes among common neurodegenerative diseases with a focus on Alzheimer's disease and synucleinopathies (i...
January 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087213/cholesterolomics-an-update
#7
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Eylan Yutuc, Alwena H Morgan, Ian Gilmore, Thomas Hearn, Yuqin Wang
Cholesterolomics can be regarded as the identification and quantification of cholesterol, its precursors post squalene, and metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors, in a biological sample. These molecules include 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, steroid hormones and bile acids and intermediates in their respective biosynthetic pathways. In this short article we will concentrate our attention on intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis pathways, in particular oxysterols and cholestenoic acids. These molecular classes are implicated in the aetiology of a diverse array of diseases including autoimmune disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, breast cancer, the lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C and the autosomal recessive disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087061/editorial-and-introduction-behavioral-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Joseph H Friedman, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Daniel D Truong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#9
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087059/fatigue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Karen Herlofson, Benzi M Kluger
Fatigue is one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and may affect a wide range of everyday activities, cause disability and reduce quality of life. It occurs at every stage of PD, and once present will often persist and may worsen over time. Lack of a consensus of definition and classification, and a range of different self-reporting scales has so far made the study of fatigue challenging. We review a unifying taxonomy for defining fatigue in clinical and research contexts as well as case definition criteria for PD-related fatigue...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086964/anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-immunotherapy-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-propagation-in-the-axon-and-degeneration-in-a-combined-viral-vector-and-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#11
Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Cassia Overk, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Wagner Zago, Peter Seubert, Robin Barbour, Dale Schenk, Dora Games, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. Recent studies have proposed that neuron-to-neuron propagation of α-syn plays a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We have previously shown that antibodies against the C-terminus of α-syn reduce the intra-neuronal accumulation of α-syn and related deficits in transgenic models of synucleinopathy, probably by abrogating the axonal transport and accumulation of α-syn in in vivo models...
January 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086916/microglial-activation-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-18-f-feppa
#12
Christine Ghadery, Yuko Koshimori, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Pablo Rusjan, Jinhee Kim, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes including activated microglia have been reported to play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) has been observed after brain injury and inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand targeting TSPO allows for the quantification of neuroinflammation in vivo. METHODS: Based on the genotype of the rs6791 polymorphism in the TSPO gene, we included 25 mixed-affinity binders (MABs) (14 PD patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls (HC)) and 27 high-affinity binders (HABs) (16 PD patients and 11 age-matched HC) to assess regional differences in the second-generation radioligand [(18)F]-FEPPA between PD patients and HC...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086234/a-circuitry-for-sleep-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#13
EDITORIAL
Adriano D S Targa, Marcelo M S Lima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086211/parkinson-s-disease-no-nop-new-hope
#14
EDITORIAL
Ludovico Arcuri, Daniela Mercatelli, Michele Morari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086194/parkin-deficiency-exacerbate-ethanol-induced-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-by-p38-pathway-dependent-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-function
#15
Chul Ju Hwang, Young Eun Kim, Dong Ju Son, Mi Hee Park, Dong-Young Choi, Pil-Hoon Park, Mats Hellström, Sang-Bae Han, Ki-Wan Oh, Eun Kyung Park, Jin Tae Hong
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Parkin (which encoded by Park2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene that has casually been linked to autosomal recessive early onset familial PD. We tested the effect of Park2 on ethanol-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Park2 knockout (KO) transgenic mice after chronic ethanol feeding. Male Park2 wild type (WT) and KO mice (8 weeks old) were fed on a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6...
December 8, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085677/the-thalamus-as-a-relay-station-and-gatekeeper-relevance-to-brain-disorders
#16
Ahmed A Moustafa, Ryan D McMullan, Bjorn Rostron, Doaa H Hewedi, Harry H Haladjian
Here, we provide a review of behavioural, cognitive, and neural studies of the thalamus, including its role in attention, consciousness, sleep, and motor processes. We further discuss neuropsychological and brain disorders associated with thalamus function, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, and sleep disorders. Importantly, we highlight how thalamus-related processes and disorders can be explained by the role of the thalamus as a relay station.
January 13, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084851/effects-of-ai-chi-on-balance-quality-of-life-functional-mobility-and-motor-impairment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Emine Eda Kurt, Buket Büyükturan, Öznur Büyükturan, Hatice Rana Erdem, Figen Tuncay
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of Ai Chi on balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHOD: This study was conducted as an open-label randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN26292510) with repeated measures. Forty patients with Parkinson's disease stages 2 to 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale were randomly allocated to either an Ai Chi exercise group or a land-based exercise control group for 5 weeks...
January 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084651/intra-and-inter-network-functional-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Luis R Peraza, David Nesbitt, Rachael A Lawson, Gordon W Duncan, Alison J Yarnall, Tien K Khoo, Marcus Kaiser, Michael J Firbank, John T O'Brien, Roger A Barker, David J Brooks, David J Burn, John-Paul Taylor
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prevalent in 15%-40% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients at diagnosis. In this investigation, we study brain intra- and inter-network alterations in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in recently diagnosed PD patients and characterise them as either cognitive normal (PD-NC) or with MCI (PD-MCI). Patients were divided into two groups, PD-NC (N = 62) and PD-MCI (N = 37) and for comparison, healthy controls (HC, N = 30) were also included...
January 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084536/role-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-controlling-gait-and-sleep-in-normal-and-parkinsonian-monkeys
#19
REVIEW
C Karachi, Chantal Francois
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop cardinal motor symptoms, including akinesia, rigidity, and tremor, that are alleviated by dopaminergic medication and/or subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Over the time course of the disease, gait and balance disorders worsen and become resistant to pharmacological and surgical treatments. These disorders generate debilitating motor symptoms leading to increased dependency, morbidity, and mortality. PD patients also experience sleep disturbance that raise the question of a common physiological basis...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084443/dopal-derived-alpha-synuclein-oligomers-impair-synaptic-vesicles-physiological-function
#20
N Plotegher, G Berti, E Ferrari, I Tessari, M Zanetti, L Lunelli, E Greggio, M Bisaglia, M Veronesi, S Girotto, M Dalla Serra, C Perego, L Casella, L Bubacco
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons and by accumulation of alpha-synuclein (aS) aggregates in the surviving neurons. The dopamine catabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is a highly reactive and toxic molecule that leads to aS oligomerization by covalent modifications to lysine residues. Here we show that DOPAL-induced aS oligomer formation in neurons is associated with damage of synaptic vesicles, and with alterations in the synaptic vesicles pools...
January 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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