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Parkinson's disease

A Campabadal, B Segura, H C Baggio, A Abos, C Uribe, A I Garcia-Diaz, M J Marti, F Valldeoriola, Y Compta, N Bargallo, C Junque
Objective: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is the most commonly used test to detect olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the cut-off score for clinical purposes is often difficult to establish because of age and sex effects. The current work aims to study the sensitivity and specificity of the UPSIT Spanish version and its accuracy in discriminating PD patients at different age groups from healthy controls (HC), and to perform an item analysis...
July 11, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Laura Avanzino, Giovanna Lagravinese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Elisa Pelosin
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of gait is a key feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has a negative impact on quality of life. Deficits in cognition and sensorimotor processing impair the ability of people with PD to walk quickly, efficiently and safely. Recent evidence suggests that emotional disturbances may also affect gait in PD. RESEARCH QUESTION: We explored if there were relationships between walking ability, emotion and cognitive impairment in people with PD...
June 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Sirwan K L Darweesh, M Kamran Ikram, Marjan J Faber, Nienke M de Vries, Charlotte A Haaxma, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Bastiaan R Bloem, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Creativity in Parkinson Disease (PD) is strongly related to dopaminergic activity and medication. We hypothesized that PD patients, including those who are in the prediagnostic phase of PD, are prone to choose highly-structured 'conventional' professional occupations and avoid highly-creative 'artistic' occupations. METHODS: At baseline of the population-based Rotterdam Study, we asked 12,147 individuals aged >45 years about their latest occupation, and categorized occupations according to the RIASEC model...
July 14, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Tiago Cardoso, Andrew Adler, Bengt Mattsson, Deirdre B Hoban, Sara Nolbrant, Jenny Nelander Wahlestedt, Agnete Kirkeby, Shane Grealish, Anders Björklund, Malin Parmar
Dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson´s disease (PD). A number of studies have demonstrated functionality of DA neurons originating from hESCs when grafted to the striatum of rodent and non-human primate models of PD. However, several questions remain in regard to their axonal outgrowth potential and capacity to integrate into host circuitry. Here, VM patterned hESC-derived progenitors were grafted into the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, and analyzed at 6, 18 and 24 weeks for a time-course evaluation of specificity and extent of graft-derived fiber outgrowth as well as potential for functional recovery...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
A S Vetchinova, V V Simonova, E V Novosadova, E S Manuilova, V V Nenasheva, V Z Tarantul, I A Grivennikov, L G Khaspekov, S N Illarioshkin
We performed a cytogenetic analysis of the results of CRISPR/Cas9-correction of G2019S mutation in LRRK2 gene associated with Parkinson's disease. Genome editing was performed on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of a patient carrying this mutation. A mosaic variant of tetraploidy 92 XXYY/46,XY (24-43% cells from various clones) was found in neuronal precursors differentiated from the induced pluripotent stem cells after gene editing procedure. Solitary cases of translocations and chromosome breaks were observed...
July 13, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Angelo Antonini, Bianca Nitu
Development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia characterizes the transition from early to advanced Parkinson disease stage. Current therapeutic strategies to manage motor complications aim at increasing the number of levodopa administrations and extending its benefit by the association of enzyme blockers and dopamine agonists. However, as disease progresses, mobility becomes progressively dependent on levodopa absorption and its plasma bioavailability, resulting in loss of independence, worse quality of life and increased caregiver burden...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Camila Mouhape, Gustavo Costa, Margot Ferreira, Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Federico Dajas, Giselle Prunell
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could be protective for PD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective capacity of nicotine in a rat PD model. Considering that iron metabolism has been implicated in PD pathophysiology and nicotine has been described to chelate this metal, we also studied the effect of nicotine on the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) levels...
July 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sathiya Sekar, Sugumar Mani, Barathidasan Rajamani, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Abid Bhat, Bipul Ray, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Many studies reported the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of AT1R blockade on astroglial, in turn, dopaminergic functions in chronic PD is still to be studied. In the present study, telmisartan (TEL; 3 and 10 mg/kg/day; p.o), was used to study the effects AT1R blockade on astrocytic and dopaminergic functions in a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinsonism (250 mg/kg, i...
July 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Hye Bin Yoo, Edgar Omar de la Concha, Dirk De Ridder, Barbara A Pickut, Sven Vanneste
Early and moderate Parkinson's disease patients seem to have attention dysfunctions manifested differentially in separate attention streams: top-down and bottom-up. With a focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of such differences, this study evaluated source-localized regional activity and functional connectivity of regions in the top-down and bottom-up streams as well as any discordance between the two streams. Resting state electroencephalography was used for 36 Parkinson's disease patients and 36 healthy controls matched for age and gender...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Layal Maatouk, Chenju Yi, Maria-Angeles Carrillo-de Sauvage, Anne-Claire Compagnion, Stéphane Hunot, Pascal Ezan, Etienne C Hirsch, Annette Koulakoff, Frank W Pfrieger, François Tronche, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume, Sheela Vyas
The precise contribution of astrocytes in neuroinflammatory process occurring in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well characterized. In this study, using GRCx30CreERT2 mice that are conditionally inactivated for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in astrocytes, we have examined the actions of astrocytic GR during dopamine neuron (DN) degeneration triggered by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The results show significantly augmented DN loss in GRCx30CreERT2 mutant mice in substantia nigra (SN) compared to controls...
July 13, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Shivani Pandey, Babita Singh, Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Oxygen is the most mandatory component of living organism and it may at times produce highly reactive species, the free radicals, which are destructive to normal living tissues. Degenerative diseases of central nervous system (CNS) are quite common, contributing significantly to morbidity as well as mortality %. In neurodegenerative diseases such as motor neuron disease (MND), Cerebellar Ataxia (CA) and Parkinson's disease (PD), there is no direct evidence for involvement of metals and free radicals in the etiology but circumstantial evidence provides a hypothesis that alteration in metals and free radicals contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in these disorders...
July 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Yuko Koshimori, Michael H Thaut
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by a dysfunctional basal ganglia (BG) system, producing motor and non-motor symptoms. A significant number of studies have demonstrated that rhythmic auditory stimulation can improve gait and other motor behaviors in PD that are not well managed by the conventional therapy. As music, being highly complex stimulus, can modulate brain activity/function in distributed areas of brain, the therapeutic properties of music potentially extend to alleviate non-motor symptoms of PD...
July 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Claire Haegelen, Clément Baumgarten, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Yulong Zhao, Julie Péron, Sophie Drapier, Pierre Jannin, Xavier Morandi
Anatomical atlases have been developed to improve the targeting of basal ganglia in deep brain stimulation. However, the sole anatomy cannot predict the functional outcome of this surgery. Deep brain stimulation is often a compromise between several functional outcomes: motor, fluency and neuropsychological outcomes in particular. In this study, we have developed anatomo-clinical atlases for the targeting of subthalamic and medial globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. The activated electrode coordinates of 42 patients implanted in the subthalamic nucleus and 29 patients in the medial globus pallidus were studied...
2018: PloS One
JoJo Yan Yan Kwok, Man Auyeung, Helen Yue Lai Chan
PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of dysfunctions and disabilities as it progresses to later stages. All these not only affect a patient's physical well-being but also emotional, social, and spiritual well-being. To tailor interventions that can address these concerns, this study aimed to examine the impacts of PD on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with 123 PD patients. METHODS: Measures included the following: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale-Motor Examination, Hoehn and Yahr Stage, PD Questionnaire-8...
July 13, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Joseph H Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Pimavanserin (Pim) is a 5HT2A inverse agonist that is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for Parkinson disease (PD) psychosis. The published open-label experience is limited. METHODS: This report is a chart review of all patients who were started on the drugs since the one earlier report on 15 patients. All patients were included, whether or not they completed 6 weeks of treatment, the time required for maximum benefit found in the published phase 3 trial...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Jae-Sun Choi, Woom-Yee Bae, Seungyoon Nam, Joo-Won Jeong
While progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is responsible for the cardinal motor defects in Parkinson's disease (PD), new diagnostics and therapeutic targets are necessary to effectively address this major global health burden. We evaluated whether the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1 (ADGRB1, formerly BAI1, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1) might contribute to dopaminergic neuronal loss. We used bioinformatic analyses, as well as in vitro and in vivo PD models. We report in this study that ADGRB1 is decreased in PD and that the ADGRB1 level is specifically decreased in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice...
July 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Mustafa Sertbas, Kutlu O Ulgen
Neurology research and clinical practice are transforming toward postgenomics integrative biology. One such example is the study of human brain metabolism that is highly sophisticated due to reactions occurring in and between the astrocytes and neurons. Because of the inherent difficulty of performing experimental studies in human brain, metabolic network modeling has grown in importance to decipher the contribution of brain metabolite kinetics to human health and disease. Multiomics system science-driven metabolic models, using genome-scale and transcriptomics Big Data, offer the promise of new insights on metabolic networks in human brain...
July 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Lu Yao, Xing Dai, Yina Sun, Yong Wang, Qian Yang, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu, Li Zhang, Wen Xie, Jian Liu
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibitors, which inhibit dopamine decomposition by antagonizing MAO B activity, are approved and widely used for clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nonetheless, the mechanism of the abnormally increased MAO B activity in PD is still unclear. Previous research showed transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) directly regulates MAO B activity by binding the SP1 binding sequence in MAO B promoter. In our study, we first observed that the SP1 protein level and SP1 binding activity in the MAO B promoter were increased in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) neurotoxin-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Chris Vriend, Odile A van den Heuvel, Henk W Berendse, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Linda Douw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread neuropathological involvement of cortical and subcortical brain areas, which may therefore affect the structural brain network or 'connectome'. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph analysis we studied the structural connectome of medication-naïve PD patients. DTI was acquired in 23 early-stage PD patients and 38 age, sex and education matched healthy controls. We studied global, subnetwork and local network topology using the Brainnetome atlas...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Klara Hagelweide, Anna Schönberger, Lutz Kracht, Theo Gründler, Gereon R Fink, Ricarda I Schubotz
Recent fMRI findings revealed that impairment in a serial prediction task in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) results from hypoactivity of the SMA. Furthermore, hyperactivity of the lateral premotor cortex sustained performance after withdrawal of medication. To further explore these findings, we here examined the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on the activity of the putamen and premotor areas while performing the serial prediction task. To this end, we measured eight male PD patients ON and OFF deep brain stimulation and eight healthy age-matched male controls using [15 O] water positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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